ARTICLE III
Rules and Definitions


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3.1            RULES
3.2            DEFINITIONS


3.1            RULES
In the construction of this ordinance the rules and definitions contained in the Article shall be observed and applied, except when the context clearly indicates otherwise
3.1-1
Words used in the present tense shall include the future tense, and words used in the singular number shall include the plural number, and the plural the singular.
3.1-2 
The word "shall" is mandatory and not discretionary
3.1-3 
The word "may" is permissive
3.1-4 
The masculine gender includes the feminine and the neuter
3.1-5 
The phrase "use for" shall include the phrases "arranged for", "designed for", "intended for", "maintained for", and "occupied for".


3.2  DEFINITIONS

 

Absorber
is that part of the low side of an absorption system used for absorbing refrigerant vapor

Absorption System
is a refrigeration system in which the refrigerant gas evolved in the evaporator is taken up in an absorber and released in a generator upon the application of heat

Accepted Engineering Practice
shall be the compliance with the provisions of this ordinance, or in the absence of such provisions, with the standards, tests, or principles which are accepted as representing good practice in the building profession by accredited agencies

Accessory
is any subordinate part, object, or device added or attached to a building or structure for convenience or attractiveness

Accessory Building or Use
is one which:
a.  contributes to the comfort, convenience or necessity of occupants of the principle building or use which it serves;
b.  contributes to the comfort, convenience or necessity of occupants of the principle building or use served; and
c.  is located on the same zoning lot as the principle building or use served, with the single-exception of such accessory off-street parking facilities as are permitted to locate elsewhere than on the same zoning lot with the building use served.

Accredited Agency
is an authoritative agency which is approved and  accepted by this ordinance.  Conformance with the standards and specifications established by such "accredited agency" shall be accepted as meeting the requirements of this ordinance within the limitations and conditions inherent in the provisions of this ordinance.

Addition
is any change to a building or structure which increases the area of such building or structure or any of its exterior dimensions
Admixture
is a material other than water, aggregate or Portland cement, that is used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and is added to the batch immediately before or during mixing.

Aggregate
in the case of materials of construction, is designated inert material which when bound together into a conglomerated mass by a matrix forms concretes, mastic, mortar, plaster, etc.

Agriculture
is the use of land for agricultural purposes, including farming, dairying, pasturage, agriculture,  horticulture, floriculture, viticulture, and animal and poultry husbandry, and the necessary accessory uses for packing, treating or storing the produce; provided, however, that the operation of any such accessory uses shall be secondary to that, of the normal agricultural activities

Agricultural Building  or Structure
for the purposes of this ordinance, shall imply any building or structure existing or erected on land used principally for agricultural purposes, including farm residences

Air Compressor
is a device for supplying air under pressure to the pressure tanks or the cushion tank of a  sprinkler system, or to the cushion tank of an inside standpipe system, or to a dry pipe sprinkler system or to a pneumatic domestic water supply system.

Air Conditioning
is the process by which, simultaneously, the temperature moisture content, movement and quality of the air in enclosed spaces intended for human occupancy may be maintained within required limits

Air Duct
is a tube or conduit or an enclosed space or chamber used for conveying air

Air Gap
in the water supply system is the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest  opening from any pipe of faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood-level rim of the receptacle.
Aisle
is the clear width and length of an area which is provided for ingress and egress between rows of  fixed or movable seats and a wall, or between seats, desks, tables, counters, machines or other equipment or materials, or between such articles or materials and a wall or part of the building structure
Aisle, Longitudinal
in a place of assembly, is an aisle approximately perpendicular to the rows of seats served thereby

Aisle, Transverse
in a place of assembly, is  an aisle approximately parallel to the rows of seats

Alarm Sending Station
is a manually actuated device sued to sound an alarm signal

Alarm Signal
is a signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, as an alarm from an alarm sending station  or from an automatic fire alarm system
Alarm Sounding Device
is an approved horn used to signal an alarm, and which shall be distinguishable from all other sounding devices in the building

Alcove
is a recess adjoining, and connected with a larger room, with an unobstructed opening into such room

Alley
is a public right-of-way which normally affords a secondary means of access to abutting property

Alteration
is any change, rearrangement or modification in construction or in building equipment, other than repairs, which does not increase the area or any of the exterior dimensions of the building or structure

Amusement Building
is a building, other than an Open Air Assembly Building, constructed to contain amusements in which the public takes an active part
Amusement Device
is a mechanically operated device or structure by which individuals are conveyed or moved in an unusual manner for diversion

Amusement Structure
is a structure supporting an amusement device

Anesthetizing Locations
are areas in hospitals or medical buildings in which flammable anesthetics are or may be administered to patients.  Such locations include operating rooms, delivery rooms and anesthesia rooms, and also include any corridors, utility rooms, or other areas which are or may be used for administering flammable anesthetics to patients.  Recovery rooms are not classed as anesthetizing locations unless also used for administering flammable anesthetics.

Anesthetic Storage Location
is any room within a consuming facility used for the storage of flammable anesthetic or disinfecting agents or anesthetic machines to which cylinders of flammable gases are attached

Annunicator, Car
is an electrical device in an elevator car which indicates visually the landings at which an elevator landing signal registering device has been actuated

Apartment
is a dwelling unit in a multiple-family dwelling

Apartment Building
is a multiple-family dwelling

Appendage
is a cornice, molding, dormer, bay or oriel window, balcony, marquee, canopy or any other accessory projecting from and attached to a building
Appliance
shall mean a device supplied with fuel or electric power, having as its primary usage something other than space heating
Appliance, Sealed Combustion Type
is a an appliance so constructed and installed that all air for combustion is derived from outside the space being heated and all flue gases are discharged to the outside atmosphere.  Such appliance, having integral venting, shall be considered as being properly vented when it is installed in accordance with  its listing  and manufacturer's instructions

Approved
means passed upon favorably by the Building Commissioner, or other specified authoritative body referred to in the provisions of this ordinance

Architectural Terra Cotta
is plain or ornamental (molded or extruded) hard burned building units, usually larger in face size than brick, consisting of mixtures of plastic clays, fusible materials, and grog, and having a glazed or unglazed ceramic finish.  (See Ceramic Veneer)

Area Drain
is a receptacle designed to collect surface or rain water from an open area

Area of Special Flood Hazard
The land which is  to a one percent chance of flooding annually.  This area may also be identified as that which is subject to the 100 year flood.  The area is designated as Zone "A, A1-A30, AH or AO," on the maps provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency

Areaway
is an open subsurface space, adjacent to a  building, used as an exitway , or to provide light or air; such areaway may be uncovered or covered with grating

Artificial Barricade
is an artificial mound or revetted wall of earth of a minimum thickness of three (3) feet
Ashlar Masonry
is masonry composed of rectangular units usually larger in size than  brick, properly bonded, having sawed, dressed or squared beds and mortar joints.

Attic
is the space between the ceiling beams of a top habitable story and the roof  rafters

Automatic
as applied to fire protection assemblies such as doors windows, or other protections for an opening, shall mean that such door, window or other protection is so constructed and arranged that if open it will automatically close when actuated by an approved fire detection device, under a fire condition.

Automatic Detector, Thermostatic  Type
is a fire detector with an integral assembly of heat-responsive elements and non-coded electrical contacts which function automatically under an increase in air temperature and either of the  fixed temperatures or combination fixed-temperature and rate-of-rise type.

Automatic Fire Alarm System

is a system which automatically detects a fire condition and actuates an approved fire alarm signal device
Automatic Fire Assembly
is a fire assembly which may remain in an open position and will close automatically if subjected to an increase in temperature.  The closing device shall be activated at a maximum temperature of 165 deg. F. unless otherwise specified in this ordinance

Automatic Fire Door
is a door designed to prevent the passage of fire, normally in an open position but arranged to close automatically in the event of fire, with closing mechanism released by the melting of a fusible link or other release device actuated by fire or smoke.

Automatic Sprinkler System
is a standard approved system consisting of one or more sources of supply of water through a controlling valve with an alarm sending device to indicate system operation, with piping, valves, controls and devices  for anatomically  distributing water upon a fire in sufficient quantities either to extinguish it or hold it in check until it can be manually extinguished, and conforming to the requirements of this ordinance.

Automobile Service Station
is a building, structure or premises designed or used for the retail sale or dispensing of fuel, lubricants, tires, batteries, accessories and supplies  including installation and minor services customarily incidental thereto; facilities for chassis and gear lubrication and for the washing of motor vehicles are permitted only if enclosed  in a building.

Auxiliary Use
is a room or space normally provided and incidental to the principle use of a building and under the same management and control.  (See Section 6.1.

Awning, Fixed
is a non-retractable shelter supported by cantilevering or bracketing from the face of the building and covered with canvas,  wood, metal or other approved materials to provide protection from the elements.

Awning, Retractable
is a shelter fastened to the face of the building which, when opened by the operation of folding arms or other retractable supports, provides protection from the elements under canvas, metal or other approved materials.

Backflow
is the flow of water or other liquids or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from any source or sources other than its intended source.  (See Back-Siphonage).

Backflow Connection
or condition, is any arrangement whereby backflow can occur

Backflow Preventer
is a device or means to prevent backflow into the potable water system

Back-Siphonage
is the flowing back of used, contaminated or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into a water supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such pipe.  (See Backflow).

Balcony
is:
a.  An exterior auxiliary floor space, projecting from the exterior wall of an enclosed structure and unenclosed by other than a railing or parapet wall.
b.  As applied to places of assembly, a seating level located above the main floor of an auditorium

Bar, Deformed
is a concrete reinforcing steel member with an irregular surface designed to increase its bond with the concrete

Bar, Plain
is a concrete reinforcing steel member not qualifying as a deformed bar

Barricaded
shall mean that a building containing explosives is effectually screened from a magazine, building, railway, or highway, either by a natural barricade, or by an artificial barricade of such height that a straight line from the top of any sidewall of the building containing explosives to the eave line of any magazine, or building,  or to a point twelve (12) feet  above, the center of a railway or highway, will pass through such intervening natural or artificial barricade.

Base Flood
The flood having a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.  The base flood is also known as the 100 year flood.  If the 100 year flood information is not available, the base flood shall be the flood of record.

Base Flood Area
The land subject to inundation by waters of the base flood

Base Flood Elevation also Regulatory Flood Elevation
is that surface elevation of the water level at the highest flood of record, except in areas where the elevation of the one hundred (100) year flood is depicted.  In such cases, the base flood elevation is the elevation of the one hundred (100) year flood.  The base flood elevation is generally the highest elevation of the base flood and usually marks the line between the land designated in the  floodplain as the floodway fringe and the flood table land.  The base flood elevation, the floodway and the floodway fringe shall be described by maps, profiles, elevation data and other sources of information which are listed and on file in the Department of Building and Zoning.  The "Sources of Information" are listed according to priority of use in Article 8.95 Flood Damage Prevention Regulations of the Cook County Zoning Ordinance.

Basement
is a a portion of a building or structure, having one-half (1/2) or more of its ceiling height below the finished lot grade level.

Battery of Fixtures (Plumbing)
is any group of two (2) or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge
into a common horizontal waste or soil branch.
Bay Window
is a window in a wall which projects beyond the wall  line of the building

Bearing-Type Connection

is a bolted connection in which stress is transferred in bearing from the bolt shank to the side of a hole in which the bolt is  placed.
Blasting Agent
is any material or mixture, consisting of a fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting, not otherwise classified as an explosive, in which none of the ingredients are classified as explosives, provided that the finished produce, as mixed and packaged for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.  Materials or mixtures classified as nitro-carbo-nitrates by Interstate Commerce Commission regulations shall be included in this definition.
Boat House, Private
is a boathouse for four (4) or less motor boats with no provision for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit.
Boat House, Commercial
is a boat house for more than four (4) motor boats, and/or a boat house having provision for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit.

Boiler
is a closed vessel used to heat a fluid, usually water, or for the application of heat to generate steam or vapor.

Boiler-Blow-Off
is an outlet on a boiler to permit emptying or the discharge of sediment.

Boiler, High Pressure
is a boiler in which steam is generated at pressures exceeding 15 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure

Boiler, Hot Water Supply
is a boiler having a volume exceeding 120 gallons, or a heat input exceeding 200,000 Btu per hour, or an operating temperature exceeding 200 deg. F., that provide hot water to be used externally of itself.

Boiler, Low Pressure Hot Water
is a boiler in which water is heated for the purposes of  supplying water at a working pressure not exceeding 30 pounds per square inch and at temperatures not exceeding 250  deg. F.

Boiler, Low Pressure Steam

is a boiler in which steam is generated at pressures not exceeding 15 pounds per square inch above atmospheric pressure
Bonder (Header)
is a masonry unit which ties two (2) or more wythes of the wall together by overlapping

Branch (Plumbing)
is any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.

Branch Interval
is a length of soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but in no case less than eight (8) feet,  within which the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected to the stack.

Branch Vent
is a vent connecting one or more individual vents with  a stack or stack vent.

Brazed Joint
is a gas-tight joint obtained by the joining of metal parts with alloys which  melt at temperatures higher than 1,000 deg F., but less than the melting temperatures of the joined parts.

Breeching
is a primarily horizontal pipe used to convey the products of combustion from a heating appliance to a flue.

Brick
is a solid masonry unit.  The word "brick" used without qualification indicates that its composition is primarily of clay, shale or a mixture thereof, and that these ingredients  have been fused together as a result of exposure to heat.  Brick may be composed of other materials when so designated, as for example, "concrete brick" and "sand lime brick".

Brine
is any liquid used for the transmission of heat without a change in its state, having no flash point above 150 deg F., determined by AASTM D93-52

Brine Cooler
is an evaporator for cooling brine in an indirect system

Building
is a structure, or part thereof, built for the support, shelter, or "enclosure of persons, animals, chattels, or movable property of any kind and which is permanently affixed to the land.  When separated by fire walls, each unit so separated shall be deemed a separate building.

Building Drain
is that part of the lowest piping of a drainage system which receives the discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building and conveys it to the building sewer, beginning three (3) feet outside the building wall.

Building, Existing
is a building or structure which has been completed and ready for occupancy.

Building Height
is the vertical distance measured from the curb level, or its equivalent, opposite the center of the front of the building to the highest point of the under side of the ceiling beams in the case of a flat roof; to the deck line of a mansard roof; and to the mean level of the under side of the rafters between the eaves and the ridge of a gable, hip, shed, gambrel or any other pitched roof.  Where no curb level has been established the height of the building shall be measured from the mean  elevation of the finished lot grade at the front of the building.

Building, Inhabited
is a building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for human beings, or any church, school, railway station, store or other structure where people are accustomed to assemble, except any building or structure occupied in connection with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosives

Building, Pre-Ordinances
is the building which was completed,  or for the construction of which a permit was issued, prior to the effective date of this ordinance
Building, Principle
is a non-accessory  building in which the principle use of the lot on which it is located is conducted.
Building Sewer
is that part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system which extends from the end of the building drain and which  receives the discharge of the building drain and conveys it to the public sewer, private sewer, central sewage disposal system, individual sewage disposal system, or other point of disposal.

Building Storm Drain
is a building drain used for conveying rain water, surface water, ground water, subsurface water, condensate, cooling water or other similar discharge to a building storm sewer or a combined building sewer, extending to a point not less than three (3) feet outside the building.

Building Storm Sewer
is the extension from the building storm drain to the public or central storm sewer, combined sewer, or other point of disposal.

Building Subdrain
is that portion of a drainage system which cannot drain by gravity into the building sewer.

Building Trap
is a device fitting, or assembly of fittings installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air between the drainage system of the building and the building sewer

Buffer
is a device designed to stop a descending elevator car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight.
Oil Buffer        A buffer using oil as a medium which absorbs and dissipates the kinetic energy of the descending car or counterweight
Oil Buffer Stroke    The oil displacing movement of the buffer plunger or piston, excluding the travel of the buffer-plunger accelerating device
Spring Buffer   A buffer which stores in a spring the kinetic energy of the descending car or counterweight
Spring Buffer Load Rating   The load required to compress the spring an amount equal to its stroke
Spring Buffer Stroke    The distance the contact end of the spring can move under a compressive load until all coils are essentially in contact.

Bulk Storage Plant
is a location where gasoline or other volatile, flammable liquids are stored in tanks having an aggregate capacity of one car load or more, and from which such products are distributed
Bumper
is a device other than an oil or spring buffer, designed to stop a descending elevator car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of  travel by absorbing the impact.

Buttress
is a projecting part of a masonry wall built integrally therewith to furnish lateral stability

Canopy
is a roof-like structure projecting from a wall and supported in whole or in part by vertical supports to the ground, and erected for the major purpose of shelter from the weather.

Car, Elevator
is the load-carrying unit including its platform, car frame, enclosure and car door or grate

Car, Enclosure
is the top and the walls of the elevator car, resting on and attached to the car platform.

Car Frame (Sling)
is the supporting frame to which the elevator car platform, upper and lower-sets of guide shoes, car safety and the hoisting ropes or hoisting-rope sheaves, or the plunger of a direct plunger  elevator are attached
Car Frame, Overslung     A car frame to which the hoisting-rope fastenings or hoisting-hope sheaves are attached to the crosshead or top member of the are frame
Car Frame, Underslung     A car frame to  which the hoisting-rope fastenings or  hoisting-rope sheaves are attached at or below the car platform.
Car Frame, Sub-Post     A car frame all of  whose members are located below the car platform.

Car Platform
is the structure which forms the floor of the car and which directly supports the load.

Cast-In Place Construction

is construction in which concrete is deposited in its final position
Cement, Portland
is the produce obtained by finely pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, to which no additions have been made subsequent to calcination other than water or untreated calcium sulfate, except that additions not to exceed one percent, of other materials, may be interground with the clinker at the option of the manufacturers, provided such materials in amounts indicated have been shown by tests to be not harmful

Ceramic Veneer
is a type of an architectural terra cotta, characterized by thinner sections ranging from one and one-eighth (1-1/8) to two and one-half (2-1/2) inches in thickness

Certified Test Reports
are reports by any approved independent testing laboratory

Chase
is a continuous recess in a wall, to receive pipes, ducts, conduits, etc.

Check Valve
is a valve allowing flow in one direction only, and specifically designed for the fluid  handled

Child Day Care Center
is any child care facility receiving three (3) or more children for care or supervision during part or all of the day, between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.  Day nurseries, nursery schools, play group centers, and centers for mentally retarded children shall be included in the general term "Child Day Care Centers"

Chimney
is a primarily vertical enclosure or structure containing one or more flues
a.  Interior Chimney   A chimney built within the walls of a building and having lateral support from the building structure
b.  Exterior Chimney   A chimney built outside the walls of a building but receiving lateral support from the exterior walls of the building
c.  Isolated Chimney   A chimney that is not built within the walls of a building and does not receive lateral support from the building.  Guys or struts shall not be considered as lateral support for the purpose of this definition

Cinema
is an Assembly Building designed or used exclusively for the presentation of motion pictures and having a stage depth less than 15 feet.

Circuit Vent (Plumbing)
is a branch vent that serves two (2) or more traps and extends from in front of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the vent stack

Classroom
is a room used for the instruction of students in a group

Closed Cup Flash Point
is the lowest temperature at which is combustible liquid, under prescribed conditions, will give off a flammable vapor, which, will turn momentarily

Coal Silo or Pocket
is a separate structure used for the receiving storage or disposing of coal

Collapsible Revolving Door
is a revolving door which is designed, supported and constructed so that the wings will release and fold back in the direction of egress under pressure exerted by persons under panic conditions, providing a legal passage way on both sides of the door pivot.

Column
is an upright compression member the length of which exceeds three (3) times its least lateral  dimension

Combination Fixture (Plumbing)
is a fixture combining one sink and tray or  a two-or- three-compartment sink or tray in one unit.
Combination Waste and Vent System (Plumbing)
is a specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain

Combined Building Sewer

is a sewer that receives both storm water and sewage
Combustible Material
is a material which does not comply with the definition of incombustible material

Common Vent (Plumbing)

is a vent connecting at the junction of two (2) fixture drains and serving as a vent for both fixtures
Compact Section
is a steel flexural member so proportioned that local buckling will not occur before the full plastic moment is reached.

Companion or Block Valves
are pairs of mating stop valves, valving off sections of systems and arranged so that the same sections may be joined before opening these valves, or separated after closing them

Compensating-Rope Sheave Switch
is a device which automatically causes the electric power to be removed from an elevator driving-machine motor and brake when the compensating sheave approaches its upper or lower limit of travel

Compensatory Storage
An artificially excavated volume of storage within the base floor areas used to balance the loss of natural flood storage capacity when artificial fill or structures are placed within the floodplain.  (Uncompensated loss of natural floodplain storage can increase off site floodwater elevations and flows).

Compressor
is any device having one or more pressure imposing elements in a refrigerating system to increase the pressure of the refrigerant in its gas or vapor state for the purpose of liquefying the refrigerant.

Compressor Relief Device
is a valve or rupture member located between the compressor and the stop valve on the discharge side arranged to relive the pressure at a predetermined point.

Compressor Unit
is a condensing unit, less the condenser and liquid receiver

Concrete
is a mixture of cement, aggregates and water

Concrete, Gypsum
is a combination of aggregate or aggregates with calcined gypsum as a binding medium which after mixing with water sets into a conglomerate mass.  (Gypsum Fiber Concrete-0gypsum concrete in which the aggregate consists of shavings, fiber or chips of wood)

Concrete Masonry Unit
is a building unit made from cement and suitable aggregate such as sand, gravel, crushed-stone cinders, burned clay or shale, or blast furnace slug.

Concrete, Plain
is a concrete without metal reinforcement, or having been reinforced only for shrinkage or  temperature changes.

Concrete, Pneumatically Placed
is a mixture of fine aggregate and cement pneumatically applied by suitable mechanism and to which water is added immediately prior to discharge from the applicator.  It shall be considered as concrete for particulars of design as specified in Article XXIX.

Concrete, Precast
is construction whereby concrete members are case in a place prepared for this purpose, to be moved to their final position.

Concrete Prestressed
is construction of concrete members, cast-in-place of precast, in which controlled forces create controlled internal stresses.  The following terms are used in this ordinance in the application of provisions governing prestressed concrete.
a.  Tendons     Steel members which generally are used to exert the prestressing force onto the concrete
b.  Transfer   The act of application of the prestressing force to the concrete
c.  Pretensioning      The system of prestressing concrete members whereby tendons are stressed prior to pouring of the concrete and the prestressing force is transmitted to the concrete by bond.
d.  Post-Tensioning    The system of prestressing concrete members whereby tendons are stressed after the concrete has obtained a required strength and the prestressing force is transmitted to the concrete generally by anchoring the stressed tendons to the member
e.  Gradual Losses    The reduction from the initial force to the working force, due to shrinkage, creep of the concrete and relaxation of the steel
f.  Elastic Shortening Losses   Those losses due to the elastic deformation of the concrete at the time of transfer.
g.  Tensioning Losses   Those losses incurred in post-tensioned concrete at the time of stressing and anchoring the tendons which are due to tendon friction and anchorage set, and vary with the system used.
h.  Forces:  Jacking Force   The force exerted by the ram on the tendon
i.  Initial Force   The force left in the tendon immediately after transferring the prestressing force to the concrete
j.  Working Force   The final force left in the tendons after all losses have occurred
Concrete Reinforced
is concrete in which metal other than that provided for shrinkage or temperature changes, is embedded in such a manner that the two (2) materials act together  in resisting forces.

Condenser
is a vessel or arrangement of piping or tubing in which vaporized refrigerant is liquefied by the removal of heat

Condensing Unit
is a specific refrigerating machine combination for a  given refrigerant, consisting of one or more power driven compressors, condensers, liquid receivers (when required), and any regularly furnished accessories; and the individual components are designed to operate as one system

Conflagration Hazard
is the fire risk involved in the spread of fire by exterior exposure to, and from, adjoining  buildings and structures.

Conflagration Hazard District
is a geographical area in Cook County within which certain types of construction are limited or prohibited due to conflagration or high fire hazard, as established in Article VII

Construction Equipment
is the construction machinery, tools, derricks, hoists, scaffolds, platforms, runways, ladders, and all material-handling equipment, safeguards and protective devices used in construction operations

Construction Operation
is the erection, alteration, repair, renovation, demolition or removal of any building or structure; and the excavation, filling and grading of lots in connection therewith

Container (Refrigeration)

is a a cylinder for the transportation of refrigerant as prescribed by the regulations of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the transportation of such refrigerants
Continuous Vent (Plumbing)

is a vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain to which it connects
Continuous Waste (Plumbing)

is a drain from two (2) or three (3) fixtures connected to a single trap
Controlled Materials
are materials which are selected or tested to meet the special strength, durability and the resistance requirements upon which the design is based, as provided in Article IV, Section 4.6
Conveyor
is the mechanical apparatus for carrying material from one point to another, as by an endless belt, chain of receptacles, or the like
Cooling Tower
is a structure designed or used for the cooling by exposure to the open air, of liquids used in the operation of a refrigeration or air conditioning installation

Coping
is a cap or finish on top of a wall, pier or pilaster to protect the masonry below from penetration of water from above

Corbel
is a self or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of the wall

Corridor (Hallway)
is a horizontal passageway which connects various rooms, apartments or any interior spaces of a building or structure, and which provides a common way of travel to an exit or to another passageway leading to an exit

Corrosive Liquid
shall include those acids, alkaline caustic liquids, and other corrosive liquids which when in contact with living tissue, will cause severe damage of such tissue by chemical action; or, in case of leakage, will materially damage or destroy other containers of other hazardous commodities by chemical action and cause the release of their  contents; or are liable to cause fire when  in contact with organic matter or with  certain chemicals

Course
is a continuous horizontal layer of masonry

Court
is an open, unobstructed space on the same lot with a building and bounded on two (2) or more sides by the walls of such building

Court, Inner
is a court surrounded on all sides by the exterior walls of the structures or by such walls and an interior lot line

Court, Outer
is a court open on one end to an open space not less than 30 feet wide.  The open space shall be a public way, yard, or through courts or any combinations of two (2) or more such areas

Court, Through
is a court open at both ends to two a(2) open spaces one of which shall be not less than 30 feet wide, the opposite not less than ten (10) feet wide.  The open spaces shall be public ways, yards, permanent, easements, outer courts or another through court, or a combination of two (2) or more such areas.

Cross-Connection
is any physical connection or arrangement between two (2) otherwise separate piping systems, one of which contains potable water and the other water of unknown or questionable safety, whereby water may flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two (2) system (See Backflow and Back-Siphonage).

Cushion Tank
is a tank holding water under air pressure, connected to the discharge from a fire pump, and supplying a sprinkler system or an inside standpipe system.

Datum
is a level surface, real or assumed, having an established elevation and used as a reference to establish the relative elevations of other surfaces or points

Dead End (Plumbing)
is a branch leading form a soil, waste, or vent pipe, building drain or building sewer, which is terminated at a developed distance of two (2) feet or more by means of a plug or other closed fitting

Dead Load
is the weight of all permanent construction, including walls, floors, roofs, partitions, stairways and fixed service equipment

Deluge System
is  a sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve which is opened by the operation of a heat responsive system installed in the same areas  as the sprinklers.  When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all the sprinklers attached thereto.

Design Working Pressure
is the maximum allowable working pressure for which a specific part of a system is designed
Development
Any man-made change to improved  or unimproved real estate, including but not limited to construction of or substantial improvements to buildings or other structures, the placement of mobile homes, mining, dredging, filling, grading, paving, excavation or drilling operations

Direct-Expansion System
is a system in which the evaporator is in direct contact with the refrigerated material or space  refrigerated or is located in an air-circulating passage or duct connected with the space

Dispensing Islands
areas elevated above surrounding surfaces and on which are mounted dispensing pumps or other dispensing devices.  Where an individual pump or dispensing device is not mounted on an elevated island, an area extending 18 inches in all directions from the base of the pump or device shall be considered to be a dispensing island.

Double Indirect Vented Open-Spray System
is one in which a liquid, such as brine or water, cooled by an evaporator located in a vented enclosure, is circulated through a closed circuit to a second  enclosure where it cools another supply of a liquid such as brine or water and this liquid in turn is circulated to a cooling chamber and is sprayed therein.

Double (or Secondary) Refrigerant System
is one  in which an evaporating refrigerant is used in a secondary circuit.  Each system enclosing a separate body of an  evaporative refrigerant shall be considered as a separate direct system.

Downspouts
See Leader

Draft Hood or Damper
is a device place in the breeching or vent pipe, or in an appliance and which is designed to insure the ready escape of the products of combustion in the event of no draft, back-draft, back-draft or stoppage, or prevent a back-draft from entering the appliance

Drain
is any pipe which carries waste water or water-borne wastes in a building drainage

Drainage System (Drainage Piping)
includes all the piping within public or private premises, which conveys sewage, rain water, or other liquid wastes to a legal point of disposal, but does not include the mains of a public or central sewerage system or private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.
Dressing Room
as applied to Assembly Buildings, is a room used or intended to be used, by a performer or performers for dressing or changing of clothing

Dry Cleaning
is the process of removing dirt, grease, paints and other stains from wearing apparel, textiles, fabrics, rugs, etc., by the use of non-aqueous liquid solvents
a.  Immersion and agitation with the solvent in open vessels
b.  Immersion and agitation with the solvent in closed machines
c.  "Brushing" or "scouring" with cleaning solvents

Dry Cleaning Plant
is a plant in which dry cleaning is conducted

Dry Cleaning Room
is a room in which the dry cleaning operations are conducted, including all additional sections containing solvent or solvent handling equipment

Dry Dyeing
is the process of dyeing clothes or other fabrics or  textiles in a solution of dye colors and non-aqueous liquid solvents

Dry-Pipe System
is a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air under pressure, the release of which, as from the opening of the sprinklers, permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a "dry-pipe valve".  The water then flows into the pipe system and out the opened sprinklers.

Dual Vent
See common Vent

Dumbwaiter
is a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction, the floor ares of which does not exceed nine (9) square feet, whose total inside height, whether or not provided with fixed or removable shelves, does not exceed four (4) feet, the capacity of which does not exceed 500 pounds and which is used exclusively for carrying materials

Dwelling
is a building or portion thereof, designed or used exclusively for residential occupancy

Dwelling, Attached
is one which is joined to another dwelling at one or more sides by a party wall or walls

Dwelling, Detached
is one which is entirely surrounded by open space on the same lot.

Dwelling, Multiple-Family

is a Residential Building or portion thereof, containing two (2a) or more dwelling units
Dwelling, Single-Family
is a Residential Building containing one (1) dwelling unit only

Dwelling, Two-Family
is a Residential Building containing two (2A) dwelling units only

Dwelling Unit
consists of one or more rooms which are arranged, designed or used as living quarters for one family only

Efficiency Unit
is a dwelling unit consisting of one principle room, exclusive of bathroom, kitchen, hallway, closets or dining alcove directly off the principle room.

Elastic-Theory and Design

refers to methods based upon use of material within its elastic range, where a maximum working stress is used
Electrical Equipment
shall mean conductors and equipment installed for the utilization of electricity supplied for heat or power and signal light, heat, or power, not including radio apparatus, or equipment for  wireless, reception of signals and does not include common carriers, which are under the jurisdiction of the Illinois Commerce Commissioner for use in their operation as public utilities.

Elevation
is the vertical distance of a point above or below a known datum.  The difference in elevation between two points is the vertical distance between two level surfaces in which the points lie.  For the purpose of this Code, elevations should be referenced to United States Geological Survey Datum or City of Chicago Datum (0.00 CCD = 579.48 USGS)

Elevator
is a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction, and which serves two (2) or more floors of a building or structure:  "elevator" is further defined as one of the following types:

Elevator, Freight
An elevator primarily used for carrying freight, and on which only the operator and the persons necessary for unloading and loading the freight are permitted to ride

Elevator, Gravity
An elevator utilizing gravity to move the car

Elevator, Hand
An elevator utilizing manual energy to move the car

Elevator, Passenger
An elevator used primarily to carry persons other than the operator and person necessary for loading and unloading.

Elevator, Power
An elevator utilizing energy other than gravitational or manual to move the car.
(1)  Electric Elevator   A power elevator where the energy is applied by means of an electric motor
(2)  Hydraulic Elevator   A power elevator where the energy is applied by means of a liquid under pressure, in a cylinder equipped with a plunger or piston.
     (a)  Direct-Plunger Elevator   A hydraulic elevator having a plunger or piston directly attached to the car frame or platform
   (b)  Electro-Hydraulic Elevator   A direct-plunger elevator where liquid is pumped under pressure directly into the cylinder by an electric motor
(c)   Roped-Hydraulic Elevator   A hydraulic elevator having its piston connected to the car with wire ropes

Sidewalk Elevator-
A freight elevator which operates between a sidewalk or other area exterior to the building and floor levels inside the building below such area, which has no landing opening into the building at its upper limit of travel, and which is not used to carry automobiles

Elevator Control
is a system of regulation by which the starting, stopping, direction of motion, acceleration, speed and retardation of an elevator are governed and further defined as one of the following types:
a.  Generator-Field Control     A system of control which is accomplished by the us of an individual generator for each elevator or dumbwaiter, wherein the voltage applied to the driving-machine motor is adjusted by varying the strength and direction of the generator field.
b.  Multi-Voltage Control   A system of control which is accomplished by impressing  successively on the armature of the driving-machine motor a number of substantially fixed voltages such as may be obtained from multi-commutator  generators common to a group of elevators.
c.  Rheostatic  Control   A system of control which is accomplished by varying resistance and/or reactance  in the armature and/or field circuit of the driving-machine motor
d.  Two-Speed Alternating Current Control    A control for a two-speed driving machine induction motor which is arranged to run at two (2) different synchronous speeds by connecting the motor windings so as to obtain different number of poles

Elevator Landing
is that portion of a floor, balcony or platform used to receive and discharge passengers or freight
Landing Zone   A zone extending from a point 18 inches below a landing to a point 18 inches above the landing
Landing, Bottom Terminal   The lowest landing served by the elevator, which is equipped with a hoistway door and hoistway-door locking device which permits egress from the hoistway side
Landing, Top Terminal   The highest landing served by the elevator, which is equipped with a hoistway door and hoistway door locking device which permits egress from the hoistway side.

Emergency Relief Valve

is a manually operated valve for the discharge of refrigerant in case of fire or other emergency
Engines
are such prime movers as internal combustion engines, external combustion  engines, gas turbine engines, and free piston engines, using either gaseous fuels or liquid , fuels or combinations thereof.

Equipment
consists of all mechanical, electrical or storage devices and fixtures requiring conformance with the ordinance in regard to construction, installation, operation, alteration, maintenance and inspection.  It shall include, among others; elevators, plumbing, ventilation systems, heating apparatus, refrigeration systems, boilers and electrical equipment.

Evaporator
is that part of the refrigeration system in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized  to produce the refrigerating effect

Excavation
is any act by which organic matter, earth, sand, gravel, rock or any other similar material is cut into , dug, quarried, removed, displaced, relocated or bulldozed and shall provide conditions resulting thereof.

Exit
is a means of egress from a building, structure or premises

Exit Area
is that area of a drive-in theater which is  used for holding cars which are exiting from the spectator area and are waiting passage onto the public highway

Exit Connections
shall include doorways, aisles, corridors, foyers, lobbies and other horizontal means of exit leading to a vertical exit, a horizontal exit, or an outside exit.

Exit, Horizontal
is a protected opening through or around a fire  wall or is a bridge or link connecting two (2) buildings or structures

Exit, Outside
is an exit from the building to a public way, to an open area leading to a public way, or to an enclosed fire-resistive passage leading to a public way

Exit, Vertical
is a means of exit used for ascension or descension  between two or more levels of a building or structure

Explosive
is any chemical compound, mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion.  The term "explosive" includes all materials classified as Class A, Class  B, or Class C explosives by Interstate Commerce Commission regulations; and includes but is not limited to dynamite, black powder, pellet powders, initiating explosives, blasting caps, electric blasting caps, safety fuse, fuse igniters, fuse lighters, squibs, cordeau detonant  fuse, instantaneous fuse, igniter cord and igniters

Exterior Trim
shall be construed to include exterior wall decorations, cornices, gutters, leaders, balconies, storm enclosures and all ornamental elements accessory to the structure building frame

Family
consists of one or more persons, each related to the other by blood (or adoption) together with such blood relatives' respective spouses, who are living together in a single dwelling unit and maintaining a common household.  A "family" shall include any domestic servants and not more than one gratuitous guest residing  with said "family"

Fence
is a structure forming a barrier at grade between lots, between a lot and a street or alley, or between portions of a lot or lots.  A "screen fence" in contra-distinction to a solid fence, is any fence that affords visibility at right angles to any  surface of such fence of 50 percent or more.

Fill
is any act by which earth, sand, gravel, rock or any other material is deposited, placed, replaced, pushed, dumped, pulled  transported or moved by man or machine to a new location and shall include the conditions resulting thereof.

Filling Pump
is a pump used to supply water to the gravity or pressure tanks of a sprinkler system

Finish, Interior Wall and Ceiling
is defined as those materials applied over wall, partition, and ceiling constructions on the inside of a building, or subdivision thereof, including finishing utilized for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation and similar purposes.  Wall finishes and ceiling finishes are not exceeding 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area,  respectively, shall be classified as interior trim.  Surface decoration consisting of paint, paper, or similar surface treatment applied directly to the finish without intervening air space shall not be considered as part of interior wall and ceiling finish, unless such surface treatment is required for the purpose of increasing fire resistance

Finishing Processes
are location where paints, lacquers, or other flammable solvents or thinners are used or when readily ignitable deposits or residues from such paint, lacquers, or finishes may occur.

Fire Alarm System, Automatic

is a system which automatically detects a fire condition and actuates a fire alarm signal device
Fire Alarm System, Manual
is an interior alarm system composed of sending stations and signaling devices in a building, operated on an electric circuit so arranged that the operation of any one station will ring all signals throughout the building or at one or more approved locations.  Signals may be either non-coded or coded to indicate the floor area in which the signal originated, and may be transmitted to an outside central station.

Fire Alarm System, Standard
is a manually operated fire alarm system equipped with automatic detectors, meeting the requirements of this ordinance.  Such system shall be installed in a building for the purpose of notifying the occupants of the building of conditions due to fire or other cause which necessitates that  the building be vacated immediately by the occupants.  Such system and all equipment and devices used in the installation of such a system shall be tested by and bear the label of approval of Underwriter's Laboratories Inc.  The workmanship equipment and quality of installation shall conform to the electrical requirements of this ordinance

Fire Area
is the floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls or the exterior walls of a building

 Fire Assembly
is the assembly of a fire door, fire window, or fire shutter, including all required hardware, anchorage, door frames and sills

Fire Damper
is an approved automatic or self-closing incombustible barrier designed to prevent the passage of air, gases, smoke or fire through an opening, a duct or pleum chamber

Fire Division
is the interior means of separation of one part of a floor area from another part, together with fire-resistive floor construction to form a complete fire barrier between adjoining or superimposed floor area in the same building or structure.

Fire Door
is a door and its assembly, so constructed and assembled  in places as to give specified protection against the passage of fire

Fire Escape
is an exterior vertical exit used primarily as an emergency means of egress

Fire Extinguisher, Standard

is a portable fire extinguisher which bears the label of approval of Underwriter's Laboratories Inc.
Fire Pump
is a pump used for  supplying water to a sprinkler system or to an inside standpipe system at the pressure required by the system

Fire Resistance
as applied to building materials and construction means the ability withstand fire or give protection from it for given periods under prescribed test conditions, according to Standard Fire Test

Fire-Resistive Construction
is that construction in which all structural elements, including walls, bearing partitions, floors, ceiling, roofs and their supports are of incombustible materials, providing fire resistance as specified in this ordinance

Fire- Resistive Rating
is the degree of fire resistance of a fabricated unit or assembly of units of construction, determined by an approved  standard fire test expressed in hours and/or fractions of an hour.

Fixture Branch
is a pipe connecting several plumbing fixtures

Fixture Drain
 is the drain from the trap of a plumbing fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe

Fixture Supply
is a a water supply pie connecting the plumbing fixture with the fixture branch

Fixture Unit
is a quantity in terms of which the load-producing effects on the plumbing system of different kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed on  some arbitrarily chosen scale

Fixture Unit Flow Rate
is the total discharge flow in gallons per minutes of a single plumbing fixture divided by 7.5, which provides the flow rate of that particular plumbing fixture as a unit of  flow.  Fixtures are rated as multiples of this unit of flow

Flameproof for Flameproofing
refer to materials which  will not readily ignite and will not propagate flame under test conditions.  Flameproofed materials are usually combustible materials with the addition of some treatment or coating to modify their burning properties.  Flameproof denotes a lower degree of resistance than fire-retardant

Flame Spread
is the propagation of  flame over a surface
Flame Spread Rating
is the measure of flame spread on the surface of materials or their assemblies, as determined by tests conducted in accordance with ASTM Designation: E84

Flammable
refers to any material which is very easily ignited and burns with unusual rapidity.  The form or condition of a material, as well ass its inherent properties, affects flammability, e.g. fine dry wood shavings would be  considered flammable, whereas a large solid piece of wood would not.  Flammable is used in a general sense without reference to specific limits of ignition temperature, flash point, or other properties

Flammable Anesthetics
are gases or vapors such as cyclopropane, divinyl ether, ethyl chloride, ethyl ether, and ethylene which my form flammable or explosive mixtures with air, oxygen or nitrous oxide

Flammable Liquid
is any liquid having a flash point below 200 deg. F. and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100 deg F.
Flammable liquids shall be divided into three classes as follows:
Class I shall include those having flash points at or below 20 deg F.
Class II shall include those having flash points above 20 deg F but at or below 70 deg F.
Class III shall include those having flash points above 70 deg. F.
The volatility of flammable liquids is increased when artificially heated to temperature equal to or higher than their flash points.  When so heated Class II and III liquids shall be subject to the applicable requirements fro Class I or II liquids.  These standards may also be applied to high flash point liquids when so heated even though these same liquids when not heated are outside of its scope.

Flammable Refrigerant
is any refrigerant that will burn when mixed with air

Flash Point
is the minimize temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a flammable liquid will give off flammable vapor as determined by appropriate test procedure and below 175 deg F. (79 deg. C) shall be undermined in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by means of the Tag Closed Tester, A.S.T.M. D56.  The flash point of dance with the Standard method of Test for Flash int by means of the Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, A.S.T.M. D93

Flight of Steps
is a series of steps between successive landings or between a landing and a floor

Flood
is a temporary increase in normal water level (surface water elevation) that results in water inundating land or other surfaces not normally under water.

Flood Frequency
A period of years, based on a statistical analysis, during which a flood of a stated magnitude may be expected to be equaled or exceeded.

Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)
An examination and evaluation of hydrologic and hydraulic data sponsored by the Federal Insurance Administration to determine base flood flows, elevations, areas and floodways.  The FIS also determines flows, elevations and areas of flood having less and greater frequencies of occurrence

Flood Level Rim
is the top edge of receptacle on a plumbing  fixture from which water overflows

Flood of Record
An actual historical flood event for which sufficient records are available to establish its extent.  No uniform probability of  occurrence is associated with floods of record.  However, the probability of occurrence may be determined for the event at specific locations

Flood Plain
is a the continuous area adjacent to a lake, stream or stream, bed, the elevation of which is greater than the normal water level (surface water elevation) or pool elevation but equal to or lower than the flood base elevation.  Natural depressions and storm water retention or detention areas which periodically are inundated by storm water shall be  considered of flood plain, if so designated by the County or an agency appointed by the  County.  Also, any land of higher elevation than the flood base elevation but having an area less than the minimum residential lot size established for the zone in which it is located, and surrounded by lands having an elevation equal to or less than the flood base elevation, shall be considered flood plain.  The flood plain comprises both the "floodway" and floodway fringe.

Flood  Profile
Graphical representations of the elevations of the water surface of the 100 year flood along the watercourses of unincorporated Cook County.

Floodproofing
Modifications to structures made to reduce flood damages.  These changes may be made to existing structures or incorporated in the design of new structures.  In all instances, floodproofing must be watertight and must be adequate with out the need for human intervention

Flood Protection Elevation

The elevation to which uses regulated b this ordinance are required to be elevated or floodproofed
Flood Return Period
A period of years based on a statistical analysis, during which a flood of a stated magnitude may be expected to bed equaled or exceeded.

Flood Table Land
is the continuous land area adjacent to the flood plain, having an elevation no greater than two (2) feet nor less than one (1) foot above the base flood elevation.

Floodway
A "floodway" is the channel of watercourse and those portions of the adjoining floodplains which are required to carry and discharge the 100 year flood with  no significant increase in the base flood elevation.

Floodway Encroachment  Lines

The lateral boundaries of the floodway which separate it from the floodway fringes
Floodway Fringe
is that portion of the flood plain which is immediately adjacent to the floodway.  Although, this area is prone to flooding, it is not used to transport flood water flows.  The highest elevation of the floodway fringe is coterminous to the highest elevation of the flood plain.

Floor Area
(as applied to area limitations) is the sum of the gross horizontal area of the several floors of the building, measured from the exterior faces of the exterior walls or from the center line of walls separating two (2) buildings.  The "floor area" of the building shall include elevator shafts and stairways at each floor, penthouse, attic space having headroom of seven (7) feet, six (6) inches or more, interior balconies and mezzanines, enclosed porches and floor space used for mechanical equipment, (except equipment, open or enclosed, located on the roof).  However, basement floor area unless specifically included shall be excluded from the determination of "floor area"

Floor Area
(as applied to occupancy content)
a.  Gross Floor Ares   is the area in square feet of any individual story of a building including the area within the perimeter of the outside walls of the building or section under consideration, with no deduction for elevators, stairs, mechanical shafts, closets, columns or wall thickness, for the purpose of determining exit facilities or classification of occupancy by the number of occupants
b.  Net Floor Area    is the area in square feet of any individual story of a building exclusive of elevators, stairs, mechanical shafts, closets, columns, and thickness of walls or other similar accessory unoccupied areas.

Floor Area Ratio
(as established in the Cook County Zoning Ordinance) of the building or buildings on any zoning lot is the floor area of the building or buildings on that zoning for divided by the area of such zoning lot, or in the case of planned developments, by the net site area.

Floor Area Ratio Method

is a method of providing natural lighting or ventilation openings as a percentage of the floor area of the spaces served by such openings
Flue
is an enclosed passageway used for the removal of the products of combustion

Flush Valve
is a device located at the bottom of the tank for the purpose of flushing water closets and similar fixtures

Flushometer Valve

is a device which discharges a predetermined quality of water to fixtures for flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure
Foundation Pier
is a subsurface structure for the support of columns, above-ground piers or other concentrated loads, extending from the surface of the ground downward to suitable bearing

Foundation Wall
is a wall below the floor nearest grade, serving as a support for a wall, pier, column, or other structural part of a building or structure
Foyer
is a room adjoining the auditorium of a theater or other place of assembly, and serving as the principle entrance to any seating level thereof.

Freeboard
An increment of elevation added to the base flood elevation to provide a factor of safety for uncertainties in calculations, unknown localized conditions, wave actions and unpredictable effects such as may be caused by ice or debris jams.

Friction Type Connection
is a high strength bolt connection in which bolts do not bear on their shanks but serve primarily to exert pressure on two (2) members of a connection held in contact by the bolt

Furnace, Forced Air
is a fuel burning device which supplies heat o a body of air moving through it by a motor driven fan or blower and to which ducts are connected for the purpose of conveying the heated air to the space to be heated.

Fusible Plug
is a device having a predetermined temperature fusible member for the relief of pressure

Garage
is a building in which one or more motor vehicles are stored, housed, kept, repaired or serviced

Garage, Private
is a garage for four (4) or less passenger motor vehicles with no provision for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit

Garage, Public or Commercial

is a building or structure used for the storage, servicing or repair of motor vehicles and not included in the term "garage,  private"
Gas Vent
is a flue for removing products of combustion from gas appliances

General Alarm
is an alarm signal sounded on all alarm sounding devices throughout the building

Generator
is a device, equipped with a heating element, used in a refrigerating system to increase the pressure of refrigerant in its gas or vapor state for the purpose of liquefying the refrigerant

Geodesic Dome
is a dome-like structure having triangulated ribs and commonly referred to in engineering terminology as a geodesic dome

Grade, Natural
is the elevation of the ground surface that existed prior to any known changes caused or made by man

Grade, Existing
is the elevation of the surfaces of the existing ground features (including pervious and impervious surfaces) before any new excavation filling, construction or any other changes or alterations are made.

Grade, Finished
is the elevation of the surfaces of the ground features, after they have been changed or altered as a result of new  work such as excavation, filling, sodding, paving or any other construction.

Grade (Lumber)
refers to the classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility.

Gravity Tank
is a container holding water to supply a sprinkler system at gravity pressure

Grease  Interceptor
See Interceptor

Grease Trap
See Interceptor

Group
is mortar to which sufficient water has been added to make a consistency that will flow without segregation of the ingredients

Grouted Masonry
is masonry in which the interior, joints are filled by pouring grout therein as the work progresses

Habitable Room
is a room occupied by one or more persons for living, sleeping eating, or cooking and includes kitchens serving dwelling units, but does not include bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundries, pantries, storage rooms or below grade recreation rooms

Hall, Vestibule or Foyer in a Residence
is a room or passageway at the entrance of a house or apartment
Handrail
is a member at approximately waist height, paralleling the slop of a stairway or ramp, used to aid persons in ascending or descending such stairs or ramp

Hangar
is a building or structure designed or used for the shelter, storage or servicing of one or more aircraft

Hazardous Chemical
is any chemical listed as hazardous in Hazardous Chemical Data NFPA No. 49, plus chemicals not mentioned, having similar toxic, explosive and flammable hazardous properties under similar conditions.  The Building Commissioner shall have the right to make determinations as to which chemicals are hazardous

Header
See Bonder

Heating System, Forced Air

is a central warm air heating system that is equipped with a fan or blower which provides the primary means for the circulation of air
Heating  System, Forced Hot Water
is a central hot water system consisting of boiler, pipes, radiation, equipped with pump or pumps which provide positive circulation of hot water throughout the system

Heating System, Gravity
is a central warm air heating system through which air is circulated by gravity.  Wall furnaces and floor furnaces shall  not be considered "gravity heating systems" under this definition

Heating System, Gravity
is a central warm air heating system through which air is circulated by gravity.  Wall furnaces and floor furnaces shall not be considered "gravity  heating systems" under this definition

Heating System, Gravity Hot Water

is a central hot water system consisting of boiler, pipes and radiation through which heated water is circulated by gravity.
Heating System, Gravity Hot Water

is a central hot water system consisting of boiler, pipes and radiation through which heated water is circulated by gravity
Heating System, Steam
is a central heating system consisting of boiler, piping and radiation where steam generated in the boiler is circulated through the system piping and radiation either by pump or gravity flow

Heat Pump
is a refrigeration system arranged to provide either heating or cooling
Helicopter Landing Pad
is an area designed solely for the landing and take-off of rotary wing aircraft and other aircraft capable of approximately  vertical landing and take-off, and providing no facilities for storage, servicing, or repair of such aircraft.

Helicopter Landing Pad, Elevated
is an area located on a building or structure one or more stories above ground level, designed solely for the landing and take-off of the above-mentioned aircraft

Heliport
is an area, located on land or water, but not upon a building, designed for the landing and take-off of rotary wing aircraft   and other aircraft capable of approximately vertical landing and take-off and providing facilities for the storage, servicing and repair of such aircraft.  One or more subgrade levels of use pertinent to the heliport operation may be located beneath such landing and take-off area.

Highly Flammable Solid
shall include a solid substance, other than one classified as an explosive which is liable to cause fires through friction, through absorption of moisture, through spontaneous chemical changes, or as a result of retaining heat from manufacturing or processing.

Highly Toxic Material
is a material so toxic to man as to afford an unusual hazard to life and health during fire-fighting operations.  Examples are: parathion, TEPP (tetraethyl phosphate), HETP (hexaethyl tetraphosphate) and similar insecticides and pesticides.

High Side
refers to those parts of a refrigeration system under condenser pressure or higher

Hoistway, Elevator or Dumbwaiter
is a shaftway for the travel of one or more elevators or dumbwaiters.  It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the overhead machinery space floor or grating, or at the underside of the roof  where the hoistway does not penetrate the roof
a.  Multiple Hoistway   a hoistway   for more than one elevator or dumbwaiter
b.  Single Hoistway   A hoistway for more than one elevator or dumbwaiter

Hoistway Enclosure
is the fixed structure, consisting of vertical walls or partitions which isolates the hoistway from all other parts of the building or from an adjacent hoistway, and in which the hoistway doors and door assemblies are installed

Hold-Out Area (Reservoir Parking)
is that area of an open air drive-in theater used exclusively for holding cars which are awaiting admittance into the auditorium area of the theater

Hollow Masonry Unit
is a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

Hood
is that portion of a local exhaust ventilation system which confines hot gases or air-contaminants at the point of emission and guides them into the duct work of the system

 Horizontal Branch (Plumbing)
is a drain pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain with or without vertical sections or branches, which receives the discharge from one or more plumbing fixture drains and conducts it to the soil or waste stack or to the building (house) drain.

Horizontal Pipe
is any pipe or fitting which makes an angle of more than 45 degrees with the vertical

Hospitals
A building or part thereof used for medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical care on a 24 hour basis, for 4 or more inpatients.  Hospital, wherever used in this ordinance, shall include general hospitals, mental hospitals, tuberculous hospitals, children's hospitals and any such facilities providing inpatient care.

Hotel or Motel
is an establishment which is open to transient guests, in contra-distinction to a lodging house or apartment house and is commonly known as a hotel or motel in the community in which it is located; and which provides customary hotel or motel services, such as maid service, furnishing and laundering of linen, telephone and secretarial or desk service, and the use and upkeep of furniture.  For the purpose of this ordinance, hotels and motels shall b classified as "Multiple-Family Dwellings".

Humanly-Occupied Space
is space normally frequented or occupied by people but excluding machinery rooms and walk-in coolers used primarily for refrigerated storage.

Hydrostatic Pressure
The upward pressure exerted on floor slabs or an entire structure by standing water or groundwater, which tends to float a structure or crack the floor.  It is based on the difference in elevation between the surface level of the water and the structure on which it is acting.  Hydrostatic pressure may also be horizontal, imposing forces on walls causing them to crack or fail

Incombustible Construction
is that construction in which all structural elements including walls bearing partitions, floors, ceilings, roofs and their supports are of incombustible materials, but which are generally not fire protected

Incombustible Material
implies material which does not in itself constitute an active fuel for the spread of combustion.  A material which will no ignite nor actively support combustion during an exposure for five (5) minutes to a temperature of 1200 degrees Fahrenheit shall be designated "incombustible".   In addition, materials having a structural base of incombustible material (as defined herein) with a surfacing not more than one-eighth (1/8) inch thick which has a flames-spread rating not greater than 15 when tested in accordance with the method of test for surface burning characteristics of building materials (ASTM Designation: E84) shall be acceptable as "incombustible".  The term combustible does not apply to the flamespread characteristics of interior finish or trim materials.  No material shall b classed as incombustible material which is subject o increase in combustibility or flamespread rating beyond the limits herein established through the effects of age, moisture or other conditions.

Indirect Closed -- Surface Refrigeration System

is one in which a liquid, such as brine or water, cooled by an evaporator located in an enclosure external to a refrigerated room , is circulated to and through such a refrigerated room in pipes or other closed circuits
Indirect Open -- Spray Refrigeration System
is one in which a liquid, such as brine or water, cooled by an evaporator located in an enclosure external to a refrigerated room, is circulated to such refrigerated room and is sprayed therein

Indirect Refrigeration System
is one in which liquid such as brine or water cooled by the refrigerant, is circulated to the material or space refrigerated, or is used to cool air so circulated

Indirect Vented Closed-Surface Refrigeration System

is one in which a liquid, such as bring or water, cooled by an evaporator located in a vented enclosure external to a refrigerated room, is circulated to and through such refrigerated room in pipes or other closed circuits.
Indirect Waste Pipe
is a pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture or receptacle which is  directly connected to the drainage system

Individual Vent (Plumbing)
is a pipe installed to vent a fixture trap and which connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air
Individual Wastes
are liquid wastes resulting from the processes employed in industrial establishments and are free of fecal matter.

Industrial Refrigeration System
is a refrigerating system used in the manufacture, processing, or storage of materials located in a building used exclusively for industrial purposes

Interceptor (Plumbing)
is a device designed and installed so as to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous, or undesirable matter from normal wastes and permit normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the disposal terminal by gravity

Interior Trim
shall include moldings, cornices, wainscoting, and other wall and ceiling finishes not exceeding 10 percent of the wall are nor 10 percent of the ceiling area of a room or space, excluding doors and frames, and window sash and frames

Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes

See Finish, Interior
Internal Gross Volume
is the volume as determined  from internal dimensions of the container with no allowance for volume of internal parts

Irritant Refrigerant
is a any refrigerant that has an irritating effect on the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs

Lake
is any natural or man-made body of  water surrounded by land

Landing (Stair)
is a platform between two (2) flights of stairs

Lender (Downspout)
is  the water conductor from the roof to the building storm drain, combined building sewer, or other means of disposal

Light Gauge Formed Steel Members
are structural members formed to shape from sheet or strip steel less than three  sixteenths (3/16 inch thick, generally used for studs, floor joists, arch ribs, rafters or decks

Lightweight Metal Alloys

are magnesium and aluminum alloys
Limited Charge System
is a refrigeration system in which, with the compressor idle,the internal volume and total refrigerant charge are such tat the design working pressure will not be exceeding by complete evaporation of the refrigerant charge

Lintel
is the structural member placed over an opening in a wall, and supporting the wall construction above

Liquid Receiver
is a vessel permanently connected to the high pressure side of a system for the storage of refrigerant

Liquid Waste
is the discharge from any fixture, appliance, or appurtenance, in connection with a plumbing system which does not receive fecal matter

Liquefied Petroleum Gases: LPG and LP
Gas shall include any material which is composed predominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons, or mixtures of them; propane propylene, butanes (normal butane or iso butane) and butylenes.

Live Load
is the weight superimposed by the use and occupancy of the building or structure, not including the wind load, snow load, earthquake load or dead load

Load, Dead
is the weight of all permanent construction, including framing, walls, floors, roofs, partitions, stairways and all fixed service equipment

Load Factor (Plumbing)
is the percentage of the total connected fixture unit flow rate which is likely to occur at any point in the drainage system.  It varies with the type of occupancy, the total flow unit above this point being considered, and with the probability factor of simultaneous use

Load, Impact
is the load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles, and other similar forces and kinetic loads.

Load, Lateral Soil
is the lateral pressure exerted by the weight of the adjacent soil, including due allowance for hydrostatic pressure

Load, Wind
is the lateral pressure on the building or structure exerted by the wind

Lobby
is the enclosed vestibule between the principle entrance to the building and the doors to the main floor of the auditorium or assembly room of a theater or place of assembly or to the main floor corridor of a business building.

Local Ventilating Pipe (Plumbing)

is a pipe on the fixture side of the trap, through which vapor or foul air  is removed from a room or fixture
Lodge Hall
is a hall or meeting place of a local branch of a fraternal order or society such as the Masons, Knights of Columbus, Moose, American Legion and other similar organizations

Lodging House
is a building originally designed for or sued as a single-family or two-family dwelling, all or a portion of which contains lodging rooms which accommodate persons who are not members of the keeper's family.  Lodging or meals or both, are provided for compensation on a weekly or monthly basis.

Loop Vent (Plumbing)
is the same as a circuit vent except that ti loops back and connects with a stack vent instead of a vent stack

Lot
is a zoning lot as defined herein, except as the context shall indicate a lot of record, in which case a "lot" is a lot of record

Lot of Record
is a lot which is part of a subdivision, the plat of which has been recorded in the office of the Recorder of Deeds of Cook County; or a parcel of land, the deed to which was recorded in the office of said Recorder prior to the adoption of the Cook County Zoning Ordinance

Lot Area, Gross
is the area of a horizontal plane bounded by the front, side and rear lot lines, but no including any area occupied by the waters of a duly recorded lake or river

Lot, Corner
is a lot situated at the intersection of two (2Z) streets, the interior angle of such intersection not exceeding 135 degrees

Lot, Depth
is the mean horizontal distance between the front lot line and the ear lot lines, measured within the lot boundaries

Lot Line, Exterior
is a boundary line between a lot and a street, alley, public way or railroad right-of-way

Lot Line, Front
shall be that boundary of a lot which is along an existing or dedicated public street or where no public street exists, is along a public way is not a dedicated street the right-of-way of such public way shall be deemed to be 66 feet, unless otherwise provided.  The owner of the corner lot may select either street lot line as the front lot line

Lot Line, Interior
is a boundary line between two (2) adjoining lots

Lot Line, Rear
shall be that boundary of the lot which is most distant from, and is, or is most nearly, parallel to the front lot line

Lot, Through
is a lot having a pair of opposite lot lines along two substantially parallel streets, and which is not a corner lot.  On a "through lot" both street lot lines shall be deemed front lot lines.

Lot, Width
is the mean horizontal distance between the side lot lines of a lot, measured within the lot boundaries

Lot, Zoning
is a single-tract of land located within a single block, which (at the time of filing for building permit) is designated by its owner or developer as a tract to be used, developed or built upon as a unit, under single ownership or control.  Therefore, a "zoning lot or lots" may or may not coincide with a lot of record.

Low Side
refers to those parts of a refrigeration system at or below evaporator pressure

Machinery (Refrigeration) 
 is a room other than a boiler room, in which a refrigerating system is permanently installed and operated but not including evaporators located in a cold storage room, refrigerator box, air cooled space, or other enclosed space.  Closets solely contained within, and opening only into a room shall not be considered machinery room but shall be considered a part of the machinery room in which they are contained or open into.  It is not the intent of this definition to cause the space in which a self-contained system is located to be classified as a machinery room.

Machinery Room Class T (Refrigeration)
is a room having machinery, but no flame producing apparatus, permanently installed and operated and also  conforming to the following:
a.  Any doors, communicating with the building, shall be approved self-closing tight fitting Class B fire doors
b.  Walls, floor and ceiling shall be eight and of not less than one-hour fire resistive construction
c.  Exterior openings, if present shall not be under any fire escape or any open stairway
d. All pies piercing the interior walls, ceiling, or floor of such room shall be tightly sealed o the walls, ceiling or floor through which they pass
e.  Emergency remote controls to stop the action of the refrigerant compressor shall be provided and located immediately outside the machinery room.

Magazine
is any building or structure used for the storage of explosives

Main
of any system of continuous piping is the principle artery of the system, to which  branches may be connected.

Main Vent (Plumbing)
is the principle artery of the venting system to which vent branches may e connected

Marine Service  Station
is that portion of the property where flammable liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore piers, wharves, or floating docks into the full tanks of motor craft

Marquee
is a roof-like structure of a permanent nature which projects horizontally from the wall of a building and derives  its support from said building

Marquee Sign
is a display sign attached to, or  hung from, mar marquee

Masonry
is a built-up construction or combination of building units of such materials as clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum or stone, set in mortar; or plain concrete

Mechanical Joint (Refrigeration)

is a gas-tight joint, obtained by the joining of metal parts though a positive-holding mechanical construction
Mechanical Ventilation
is the process of supplying or removing air, by mechanical means to or from any space

Mezzanine
is an intermediate or fractional story between the floor and ceiling of any story of a building, used for a purpose accessory to the principle use, and extending over only part of such floor.

Mixed Occupancy
refers to a building designated or used for two (2) or more occupancies representing different occupancy classifications

Mixer
is a vessel or device for the mixing of refrigerant or other liquids with another substance.

Mortar
is a plastic mixture of cementitious materials, fine aggregates, and water used to bond masonry or other structural units

Motel
See Hotel

Motion Picture Trial Exhibition Room
is a room used to preview, edit or view motion pictures, with a limited audience of 20 or less persons,m and without charge to the audience

Motor Vehicle
is any passenger vehicle, truck, truck-trailer, trailer or semi-trailer propelled or drawn by a mechanical power

Moving Stairway
is a moving inclined continuous stairway or runway for raising or lowering passengers

Multiple System
is a refrigeration  system employing the direct system of refrigeration in which the refrigerant is delivered to two (2) or more evaporators in separately refrigerated spaces

Natural Barricade
is a natural feature of the ground, such as a hill or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures which require protection cannot be seen from a magazine when the trees are bare of leaves.

Newel Post
is an upright post at the end of a stair-railing

Non-Positive Displacement Compressor

is a compressor in which increase in vapor pressure is  attained without changing the internal volume of the compression chamber
Normal Loading (of Wood)
is a design load that stresses  a member or fastening to the full allowable stress tabulated in this ordinance.  This loading may be applied for approximately 10 years, either continuously or cumulatively and 90 percent of this load may be applied for the remainder of the life of the structure

Nursery Day
See Child Day Care Center

Nursery School
See Child Day Care Center

Nursing Home
A building or part thereof used for the lodging, boarding and nursing care on a 24-hour basis  for 4 or more persons who, because of mental or physical incapacity, may be unable to provide for their own needs an safety without the assistance of another person.  Nursing home, wherever used in this ordinance, shall include nursing and convalescent homes, skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities, and infirmaries or homes for the aged.

Occupancy
is the use of any building or structure, for any one of, or combination of, the following purposes; residential, institutional, assembly, educational, office, commercial, industrial, storage, high hazard , or unclassified, as established in Article VI, CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS

Occupancy Content
is the maximum allowable number of persons occupying a building floor, room, or space; the maximum number of persons to be provided for on any floor or part thereof shall be in accordance with the actual occupancy for which the floor or part thereof is designed, as prescribed in this ordinance

Occupied
(as used to determine exit requirements) refers to the presence of persons in a building or space for normal purposes, subject to ruling by the Building Commissioner in case of doubt as to whether an area is occupied.  Examples:  a crawl space under a building is not an occupied space even though on occasion a plumber may enter to repair pipes.  However, an open space under a building regularly used for storage purposes, or by children at play, is occupied.  A department store occupancy do not necessarily need to be kept unlocked.  However, as a place of employment the building is still occupied and under the general provisions of this ordinance sufficient exits may be kept available for use to provide for the number of employees actually present.

Offset
in a line of piping is a combination of elbows or bends which brings one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section

One hundred Year Flood
A flood magnitude with a one percent statistical chance of being equaled or exceeded during any year.  A flood this large would be reached once during a 100 year period, on the average.  However, the occurrence of such an event does not diminish the chance of its reoccurring again at any time

Open Air Parking Structure
is an unenclosed or partially enclosed structure which is at least 50 percent open on two (2) or more sides an is used exclusively for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles

Open Space
is a street, alley, waterway, park, yard, court or other permanent unobstructed space open to the sky

Open Web Steel Joists
are open web, load-carrying shop-fabricated, truss type secondary structural steel members

Ordinary Construction
is that construction, other than heavy timber construction, in which the structural elements of the interior framing are entirely or in part of wood or other elements not more combustible than wood, and the exterior structural elements are composed of masonry or other incombustible materials.  Ordinary construction is listed as constructed type IV in this ordinance

Ordinary Materials
are materials meeting the requirements of this ordinance for minimum strength, durability and fire resistance for materials, without special selection, testing and supervision as required for "Controlled Materials".  See Article IV, Section 4.6.

Oriel Window
is a window projected beyond and suspended from the wall of the building, or cantilevered therefrom.

Overhead Sewer
A plumbing system which incorporated a device or apparatus by which sewage, liquid waste or other water-borne waste is lifted by mechanical or other means for further discharge into the building sewer and conveyance to the receiving sewer system

Overhead Structure
is all of the structural members, platforms, etc., supporting elevator machinery, sheaves, and equipment at the top of a hoistway

Oxidizing Material
includes substances such as chlorates, permanganates, perosides or nitrates, that yield oxygen readily to stimulate combustion

Panel
is the section of a floor or wall contained between the supporting frame of two a(2) adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor construction

Parapet, Roof
is that part of any wall entirely above the roof line and designed primarily to deter the spread of fire from building to building

Partition
is a vertical separating construction between rooms or spaces; such partition, being not over one story in height

Partition, Bearing
is a partition used to support loads other than its own weight

Patient Care Facility
is a building designed or used for the temporary or permanent housing of persons who require medical, mental, physical or emotional care and treatment

Passageway (Hallway, Grade)
is an enclosed hallway, exitway or corridor connecting an exit to a street or to an open space or court communicating with a street


Penthouse
is an enclosed structure on or above the roof of a building -- other than a "roof structure" -- used primarily for living or recreational accommodations.  Penthouses occupying an aggregate area exceeding one-third (1/3) of the roof area shall be considered a story of the building and shall be subject to all applicable requirements of this ordinance

Permit
is an authorization by the Building Commissioner to proceed with construction, alteration, installation or demolition

Person
includes any individual or group of individuals, corporation, partnership, trust, association or any other organized group of persons, including governmental agencies.

Pier
is an isolated column of masonry or concrete.  A bearing wall not bonded at the sides into associated masonry shall be considered a pier when its horizontal dimensions measured at right angles to the thickness does not exceed four (4) times its thickness

Piping
refers to the pipe or tube mains for interconnecting the various parts of a system

Plastic
shall include any of various non-metallic compounds, synthetically produced (usually from organic compounds by polymerization), which can be molded into various forms at some point in their manufacture

Plastic Theory and Design
refers to design methods based upon the ultimate strength  of a material and shape, where the working load is a fraction of the ultimate load

Plenum Chamber
is an enclosed air compartment for the purpose of retaining and distributing air under pressure

Plumbing Fixtures
are installed receptacles, devices, or appliances which are supplied with water or which receive or discharge liquids or liquid-borne wastes, with or without discharge into the drainage system with which they maybe directly or indirectly connected

Plumbing System
includes the water-supplying and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; building drains and building sewers including their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within the property liens of the premises, and water-treating or water using equipment

Poisonous Gas
shall include any noxious gas of  such nature that a small amount of the gas when mixed with air is dangerous t o life.  Examples are chloropicrin, cyanogen, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen peroxide and phosgene.

Position Indicator
is a device that indicates the position of an elevator car in the hoistway.    It is called a hall position indicator when placed at a landing or a car position indicator when placed in the car

Positive Displacement Compressor
is a compressor in which increase in vapor pressure is  attained by changing the internal volume of the compression chamber

Potable Water
is water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary and domestic purposes, and meet the requirements of the Cook County Health Department

Potentially Explosive Chemical
shall include any chemical substance, other than one classified as an explosive or blasting agent, which has a tendency to be unstable and which can be exploded by heat or shock or a combination thereof

Pre-Action System
is a sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air that may or may not be under pressure, with a supplemental heat responsive (thermostatic) system of more sensitive characteristics than the automatic sprinklers themselves, installed in the same areas as the sprinklers; actuation of the heat responsive system, as from a fire, opens a valve which permits water to flow into  the sprinkler piping system an to be discharged from any sprinkler which is open

Pre-Signal Alarm
is an alarm signal sounded on the pre-signal alarm sounding devices only

Prefabricated
means fabricated prior to erection or installation in a building or structure

Prefabricated or Factory Assembled Building
is a completely assemble and erected building or structure, including the service equipment of which the structural parts consist of prefabricated individual units or sub-assemblies using ordinary or controlled materials; and in which the service equipment may be of either pre-fabricated or at-site construction

Pressure Imposing Element (Refrigeration)
is any device or portion of the refrigerating equipment used for the purpose of increasing the refrigerant vapor pressure


Pressure Limiting Device (Refrigeration)
is a pressure-responsive mechanism designed to automatically stop the operation of the pressure-imposing element at a predetermined pressure.

Pressure Relief Device (Refrigeration)

is a pressure-actuated valve or rupture member designed to automatically relieve pressure
Pressure Relief Valve (Refrigeration)
is a pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means, and designed to automatically relieve pressure in excess of its setting

Pressure Tank
is a container holding water to supply a sprinkler system at a pressure greater than that due to gravity

Pressure Vessel
is a refrigerant-containing receptacle of a refrigerating system, other than expansion coils, headers and pipe connections

Primary Structural Member
is any member of the structural frame of a building used as a column, grillage beam, girder, beam framing between columns, beam used to support masonry walls, truss, isolated lintel spanning eight (8) feet or more and any member required to brace a column or truss

Private or Private Use
in the classification of  plumbing fixtures, applies to fixtures in residences and apartments and to fixtures in private bathrooms of hotels and similar installations where the fixtures are intended for the use of a family or an individual

Private Sewer
is a sewer privately owned and not directly controlled by public authority

Projection Block
is that portion of a theater or assembly room containing a projection room alone or in combination with other rooms incidental to its operation

Property Room
is a room used for the storage of any accessory, materials used in conjunction with a theatrical or similar performance, except scenery, commonly known and described as stage properties

Proscenium
is the vertical plane of separation between an auditorium and a stage

Public or Public Use
in the classification of plumbing fixtures, applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort stations and other installations (whether pay or free) where a number of fixtures are installed so that their use is similarly unrestricted

Public Sewer
is a central sewer directly controlled by public authority

Public Way
is any sidewalk, street, alley, highway or  other thoroughfare

Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate Plastic)
shall mean any plastic substance, material or compound, other than cellulose nitrate film or explosives having cellulose nitrate as a  base, by whatever name known, when in the form of blocks, slabs, sheets, tubes or fabricated shapes.

Pyroxylin Plastic Factory
is any building or portion of a building where articles are manufactured in whole or part from pyroxylin plastics in quantities above 25 pounds

Pyroxylin Plastic Storage Building
is any building, not a pyroxylin factory as defined above, which is used to store pyroxylin plastics, whether alone or as parts of  other objects, in quantities above 25 pounds

Radioactive Material
shall include any material or combination of material that spontaneously emits radiation

Railing
is a member at the edge of a drop-off, serving the purpose of preventing people from falling over the edge

Ramp
is an inclined passageway connecting two (2) levels

Receiver  (Refrigeration)

is a vessel permanently connected to a system by inlet and outlet pipes for storage of a liquid refrigerant
Refrigerant
is a substance which produces a refrigerating effect by its absorption of heat while expanding or vaporizing

Refrigerating System
is a combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat.

Refrigeration
is the process of removing heat from a substance or an enclosed space of a building or structure

Refrigerating System Commercial

is a refrigerating system assembled or installed in  building used for business or commercial purposes.
Reinforced Brick Masonry
is brick masonry in which steel reinforcing bars are embedded in such a manner that the two (2) materials act together in resisting forces

Reinforced Concrete
is concrete in which reinforcement other than that provided for shrinkage or temperature changes is combined in such manner that the two (2) materials act together in resisting forces

Relief Vent (Plumbing)
is a vent the primary function of which is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent systems
 Remote System (Refrigeration)
is a refrigerating system in which the compressor or  generator is located in a space other than the cabinet, fixture or space containing the evaporator

Repair
is the replacement or renewal, including additions or alterations of any part of a building structure, device or equipment with like or similar materials  or parts for the purpose of maintenance of such building structure, device or equipment

 Residential-Custodial Care Facility
A building or part thereof, used for the lodging or boarding of 4 or more persons who are incapable of self-preservation because of age or physical or mental limitation.  This includes facilities such as homes for the aged, nurseries (custodial care for children under 6 years of age) and mentally retarded care institutions.  Day care facilities that do not provide lodging or boarding for institutional occupants are not to be included under this section of the ordinance

Residential Restrained Care Institutions

A building or part thereof, used to house occupants under some degree of restraint or security
Return Offset (Plumbing)

is a double offset installed so as to  return the pipe to its original alignment.
Revent Pipe (Plumbing)
 (sometimes called an individual vent) is that part of a vent pipe line which connects directly with an individual waste or group of wastes, underneath or back of the fixtures and extends either to the main or branch vent pipe

Rigid Frames
are continuous structural frames of buildings  or structures in which the beam-to-column connections are assumed to have sufficient rigidity to hold the angles between intersecting members virtually unchanged

Riser (Plumbing)
is a water supply pipe which extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches of fixtures

Riser (Stair)
is the vertical surface of a step between two (2) successive treads or between a tread and a landing or floor

Risk Premium Rate Zones
Zones Flood hazard areas designated according to the degree of flooding they would experience during the base flood.  The symbols used to designate these zones are as follows:
Zone Sym                  Description
"A"                     Area of 100 year flood; base flood elevation and flood hazard factors are not determined
"A0"                   Areas of 100 year shallow flooding where depths are between one (1) and three (3) feet;
                           average depths of inundations are shown, but no flood hazard factors are determined
"AH"                   Areas of 100 year flooding where depths are between one (1) and three (3) feet;
                            base flood elevations are shown but no flood hazard factors are determined
"A1-A30"              Areas of 100 year flood; base flood elevations and flood hazard factors determined
"B"                      Areas between limits of the 100 year flood and 500 year flood; or certain areas
                           subject to 100 year flooding with average depths less than one (1) foot or where the contributing
                           drainage area is less less than one square mile; or areas protected by levees
                             from the base flood (medium shading)

Riverine
Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river (including tributaries), stream, creek or brook

Roof
is the roof slab or deck with its supporting members, not including vertical supports

Roof Coverings
is the covering applied to the roof for weather resistance or fire resistance

Roof Drain
is a drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge it  into the leader (downspout)

Roof Structure
is a structure erected above the roof for supporting or enclosing a stairway or equipment used in the operation of a building, such as tanks, fans, or elevator machinery, but containing no habitable space for living or recreational accommodations
Roughing-In (Plumbing)
is the installation of all parts of the plumbing system which can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures.  This includes drainage, water supply and vent piping and the necessary fixture supports.

Row  of Seats
is a group of adjoining seats arranged side by side

Rubble
is any one o the following:
a.  Coursed Rubble   Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting approximately on level beds, well bonded, and brought at vertical intervals to continuous level beds or courses
b.  Random Rubble   Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones, well bonded, and brought at irregular vertical intervals to discontinuous but approximately level beds or courses
c.  Rough or Ordinary Rubble   Masonry composed of non-shaped or field stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded

Runway
is any aisle or walkway constructed and maintained as a temporary passageway for pedestrians or vehicles during construction, demolition or alteration of a building

Rupture Member
in a refrigeration system, is a pressure relief device having a diaphragm of member which will rupture or blow out at a predetermined pressure

Safety Clearance
is a space open to the sky, continuous on all sides of a building or structure, between such building and any other building, or property line, or the near side of every adjoining and adjacent public way or public park, or the right-of-way line of any railway or the shore line, of any navigable stream or river.  Where two a(2) or more of the above apply, the condition providing the larger safety clearance shall be meant.

Sanitary Sewer
is a pipe which carries sewage and excludes storm, surface, and ground water

Scaffold
is any temporary elevated platform which is used for supporting workmen, materials, or both

Sealed Absorption System (Refrigeration)

is a system in which all refrigerant containing parts are made permanently tight by welding or brazing against refrigerant loss
Sealed Unit (Refrigeration)
is a pressure imposing element which operates without stuffing box or which does not depend upon contact between moving and stationary surfaces for refrigerant retention

Secondary Structural Member
is any member of the structural framework other than a primary member (see Primary Structural Member) including joints, and fill-beams framed into other  beams or girders.

Sediment
is solid material both  mineral and organic that is in suspension, is being transported or has been moved from its site of origin by air, water, gravity or ice and has come to rest on the earth's surface

Self-Closing Door
is one which closes upon release by the person passing through.  A self-closing door may be an automatic-closing door also, and an automatic-closing door may be self-closing

Self-Closing Fire Assembly
is a fire assembly  which is kept in a normally closed position and is equipped with an approved device to insure closing and latching after having been opened for use

Self-Closing Fire Door
is one which is kept normally in the closed position and which if opened is returned to the closed position by the spring or weight or other closing devices

Self-Contained System
is a refrigerating system the components of which including the piping  or tubing connecting the components, the motive force therefore and the necessary control,s, are enclosed in a single enclosure of one or more compartments

Septic Tank
is a watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of a drainage system or part thereof, and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquids, digest organic matter through a period of detention and allow the  liquids to discharge into a soil outside of the tank through a system of open-joint or perforated piping or disposal pit

Sewage
is any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in  suspension or solution and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution

Shaft
is a vertical opening or enclosed space extending through two (1) or more floors of a building or through a floor and a roof.

Shell Type Apparatus (Refrigeration)
is a refrigerant-containing vessel having tubes for the passage of a heating, cooling or refrigerating fluid
Siamese Connection
is an inlet fitting installed on the outside of a building and connected to the system main of a sprinkler system or to the standpipe main of an inside standpipe system for the use of the fire  department only, to supply water to the system

 Side Vent (Plumbing)
is a vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fitting at an angle not greater than 45 degrees to the vertical

Sign
is a name, identification, description, direction, display or illustration which is affixed to, or represented directly to indirectly upon, a building structure or piece of land; and which directs attention to an  object, project, place, activity, person, institution, organization or business

Sign, Directional
is a sign that indicates the direction or location of an exit stairway or fire escape

Sign, Exit
is a sign which is located over or immediately adjoining a means of egress from a building or structure

Sign Facing
is the opaque or transparent surface or surfaces of the sign upon, against, or through which the message of the sign is exhibited

Sign, Ground
is a sign supported by uprights or braces upon the ground

Sign, Outdoor
shall include all fabricated signs and their supporting structures erected on the ground or attached to or supported by  a building or structure

Sign, Projecting
is a sign which is attached to a wall of a building an d projects therefrom

Sign, Roof
is a sign erected on the roof of a building

Sign, Structural Trim Of
shall consist of a molding batten, cappings, nailing strips, latticing, and platforms which are attached to a sign structure

Sign, Structure
consists of the supports, uprights, bracing and framework of the sign

Sign, wall
is a sign which is affixed flat to, or painted on, a wall of a building.  However, incidental lighting reflectors may project from such wall a distance not exceeding eight (8) feet, within the meaning of this definition

Signal System, Elevator Separate
is one consisting of  buttons or other devices located at the landings, which, when actuated by a waiting passenger, illuminate a flash signal or operate an annunciator in the car indicating floors at which stops are to be made
a.  Signal Device, Elevator Car Flash   One providing a signal light in the car, which is illuminated when the car approaches the landings  at which a landing signal registering device has been actuated
b.  Signal Registering Device, Elevator Landing     A button or other device, located at the elevator landing, which when actuated by a waiting  passenger, causes a top signal to be registered in the car
c.  Signal Transfer Device, Elevator Automatic   A device by means of which a signal registered in a car is automatically transferred to the next car following, in case the first car passe a floor for which a signal has been registered without making a stop
d.  Signal Transfer Switch, Elevator   A manually operated switch, located in the car, by means of which the operator can transfer a signal to the next car approaching in the same direction, when he desires to pass a floor at which a signal has been registered in the car

 Site
is a lot or parcel of land or a contiguous combination thereof, where construction work is or is to be performed

Skylight
is a single light-admitting section of a roof

Sleeping Accommodations

means a room, space or portion thereof, used primarily for sleeping purposes
Slidescape
is a straight or spiral chute erected  on the  interior or exterior of a building and which is designated as a means of human egress to the street or other open space

Smoke Detector
is a device which will detect the presence of smoke and which will automatically actuate an alarm or other device

Smokepipe
is a primarily horizontal pipe or breeching used to convey the products of combustion from a heating appliance to a flue

Smokeproof Tower
is an enclosed stairway with access from the floor area of the building either through outside balconies, landings, or ventilated fire-resistive vestibules, opening on a street or yard or open court, and with a direct  exit or exit passageway to the street at grade level.

Smokestack
is a primarily vertical enclosed passage, used for the removal   of the products of combustion

Soil Erosion
is the detachment and movement of soil from the land's surface by wind or similar functions with or without the discharge from other fixtures, to the building drain

Soldered Joint
is a gas-tight joint obtained by the joining of metallic mixtures or alloys which  melt at temperatures below 1000 deg F. and above 400 deg. F.

Solid Masonry
is masonry consisting wholly of solid masonry units laid contiguously in mortar or plain concrete

Solid Masonry Unit
is a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is 75 percent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane

Special Industrial Explosive Device
is any explosive power-pack containing an explosive  charge in the form of a cartridge or construction device.  The term includes but is not limited to, explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explosive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explosive-actuated power tools and charges  of explosive used in jet tapping to open hearth furnaces and jet perforation  of oil well casings

Special Industrial High Explosive Material
shall include sheets, extrusions, pellets, and packages of high explosives, containing dynamite trinitrotoluol, pentaerythritolte-tranitrate, cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine or other similar compounds used for high energy-rate forming, expanding and shaping in metal fabrication and for dismemberment and quick eduction of scrap metal

Spectator Area (Drive-In Theater)

shall mean that are of an open air drive-in theater where automobiles are parked so that spectators, within them may view the screen
Spray Booth
is a power-vented structure provided to accommodate a  spraying operation, designed to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor and residue and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust  system.

Sprinkler Alarm
is a local alarm unit installed so that any flow of water from a sprinkler system  will result in an audible alarm signal on the premises

Stack (Plumbing)
is the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent piping

Stack Group (Plumbing)
is a term applied to the location of  fixtures in relation to the stack so that by means of proper fittings, vents may be reduced to a minimum

Stack Vent (Plumbing)
(sometimes called a waste vent or soil vent)  is the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack

Stack Venting (Plumbing)

is a method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack
Stage
is the space in a theater or assembly room separated from the auditorium, equipped for theatrical or similar performances that provide for the use of curtains, portable or fixed scenery, lights or mechanical appliances

Stage Block
is that portion of a theater or assembly room containing only the stage or the stage in combination with dressing rooms, storage and property rooms, workshops and other rooms incidental to its operation

Stage Workshop
is any shop or room in which carpentry, electrical work, painting, or any other work incidental to the preparation, operation or maintenance of any stage is done

Stairway
consists of one or more flights of stairs with connecting landings, forming a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one floor to another

Stairway, Enclosed
is a stairway separated from the rest of the building by fire resistive walls or partitions

Stairway, Exterior
is a stairway on the outside of a building or structure

Stairway, Interior
is a stairway within a building or structure
Standard Fire Test
is the test method and conditions of acceptance of the Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials ASTM E119

Standpipe System
is an arrangement of piping installed in a building with outlets located in such a manner that  water can be discharged in streams streams through  hose attached to  such  hose outlets for the purpose of extinguishing a fire and so protecting the building and  its contents; pumps, tanks and other equipment necessary to provide an adequate supply of water to the hose outlets, shall be provided

Standpipe Main
is the pipe which conveys  the water from the fire pump to the standpipe risers

Standpipe, Wet
is a system in which the pipes are kept filled with water

Stop Valve
is a shut-off valve for controlling the flow of refrigerant

Storm Drain
See Building Storm Drain

Storm Sewer
is a sewer used for conveying rain water, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar liquid wastes.

Story
is the space between any two (2) floors or between the topmost floor and the ceiling.  For the purposes of this ordinance, a basement shall not considered a story.

Stream
is any natural, artificial or channelized water course that transports continuous or periodic flowing water

Street
is a public or private right-of-way which affords a primary means of access to abutting property, but does not include driveways to buildings

Street Floor
Includes any story or floor level accessible from the street, or from outside the building at grade, with the floor level at main entrance not more than four (4) feet above nor more than one (1) foot below street or grade level at these points and so arranged and utilized as to qualify as the main floor.  Where due to differences in street levels there are two (2) or more stories accessible from the street, each is a street floor for the purpose of  determining exit requirements.  Where there is no floor level within the specified limits for a street floor above or below grade, the building has no street floor.

Stressed-Grade (Lumber)

is a lumber grade defined in such terms that a definite working stress may be assigned to it.
Structural Alterations
is any change, other than incidental repairs which would prolong the life of the supporting members of a building.  The addition, removal or alteration of bearing walls, columns, beams, girders, or foundations would constitute structural alteration.

Structural Clay Tile
is a hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof, and may be load-bearing (designed to carry super-imposed loads), or non-load-bearing.

Structural Glued Laminated Lumber
shall mean any member comprising an assembly of laminations  of lumber in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally, and in which the laminations are bonded with adhesives

Structural Steel Members

are primarily or secondary members of rolled steel structural shapes other than light gauge steel or steel joist members.
Structure
is an assembly of materials forming a construction for occupancy or use, including among others; buildings, stadia,  reviewing stands, platforms, antenna towers, including towers, radio towers, and other communication towers, windmills, open sheds, shelters, coal silos, gas or liquid storage tanks, display signs, piers, fences and trestles.

Subsoil Drain
is a drain which receives only subsurface or seepage water and conveys it to a place of disposal

Substantial Improvement
For the purposes of this definition "substantial improvement" is considered to occur when the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of the building commences, whether or not that alteration affects the external  dimension of the structure

Sump
is a tank or pit which receives sewage or liquid waste, located below the normal grade of the gravity  system, and which must be emptied by mechanical mans

Surface Water Elevation
is the normal water level elevation of a lake, stream or stream bed as depicted on maps as described under the definition of "flood base elevation"

Swimming Pool, Private
shall be defined to include pools and auxiliary structures and equipment at private residences intended only for the use of the owner  or friends

Swimming Pool, Public
shall mean an artificial basin of water which has been modified, improved,  constructed or installed primarily for the purpose of public swimming and auxiliary structures including dressing and locker rooms, toilets, showers and other areas and enclosures that are intended for the use of persons using the pool.  Public swimming pools shall include: pools for community use, pools at apartments, condominiums and other groups or associations having five or more living units, clubs, churches, camps, schools, institutions, Y.M.C.A's Y.W.C.A's, parks, recreational areas , motels, hotels and other commercial establishments.
Tanker Heater
is a device for heating the water in a gravity tank or pressure tank to prevent the water from freezing

Tent
is any portable structure or enclosure, the roof of which and/or one-half or more of the sides of which are constructed of fabric, or a similar light pliable material.

Terminal Grain Elevator
is any grain elevator with a capacity of 125,000 bushels or more, or any grain elevator where grain is received by rail and/or water

Terminal Stopping Device, Elevator Emergency
is a device which automatically causes the power to be removed from an electric elevator driving-machine motor and brake, or from a hydraulic elevator machine, at a predetermined distance from this terminal landing and independently of the functioning of the operating device and the normal-terminal stopping device, if the normal-terminal stopping device does not slow don the car as intended

Terminal Stopping Device, Elevator or Dumbwaiter, Final
is a device which automatically causes the power to be removed from an electric elevator or dumbwaiter driving machine motor and brake or from a hydraulic elevator or dumbwaiter machine, independent of the functioning of the normal-terminal stopping device, the operating device or any emergency terminal stopping device, after the car  has passed a terminal landing

Terminal Stopping Device, Elevator Machine Final (Stop-Motion Switch)

is a final-terminal stopping device operated directly by the driving machine
Terminal Stopping Device, Elevator or Dumbwaiter Normal

is a device or devices to slow down and stop an elevator or dumbwaiter car automatically at or near a terminal  landing independently of the functioning of the operating device
Test Blasting Cap
is a cap containing two (2) grams of a mixture of 80 percent mercury fulminate and 20 percent potassium chlorate or a cap of equivalent strength.

Theater
is an Assembly Building designed or used primarily for theatrical or motion picture performances and containing a stage or a projection block

Thermoplastic Material
is a solid plastic material which is capable of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease of temperate

Thermosetting Material
is a solid plastic material which is capable of being changed into a substantially infusible and insoluble product when cured under the application of heat

Tower
is a building or structure high i proportion to its lateral dimensions, either isolated or forming part of any building

Trap (Plumbing)
is  a fitting or device so designed and constructed as to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal which will prevent the back passage of air without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.
Travel Distance
is the distance from a point on a floor of a building or structure to a vertical exit, a horizontal exit  or an outside exit, measured along the line of travel, except that in one-story Low or Moderate Hazard Industrial and Storage Buildings travel distance may be considered as the distance from any point to an aisle, passageway or other exit connection

Threads
are the horizontal surfaces in a flight of steps

Trouble Signal
is a signal indicating trouble of any nature, such as a circuit break or ground, occurring in devices or wiring

Unfired Pressure Vessel
is a closed container having an inside diameter larger than six (6) inches, designed for a pressure in excess of 15 psig; other than pressure from the water mains, and constructed in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineer's Code (Section VIII) for Unfired Pressure Vessels and so stamped or tagged in accordance therewith.

Unit System
is a refrigerating system which can be  removed from the user's premises without disconnecting any refrigerant-containing parts, water connections or fixed electrical connections.

Vacuum Breaker
See Backflow Preventer

Variance
means  grant of relief from the requirements of this ordinance which permits construction in a manner that would otherwise be prohibited by this ordinance

Vent Duck
is a tube, pipe, conduit or continuous enclosed passageway used for the conveying of air, gases, vapors or entrained particles

Ventilating Opening
is an aperture opening upon a public way, yard, court, public, park, public waterway or into the roof of the building or structure in which the opening is situated.  It shall be  a window, skylight, or other openings which is provided for ventilating purposes and which is equipped with adjustable louvers, dampers, or other devices to deflect or diffuse the air currents.

Ventilation
is the process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space in a building

Ventilation, Mechanical
is a process of supplying or removing air, by mechanical means, to or from any space in a building

Ventilation, Natural
is a process of supplying or removing air through windows, transoms, or other openings in the exterior of a building by non-mechanical means

Ventilation Opening Area
is the free open area of a ventilation device (window louver, etc.) in  its most open position

Vent Opening
is the net free area of an opening used to vent a structural space for heat or explosion

Vent Pipe
is an enclosed passageway used for the removal of the products of combustion from a gas-fired appliance

Vent Stack (Plumbing)
is a vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of the drainage system.

Vent System (Plumbing)
is a pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure

Vertical Openings
are openings through floors, such as for stairways, elevators or conveyors or for purposes of light and ventilation

Vertical Pipe
is any pipe or fitting which is installed in a vertical position or which makes an angle of not more than 45 degrees with the vertical

Walkway, Moving
is a level  or inclined conveyor belt-like system designed for the transporting of persons

Wall, Apron
is that portion of a skeleton or panel wall below the sill of a window

 Wall, Bearing
is a wall which supports any vertical load in addition to its own weight

Wall, Cavity
is a wall built of masonry units or of plain concrete or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an air space within the wall and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties

Wall, Composite
is a wall built of a combination of two 92a) or more masonry units of different materials bonded together one forming the back-up and the other the facing elements.

Wall, Curtain
is a non-bearing enclosure wall

Wall, Faced
is a wall in which the masonry facing and backing are of different material and are so bonded as to exert a common reaction under the load

Wall, Fire
is a wall which subdivides a building into limited fire areas or which separates two (2) or more building to restrict the spread of fire and which extends continuously through all stories to a level above the roof.

Wall, Fire Separation
is a wall used to divide the floor area of a building or structure into separate parts for  fire protection for different uses, for restricted occupancy or other purposed specified in this ordinance

Wall, Hollow
is a wall built of masonry units so arranged as to  provide an air space within the wall between the inner and outer parts of a wall

Wall, Hollow Unit
is a wall composed entirely of hollow masonry units

Wall, Hydrant
is multiple outlet fitting  installed on the outside of a building and connected to the standpipe main of an inside standpipe system for the use of the fire department only, to obtain an additional supply of water form the fire pump in the building

Wall, Non-Bearing
is a wall which supports no vertical load other than its own weight

Wall, Parapet
is a low wall primarily designed for protection of roofs from exposure fires

Wall, Party
is a wall on an interior lot line used or adapted for joint service between two 92) buildings

Wall, Retaining
is a wall designed to support adjacent earth or soil

Wall, Skeleton or Panel
is a non-bearing wall supported at each story

Wall, Spandrel
is that portion of a wall above the top of a window in one story and below the sill of the window in the story above

Wall, Veneered
is a wall having a facing of masonry or other material securely attached to the backing, but not so bonded as to exert a common  reaction under load

Waste Pipe
is a pipe which conveys only liquid waste, free of fecal matter.

Watercourse
A river, stream, creek, brook, branch or other drainageway  in or into which storm water runoff and flood waters flow either regularly or intermittently

Water Curtain
is a system of approved open or closed sprinkler heads or perforated pipes installed on the exterior of a building at eaves, cornices, window openings and on mansard or peak roofs, with water supply under manual control; or installed around openings in floors or walls of  a building with water supply  under thormostatic control.  Such water contain is designed to prevent the spread of fire through unenclosed interior and exterior openings

Water Distributing Pipe
in a building or premises is a pipe which conveys water from the water service pipe to the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets.

Water Main
is a water-supply for public or community use

Water Outlet
as used in connection with the water distributing  system is the discharge opening for the water (1) to a fixture; (2) to atmospheric pressure (except into an open tank which is part of the water supply system); (3) to a boiler or heating system; (4) to any water operated device or equipment requiring water to operate but not a part of the plumbing system.

Water Service Pipe
is the pipe from the water main or other source of water supply to the building served

Water  Supply System
of a building or premises consists of the water service pipe, the water distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fitting, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent tot he building or premises

Water Supply Piping Sprinkler System
refers to the piping from the source of supply to a sprinkler heads.  The different sections of piping are
a.  Branch line   A horizontal pipe which conveys the water from a branch main to the sprinkler heads
b.  Branch main   A horizontal pipe which conveys the water from a system main or riser to the branch lines
c.  standpipe risers or standpipes   A vertical pipe which extends upward through a building and conveys the water from the standpipe main to the hose outlets

Welded Joint
is a gas-tight joint obtained by the joining of metal parts in the plastics or molten state

Wet Vent (Plumbing)
is a vent which receives the discharge from wastes other than water closets

Window, Fire
is a window and its assembly so constructed and assembled in place as to give specified protection against the passenger of fire

Window Glass Area
shall mean the nominal are of the window disregarding muntins, but not check rails or frame

Wood Frame Construction
is construction in which the structural members are composed of wood (or other combustible materials) having dimensions less than those required for heavy timber construction

Wythe, Chimney
is a partition between two (2) chimney flues in the same stack or chimney

Wythe, Masonry
is each continuous vertical section of a wall one masonry unit in thickness

Yard
is an open space on the same zoning lot with a building or structure unoccupied and unobstructed from its lowest level to the sky, except as may otherwise be permitted in the Cook County Zoning Ordinance.  A "yard" extend  along a lot line and to a depth or width specified in the yard requirements of the Book County Zoning Ordinance

Yoke, Vent (Plumbing)
is a pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to vent stack for  the purposes of preventing pressure changes of the stacks

Zoning Ordinance
is the Cook County Zoning ordinance, as amended