PART C
COOK COUNTY BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ORDINANCE

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ARTICLES XIX THROUGH XXX ARE APPLICABLE TO ALL BUILDINGS
REGARDLESS OF THE OCCUPANCY CLASS OR CONSTRUCTION TYPE.

Contents of Part C

Article XIX                  Height, Area and Volume Limitations
Article XX                  Fire-Resistive Construction Requirements
Article XXI                Fire Prevention and Protection Requirements
Article XXII                 Exit Requirements
Article XXIII                Light, Natural Ventilation, and Minimum Planning Requirements
Article XXIV                Minimum Design Loads
Article XXV                Excavations and Foundations
Article XXVI                Wood Design and Construction
Article XXVII              Plastic Design and Construction
Article XXXVIII            Masonry Designs and Construction
Article XXIX                Concrete Design and Construction
Article XXX                Steel and Metal Design and Construction
Article XXXI                 Plaster Design and Construction
Article XXXII               Exterior Wall and Roof Coverings and Veneers
Article XXXIII                Elevators and Similar Mechanical Devices
Article XXXIV                Chimneys, Flues and Vents
Article XXXV                Heating, Mechanical Ventilating and Refrigeration Requirements
B.  Mechanical Ventilation Requirements
C.  Refrigeration Requirements
Article XXXVI                Sanitation and Plumbing Requirements
Article XXXVII            Electrical Requirements
Article XXXVIII            Streets and other Public Ways
Article XXXIX            Soil Erosion and Sediment Control
Article XXX                Flood Damage Prevention



PART C

ARTICLE XIX
HEIGHT, AREA AND VOLUME LIMITATIONS

Index
19.1        Determination of Limitations
19.2        Compliance with Zoning Requirements
19.3        Unlimited Areas   
19.4        Connecting Links Between Buildings
19.5        Exceptions and Premiums
19.5-1     Height
19.5-2    Floor Area


19.1  DETERMINATION OF LIMITATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.     The maximum allowable height and floor area of  a building or structure, surface area of a display structure, or volume of a storage tank shall be determined on the basis of type of construction, class of occupancy, fire protection equipment provided and the floor area ratio limitations established in the Cook County Zoning Ordinance.

19.2  COMPLIANCE WITH ZONING REQUIREMENTS
Nothing in this Article shall be  construed as being in conflict with the provisions of the Cook County Zoning Ordinance.  The regulations which are more restrictive or impose higher standards or requirements shall govern.

19.3  UNLIMITED AREAS
Buildings of unlimited floor area, as allowed in this Article, may be limited as to width or length by requirements for maximum travel distance to exits as specified in Article XXII, EXIT REQUIREMENTS.

19.4  CONNECTING LINKS BETWEEN BUILDINGS
The floor area of a connecting link constructed to serve as a passageway between two (2) or more buildings shall be considered a portion of the total floor area of that connected building which represents the most superior type of construction, and such connecting link shall be of the same or a superior type of construction as said building.  The resultant total floor area shall not exceed the maximum allowable floor area of such building, as prescribed by this ordinance

19.5  EXCEPTIONS AND PREMIUMS
19.5-1  Height
a.  Towers, chimneys and similar roof structures  not used for human occupancy and not exceeding in area one-third (1/3) of the roof area may be unlimited as to height if of incombustible construction, and if of combustible materials may be erected to a height not exceeding by more than 50 feet the height limitations for the buildings upon which  they are located, as established in Part B of this ordinance.
b.  A basement shall not regarded as a story
19.5-2  Floor Area
a.  In all types of construction, floor area may be increased 100 percent when the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, except where an approved automatic sprinkler system is already required throughout by this ordinance subject to Section 21.10-2, all inclusive
b.  Where more than 25 percent of the perimeter of a building faces a public street or other open area not less than 30 feet wide and accessible to a public street, and where such side of the building facing the open area provides adequate access openings at each floor for fire fighting personnel, the basic allowable floor area may be increased in accordance with this following formula

                    2100F
        I     =    -----------    - 50, in which:
                                        P

                            I    =     the percentage by which basic floor areas, established in this ordinance, may be increased.
                            F    =    building frontage, in feet, on a public street or other open area not less than 30 feet in width
                            P    =    building perimeter in linear feet

        c.  Basement floor area
shall be excluded from the determination of maximum allowable total floor area.  However, the area of a basement in any class of occupancy or type of construction shall not exceed 40,000 square feet unless the basement area is subdivided by fire separation wall(s) of at least four (4) hour fire-resistive  rating, into areas not exceeding 40,000 square feet.


ARTICLE XX
FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Index
20.1        STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE

20.2        USE OF COMBUSTIBLES

20.3        ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE

20.4        FIRE TESTS
20.4-1                Test Procedure
20.4-2                Approved Materials and Construction

20.5        EXTERIOR WALLS
20.5-1                Horizontal Distance Separation
20.5-2                Allowable Openings
20.5-3                Exterior Parapet Walls
20.5-4                Rating  for Buildings on Same Lot
20.5-5                Structural Members

20.6        FIRE WALLS
20.6-1                Structural Members
20.6-2                Offset Construction
20.6-3                Intersection  With Building Walls
20.6-4                Exterior Projections
20.6-5                Parapets
20.6-6                Openings

20.7        INTERIOR WALLS, PARTITIONS, AND ENCLOSURES
20.7-1                Enclosure of Exitways, Stairs, Shafts and Vertical Openings
20.7-2                Interior Walls and Partitions
20.7-3                Enclosure of Heating Plants, Boiler Rooms, Incinerators Refuse and Waste Paper Baling Rooms

20.8        STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
20.8-1                Identification
20.9-2                Class A Roof Coverings
20.9-3                Class B Roof Coverings
20.3-4                Class C Roof Coverings
20.9-5                Required Roof Coverings
20.9-6                Wood Shingle Roof Coverings
20.9-7               Insulation

20.10-1        ROOF STRUCTURES AND PENTHOUSES
20-10-1               Roof Structures
20.10-2                Penthouses
20.10-3                Mansard and Sloping Roofs
20.10-4                Skylights and Monitors
20.10-5                Dormer Windows
10.10-6                Towers, Spires, Domes, and Cupolas
20.10-7                Water Tanks
20.10-8                Cooling Towers

20.11        EXTERIOR TRIM, PORCHES AND BALCONIES
20.11-1                Cornices, Gutters and Leaders
20.11-2                Balconies and Bay Windows
20.11-3                Porches

20.12        INTERIOR FINISH, TRIM AND DECORATION
20.12-1            General
20.12-2            Draperies and Hangings
20.12-3            Classification of Finishes
20.12-4            Interior Finish
20.12-5            Interior Trim

20.13        FLOORING   
20.13-1            Construction Types I and II
20.13-2            Construction Type III
20.13-3            Stairways and Exitways

20.14        FIRESTOPPING
20.14-1            General
20.14-2            Materials
20.14-3            Firestopping by Part of Building
20.14-4            Inspection

20.15        FIRE-CUT STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

20.16        FRAMING AROUND CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES
20.16-1            Headers, Beams, Joists and Studs
20.16-2            Commercial and Industrial Type Incinerators
20.16-3            Woodwork -- Clearance from Back of Fireplace
20.16-4            Factory-built Fireplaces
20.16-5            Woodwork -- Clearance from Fireplace Opening

20.17        BUILDING HAVING EXTERIOR WALLS WITHOUT OPENINGS
20.17-1            Number of Access Openings Required
20.17-2            Access Panel Details

20.18        FIRE DOORS, WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS
20.18-1            Unused Openings and Clearances Around Openings
20.18-2            Approved Types of Fire Doors, Fire Windows, Fire Shutters and Glass
20.18-3            Fire Tests of Opening Protective Assemblies
20.18-4            Minimum Requirements for Opening Protectives
20.18-5            Fire Doors
20.18-6            Glass Block
20.18-7            Fire Shutters
20.18-8            Transoms
20.18-9            Glass in Fire Doors and Windows

20.19        SMOKE AND HEAT VENTING
20.19-1            Where Required
20.19-2            Heat Release Categories
20.19-3            Construction of vents
20.19-5            Curtain Boards

20.20        FIRE RESISTIVE ASSEMBLIES
20.20-1            General
20.20-2            Fire Resistive Ceilings
20.20-3            Fire Resistive Walls and Partitions
20.20-4            Columns
20-20-5            Beams, Girders and Trusses
20.20-6            Embedment of Mechanical Services
20.20-7            Exceptions to Required Thickness of Fireproofing

20.21        FIRE-RESISTIVE MATERIALS
20.21-1            General
20.21-2            Flame-Resistive Draperies, Curtains, Scenery, Hangings, Decorations, Tents, and Other Fabrics
20.21-3            Fire Retardant Treatment of Building Material-Coating Method
20.21-4            Fire Retardant Treated Lumber
20.21-5            Concrete - General
20.21-6            Prestressed Pretensioned Concrete
20.21-7            Unit Masonry Construction
20.21-8            Lath and Plaster
20.21.-9            Wallboard and Sheathing Board
20.21-10            Lightweight Aggregate
20.21-11            Sprayed Fiber Insulation


20.1        STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
The Provisions of this Article shall constitute the minimum functional performance standards for fire protection purposes.  Such provisions shall not be deemed to decrease or waive any requirements of this ordinance with respect to safe load capacity, durability or other specified requirements.

20.2        USE OF COMBUSTIBLES
All materials, elements and forms of construction that develop the fire resistance required by this ordinance shall be acceptable for fireproofing and construction purposes, except that no combustible materials shall enter into the construction of structural units of structural assemblies in buildings of construction types I and II, or into the construction of any assembly required to provide fire resistance of two (2) hours or more.

20.3    ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE   
The applicable test procedures of the following recognized authoritative agencies shall be considered accepted engineering practice with respect to fire-resistive qualities of materials and assemblies:

American Standards Association    (ASA)
American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU
National Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce   (NBS)
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.  (UL)

20.4  FIRE TESTS
20.4-1  Test Procedures
Where fire-resistive ratings of building materials and construction are required in this ordinance, such fire-resistive ratings shall be determined by the test procedures and conditions of acceptance prescribed in the following document:   Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, ASTM Designation:  E119.   Such tests shall be conducted by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
20.4-2  Approved Materials and Construction
The following is a list of publications which list materials and assemblies, along with their fire resistive ratings as determined by ASTM E 119.
a.  Fire Endurance of Open-Web Steel Joist Floors with Concrete Slabs and Gypsum Ceiling -- USDC -- NBC Building Materials and Structures, Report 141.
b.  Combustible Contents in Buildings -- USDC -- NBS -- Building Materials and structures, Report 149.
c.  Fire Resistance and Sound-Insulation Ratings for walls, Partitions and Floors -- USDC -- NBC Technical Report on Building Materials 44.
d.  National Building Code of the National Board of Fire Underwriters.
e.  Building Materials List  -- UL -- Published Annually.
f.  Fire Resistance Ratings of Less than One Hour -- NBFU.
g. Fire Resistance Rating -- NBFU

20.5  EXTERIOR WALLS
The construction and fire resistance of exterior walls shall be as prescribed in this Section.  All exterior walls shall provide minimum fire resistance as established in the following general rules and in Table 20.5.

TABLE 20.5
MINIMUM FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS
(in hours)

    A                     B                                                                    Construction Types
Horizontal         Total Allowable
Distance            % of                         Function
Separation          Openings                of wall (b)


Footnotes:
IC    Incombustible Construction
(a)  Such openings when located in exterior walls requiring a fire resistance rating of three-quarter (3/4) hour or more shall be protected with labeled fire windows or doors, in accordance with Section 20.18.  Such opening protectives  shall not be required for single-family dwellings, churches, and all buildings two (2) stories or less in height.
(b)  Any exterior bearing or non-bearing sloping wall which forms an angle of 75 degrees or more  with the horizontal shall be considered an exterior wall and be subject to the requirements of this Table.
(c)  Exterior walls, except in buildings of construction types VA and VB, shall be constructed of incombustible materials providing a fire resistance rating as required by this Table.
20.5-1    Horizontal Distance Separation
 Horizontal distance separation shall be a factor in determining the fire resistance rating of exterior walls, so as to prevent the spread of fire when a conflagration threatens; it is defined as the distance provided between the exterior wall of a building and a common property line as the result of an open unobstructed yard or other accessible area located adjacent to the exterior wall, or to the center line of an adjacent street or other public space.  Distance shall be measured at right angles from the exterior wall.  For buildings located on the same lot, a common property line shall be assumed between the facing exterior walls; and the fire resistance requirements for each wall shall be determined on the basis of the horizontal distance separation from the wall to the assumed property line.
20.5-2    Allowable Openings
Total area of openings allowed in exterior wall construction shall be considered in relation to distance separation of exterior walls, as well as the protective assemblies necessary to prevent the spread of fire between adjacent buildings and between stories of the same building.  Footnotes (a) and (b) to Table 20.5 apply to the protective requirements for openings between adjacent buildings.  For fire-safety protection between stores of a building the following requirements  shall apply.
a.  Vertical Means of Separation
In those instances where wall openings in multi-story buildings are located one directly above the other in successive stories, and such openings are not protected by approved types of labeled fire windows or fire doors or automatic-closing shutter devices, there shall be provided a vertical separation or spandrel wall not less than three (3) feet high between such openings.   This vertical separation shall have a fire resistance rating of at least two (2) hours in non-bearing walls, and shall be equal in fire resistance rating to the wall itself, in bearing walls.
b.  Horizontal Means of Separation
In lieu of the vertical separation specified in Paragraph a., above, there may be provided a two (2) foot horizontal projection between the successive stories in a multi-story building, such projection to provide protection of at least two (2) hours fire resistance.
c.  Protective Assemblies Not Required
Such protective assemblies for openings shall not be required:
(1)  In buildings two (2) stories or less in height.
(2)  In buildings of construction types II, IV and V.
(3)  Where the  lower of any two (2) successive exterior openings under consideration opens into a room or space used for Class A, B, C, D, or E occupancy.
20.5-3  Exterior Parapet Walls
When the exterior wall of a building faces an interior lot line at a distance of less than 12 feet, such wall shall have a parapet extending not less than 32 inches above the roof.  Such roof parapet shall be the same thickness as the wall.  Parapets shall not be required:
a.  In all buildings when the roof is of incombustible construction for a distance of not less than 40 feet from the wall.
b.  In all buildings when the roof has a slope of more than 15 degrees from the  horizontal in a direction perpendicular to the wall.
c.  In Single-Family Dwellings (Class A1).
d.  In all buildings not exceeding two (2) stories or 35 feet in height, whichever is less.
20.5-4  Rating for Buildings on Same Lot
Where there are two (2) or more buildings on the same lot, and the total area of the buildings does not exceed the maximum allowable area for one building erected on the lot, no fire resistance rating is required for the exterior walls of these buildings that face each other, provided that both, or all, of these buildings are of the same occupancy class.
20.5-5  Structural Members
All structural members necessary for the support of exterior bearing walls, including members which provide lateral stability for the walls, shall be of construction providing fire resistance not less than that required for the wall supported.

20.6  FIRE WALLS
The construction and fire resistance of fire walls shall be as prescribed in this Section.  All fire walls shall be built as provided in this Section, and shall provide the minimum fire resistance specified in Part B of this ordinance.
20.6-1  Structural Members
All structural members supporting fire walls, including those providing lateral stability; shall be of construction providing fire resistance not less than that required for the wall supported.
20.6.-2  Offset Construction
If fire walls are offset at intermediate floor levels, the offset floor portion and its supporting structural members  shall provide fire resistance not less than that required for the fire wall; such offset floor portion, in combination with the offset fire wall, shall constitute a fire division.
20.6-3  Intersection with Building Walls
Where fire walls intersect with the exterior walls of a building, the fire walls shall be extended beyond the exterior wall a distance of three (3) feet or shall form a "T" section at the end of the wall with each half of the crossbar of the "T"{ three (3) feet long.  No incombustible construction for a distance of not less than 40 feet.
20.6-4  Exterior Projections
Combustible platforms or canopies which extend closer than 10 feet to a firewall on the exterior of a building shall not be allowed.
20.6-5  Parapets
Fire walls shall extend not less than 32 inches above the roof, except that fire walls may extend just to the roof level when the roof is of incombustible construction for a distance of not less than 40 feet on each side of the wall.
20.6-6  Openings
a.  Except as provided in Paragraph b., below, the aggregate width of openings through a fire wall shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall, except that at least one opening not exceeding the maximum dimensions for fire doors, as established in this Article, shall be permitted in a fire wall of any length.
b.  Openings in the fire walls shall be protected on both sides of the wall with automatic or self-closing Class A fire doors or other approved protective assemblies,  complying with the requirements of this Article when four (4) hour  fire resistance is required; and protected with an automatic or self-closing Class A door on either side when two (2) or three (3) hour fire resistance is required, except as provided in Paragraph c., below.  When a vestibule is used between two (2) doors, the walls, ceiling and floor construction of such vestibule shall have a fire-resistive rating equivalent to the wall, with no openings except the doors themselves.
c.  See Section 20.18-5e for special provisions for conveyor openings.

20.7  INTERIOR WALLS, PARTITIONS AND ENCLOSURES
The construction and fire resistance of interior walls, partitions, and enclosures shall be as prescribed in this Section.  All interior walls, partitions and enclosures shall provide  minimum fire resistance as established in the following general rules, and in Tables 20.7-2 and 20.7-3.
20.7-1  Enclosure of Exitways, stairs, Shafts and Vertical Openings
a.  Introductory Regulations
(1)  The bottoms of all enclosures and the tops of enclosures not extending to the roof shall be of construction providing fire resistance not less than that required for the enclosure walls.
(2)  Structural  members supporting enclosure walls or partitions shall be of construction providing fire protection not less than that required for the enclosure.
(3)  All shaft enclosures extending to the roof of a building shall either be open at the top, or shall be provided with a skylight meeting the construction requirements of Section 20.10-4 or a smoke and heat vent meeting the requirements of Section 20.19.  Such skylights shall have an area equal to at least 10 percent of the area of the shaft at the top story, or other equivalent ventilation shall be provided.  A window of plain glass or other approved opening of equivalent area, located in the side of the shaft, may be used instead of a skylight, provided its sill is not less than two (2) feet above the roof or otherwise protected in an approved manner, and provided that such window does not face upon a common property line located within 10 feet of such window.
(4)  Shaft enclosures shall extend  through a combustible roof but may be flush with the underside of an incombustible roof.  A handrail or other suitable protection shall be provided around the opening if there  is a possibility of a person falling into the shaft.
(5)  Enclosures required by this Section may be omitted where conveyors pass through floors at openings protected as provided in Section 20.18-5e.
b.  Stairway and Exitway Enclosures
(1)  In all buildings four (4) stories or more in height, and in all buildings occupied by more than 75 persons above, or 40 persons below, the story at street or exit level, all interior exitways and stairways including platforms landings and hallways connecting them to the outside, shall be completely enclosed with two (2) hour fire-resistant construction. Structural members supporting such enclosing walls and partitions, and roofs or floors that form a part of the enclosure separating the stairway or exitway from the rest of the building, shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than two (2) hours.
(2)  In all other buildings, all interior stairways and the exit passageways or corridors serving them, including public hallways, shall be enclosed by partitions and floor and ceiling constructions affording at least one hour fire resistance, except as listed below or as specified in Part B of this ordinance.
(3)  Basement stairs, except in Single-Family Dwellings (Class A1) shall be included in requirements for stairs.
(4)  Stairway and exitway enclosures shall not be required in the following instances:
(a)  In all occupancies, an enclosure shall not  be required for a flight of "monumental" stairs (as used in museums or similar public buildings, stores, hotels, office buildings, etc.) from the main street entrance floor to the floor next above, or to the basement; or for stairs leading to a mezzanine or balcony from the main floor, provided such stairs are not a part of the required exit facilities.
(b)  In all occupancies, stairs connecting a balcony or mezzanine floor to the floor immediately below are not required to be enclosed.
(c)  In all buildings of Fire-Resistive, Type IA or IB construction, stairs that are not required exits and that serve only one floor above the first floor above the first floor shall not be required to be enclosed, provided:
(i)  The occupancy of the building does not constitute a high fire hazard
(ii)  The omission of such air enclosures does not add to the fire hazard.
(iii)  The combined areas of the upper and lower floor spaces so connected do not  exceed the area allowed for the upper story.
(d)  In all occupancies, with the exception of High Hazard Buildings, and Multiple-Family dwellings and Institutional Buildings where habitable rooms are located on the second floor, stairs from the second floor to the main exit floor and serving the second floor only, shall not be required to be enclosed.
(5)  Where lobbies are used for exit purposes, all restaurants, kitchens, storerooms, shops, stores, and all other areas adjoining such lobbies shall be separated from them by walls or partitions having a fire resistance not less than that required in Section 18.2 for separation of mixed occupancies; and all openings permitted therein shall be protected by self-closing fire doors or fire shutters in accordance with Section 20.18, except that stores, storerooms, and similar areas may be protected by automatic fire extinguishing equipment.  Florist stands, newsstands, cigar stands, ticket counters, and other similar low hazard occupancies connected with  the operation of the building shall be  permitted in lobbies without the above protection when, in the opinion of the Building Commissioner, such uses do not add to the fire hazard.
c.  Elevator and Moving Stairway Enclosures
(1)  Elevator Enclosures
(a)  Elevator shafts shall be completely enclosed with construction providing fire resistance of not less than two (2) hours, except that walls and partitions separating adjacent shafts shall provide fire resistance of not less than one hour.
(b)  Not more than three (3) elevators shall be placed in one shaft enclosure.
(c)  In elevator shafts there shall be at least one door in every 30 feet of height or every third floor.  All openings in elevator enclosures shall be protected as required for stair enclosures as specified in Section 20.18-4.
(2)  Moving Stairway Enclosures
(a)  Moving stairways shall be enclosed with walls and partitions complying with the requirements for stairway enclosures as stipulated in Paragraph (1) above.
(b)  On those floors of a building which are equipped with approved automatic fire extinguishing equipment, moving stairs which do not serve as required exits need not be  enclosed as required for stairway exit enclosures if one of the following methods of protection of the stairway openings is provided:
(i)  An approved combination of draft curtains and exhaust system surrounding each opening on each floor.  Draft curtains shall be of incombustible materials extending not less than three (3) feet below the ceiling.  The exhaust system shall be activated from a manual station of a design acceptable to the Building Commissioner and conspicuously located at each opening on each floor and actuated automatically from the building fire alarm system.  The exhaust system shall have a capacity of not less than 300 cfm for each square foot of opening on each floor, and shall discharge to the outside  at a safe location.  Inlets to the exhaust ducts shall be continuous around the outside of the draft curtain at the ceiling.
(ii)  An approved automatic self-closing horizontal rolling shutter of incombustible construction which will completely enclose the top of each stairway, except that a shutter shall not be used to protect floor openings between basement and the street level.
(iii)  An approved combination of an automatic fire and smoke detection system and a system of high velocity water spray nozzles which will protect the opening against the passage of fire, smoke, and gasses through the opening.  Water supply shall be independent of the supply to automatic sprinklers, with separate booster pumps, if required, and provided with shut-off valves, independent of sprinkler system valves.  Water supply shall be adequate to supply all the nozzles simultaneously at not less than 25 psi at the nozzle or at their rated pressure, whichever is more.
(iv)  An incombustible enclosure at the upper floor level of each stairway equipped with approved double acting self-closing door or doors of metal and wired glass.  The enclosure shall include a landing at each floor which has a clear width not less than that of the floor opening and a length beyond the moving stairs to permit the full opening of the door or doors beyond the handrail. Wired glass of a dimension not greater than four (4) feet may be used in the upper half of the enclosure.  All protection systems shall be equipped to permit manual operation.
d.  Enclosure of Pipe Shafts, Ducts and Wells
The enclosing walls of shafts that extend through four (4) or more stories of a building shall be of approved incombustible construction having a fire-resistance rating not less than two (2) hours.  The enclosing walls of shafts extending  through less than four  (4) stories of a building shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than one hour.
e.  Protection of Openings in Enclosures
Openings in all required stairway and shaft enclosures shall be limited to those essential to the purpose of the shaft and shall be protected in accordance with Table 20.18-4.
20.7-2  Interior Walls and Partitions
a.  Partitions of combustible materials may be used for subdividing offices occupied by a single tenancy, provided that the total area of combustible portions of such partitions measured as area of partition construction shall not exceed 25 percent of the subdivided space.
b.  All interior walls and partitions shall provide minimum fire resistance as specified in Table 20.7-2.

TABLE 20.7-2 MINIMUM FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS
FOR INTERIOR WALLS AND PARTITIONS
(in hours)



TABLE 20.7-2 MINIMUM FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS
FOR INTERIOR WALLS AND PARTITIONS

20.7-3  Enclosure of Heating Plants, Boiler Rooms, Incinerators Refuse and Waste Paper Baling Rooms
a.  Heating plants, boiler rooms, incinerators, refuse and waste paper baling rooms, charging rooms for incinerators, and refuse chute rooms shall have  fire-resistive enclosures as indicated in Table 20.7-3.
b.  Walls, petitions, and floors of such rooms shall be of incombustible materials.
c.  Openings in such enclosures shall be limited to those essential to the use of the room.  Openings shall be provided with automatic or self-closing fire doors according to Table 20.7j-3, except as may be otherwise indicated for specific occupancies in Part B of this ordinance.

TABLE 20.7-3  MINIMUM FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BOILER,
 REFUSE, INCINERATOR AND SIMILAR ROOMS
(In Hours)


20.8  STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
The construction and fire resistance of structural assemblies shall be as prescribed in Table 20.8 below.  However, the fire-resistive value  of any structural assembly shall be not less than the required fire-resistive rating of any construction supported by such assembly.


TABLE 20.8  MINIMUM FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS
FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
(In Hours)

a.  Wood members of Heavy Timber construction shall be so arranged that there will be no concealed spaces within the construction.
b.  Columns shall have a minimum nominal dimension of eight (8) inches with rounded or chamfered corners, and all columns shall be superimposed one above the other.
c.  Beams and girders for floor framing members shall have minimum nominal dimensions of six (6) inches width and  ten (10) inches in depth.
d.  Room framing members, except trusses, shall have minimum nominal dimensions of four (4) inches width and  six (6) inches depth.
e.  Roof framing truss members shall have minimum nominal dimensions of four (4) inches width and six (6) inches depth, with the following exceptions:
(1)  A roof truss member may consist of two (2) or more pieces of three (3) inches  nominal thickness with intervening spaces blocked solidly or tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate of not less than two (2)  inches nominal thickness.
(2)  Any member may be educed to three (3)   inches nominal thickness when such members are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system under the roof deck.
f.  Flooring shall be splined or tongue and grooved planking of not less than four (4) inches nominal thickness, or three (3)  inches laminated planking on edge covered with a top finish flooring of one inch nominal thickness.
g.  Roof construction shall be not less fire-resistive than splined or tongue and grooved planks of not less than two (2) inches nominal thickness or laminated planking, laid on edge, of not less than three (3) inches nominal thickness.
h.  Construction conforming to the requirements of construction type I may be combined with this type without changing its classification.

20.9  ROOF COVERINGS
Roof coverings which are classified as Class A, Class B or Class C in the "Fire Protection Equipment List", Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. shall be acceptable as meeting the requirements of this Section for each respective class of roof covering.  However, nothing in this Section shall preclude the use of other roof coverings meeting the test standards established in NFPA No. 256, upon which the above classification are based.
20.9-1  Identification
Approved roof coverings shall be of the materials listed in this Section or properly identified by label as conforming to the requirements of this Section.
20.9-2  Class A Roof Coverings
Class A roof coverings shall be of brick, concrete, slate, tile, steel, slag or any other material or form of protective covering approved by the Building Commissioner after satisfactory evidence that it is effective against severe fire exposures.  Under such exposures, Class A roof coverings shall not be readily flammable; shall not carry or communicate fires; shall afford a fairly high degree of heat insulation to the roof deck; shall not slip from position; shall possess no flying brand hazard; and shall not require frequent repairs in order to maintain these properties.
20.9-3  Class B Roof Coverings
Class B roof coverings shall be of fire-resistive material approved by the Building Commissioner after satisfactory evidence that it is effective against moderate fire exposures.  Under such exposures, Class B roof coverings shall not be readily flammable; shall not readily carry or communicate fire; shall afford a moderate degree of heat insulation to the roof deck; shall not slip from position; shall possess no flying brand hazard; and shall require only infrequent repairs to maintain these properties.
20.9-4  Class C Roof Coverings
Class C roof coverings shall be of material approved by the Building Commissioner after satisfactory evidence that it is effective against light fire exposures.  Under such exposures, Class C roof coverings shall not be readily  flammable; shall not readily carry or communicate fire; shall afford at least a slight degree of heat insulation to the roof deck; shall not slip from position; and shall possess no flying brand hazard; but may require occasional repairs or renewals in order to maintain these properties.
20.9-5  Required Roof Coverings
Every roof placed on a building or structure shall be covered with either a Class A or Class B roof covering, except that Class C roof coverings shall  be acceptable on:
a.  Single-Family Dwellings
b.  Buildings or structures located outside of the Conflagration Hazard District, which on the  basis of height and area could be of wood  frame construction under this ordinance
20.9-6  Wood Shingle Roof Coverings
No new roof may be covered with wood shingles unless they conform to Class A, Class B or Class C roof coverings as outlined in Section 20.9-5.  However, existing wood shingle roofs may be repaired with similar to the existing  wood shingles provided any area repaired during any five (5) year period does not exceed 25 percent of the entire area of the roof; otherwise the entire roof shall be replaced with material as required by Section 20.9-5.
20.9-7  Installation
a.  Roof coverage shall be applied in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions, and to a solid or closely-fitted deck or directly to the building framework. 
b.  The use of cork, fiber board or other insulation is permitted on  top of the roof deck, provided such insulation is covered with a roof covering complying  with this Section and applied directly thereto.

20.10  ROOF STRUCTURES AND PENTHOUSES
Except antenna supports not exceeding 12 feet in height, flagpoles, water tanks, cooling towers and similar structures, all construction placed on the roof of a building within the Conflagration Hazard District, or on the roof of a building more than 55 feet in height, whenever located, shall be constructed of incombustible materials and shall be supported by construction of incombustible materials.
20.10-1  Roof Structures
The walls of roof structures  shall provide fire resistance equal to that required for the exterior walls of the building on which such roof structure is located, taking into account the horizontal separation of the roof structure form the lot line, and whether the walls of such structure are bearing or non-bearing.  The roofs of such roof structures shall provide fire resistance as required for the roof construction on which the roof structure is located.
20.10-2  Penthouses
The exterior walls of a penthouse shall provide fire resistance as required for the exterior walls of the building upon which the penthouse is located, with reductions for horizontal distance separation as appropriate.  Roofs of penthouses shall provide fire resistance as required for the roof construction on which the penthouse is located.
20.10-3  Mansard and Sloping Roofs
Mansard or sloping roofs, the planes of which form an angle of more than 60 degrees but not more than 75 degrees with the horizontal, shall be classified as roofs and shall comply with all applicable requirements of this ordinance, except that  such roofs, erected on buildings more than 40 feet in height or of construction types III or IV, shall be constructed of materials providing fire  resistance of not less than one hour.
20.10-4  Skylights and Monitors
a.  The sashes and frames of all skylights hereafter placed on a building shall be constructed of steel, wrought iron or other approved metal; except that  in foundries or buildings where acid fumes which attack those metals are present as an incident to the occupancy of such buildings, such sashes and frames may be constructed of other material if approved by the Building Commissioner.
b.  Skylights placed over shafts, vent shafts, and stair enclosures, in lieu of smoke and heat vents, shall be glazed with glass, or plastic or incombustible material which may be easily pierced by fire-fighting personnel.  If glass is used it shall be plain glass not more than one-eighth (1/8) inch thick.
c.  Every skylight in which plain glass is used shall be protected by a substantial screen, having a mesh not less than three-quarter (3/4) inch nor coarser than one inch, made of wire not smaller than No. 12 B and S gauge.  The screen shall be located at a distance not less than  four (4) inches nor  more than  ten (10) inches above the glazed potion of such skylight at all points, and shall extend beyond the glazed portion on all sides a distance not less than the height of the screen above the glass.  A similar screen shall be placed below such skylight to serve as a protection from falling glass.  Such screens shall be easily removable by fire-fighting personnel to facilitate entrance.
d.  All skylights in which glass is used, except in greenhouses and openings over vertical shafts as described in Paragraphs b. and c. above, shall be glazed with wire glass having no single pane exceeding 720 square inches in area or 48 inches in any dimension.
e. Skylights in which combustible plastic is used shall comply with the following requirements:
(1)  The skylight shall have a curb which is not less than four (4) inches in height above the adjoining roof surface.
(2)  The area within the curbs of each skylight shall not exceed 100 square feet.  The aggregate area of skylights shall not exceed 20 percent of the floor area sheltered by the roof upon or in which they are installed.
(3)  There  shall be a distance of not less than five (5) feet between skylights, and not less than 20 feet between the skylights and any wall in which the exterior openings are required to be protected.
(4)  Skylights shall be protected by a substantial wire screen placed above the glazing as provided in this Section for glass, unless they are constructed and installed in such a manner that flying brands will not be likely to lodge on the plastic.
(5)  Such skylights shall not be used within the Conflagration Hazard District.
f.  Walls of skylights and monitors shall be of construction  not less fire resistant than required for the roof on which they are erected; provided, however, that walls which extend more than 10 feet above the roof shall be constructed of incombustible materials.
20.10-5  Dormer Windows
Dormer windows hereafter erected shall be of the same type of construction as the roof on which they are placed or as the side walls of the building.  The top shall be covered with roofing materials conforming with the requirements governing the roof of the building.
20.10-6  Towers, Spires, Domes and Cupolas
a.  Towers, spires, domes and cupolas shall be of a construction type not less in fire resistance rating than required for the building to which they are attached, except that any such tower, spire, dome or cupola which exceeds 60 feet in height above grade,  and all construction upon which  it is supported, shall be of at least construction type IC when the area at any horizontal section of such tower, spire, dome or cupola exceeds 200 square feet, or when it is used for any purpose other than a belfry or an architectural embellishment.
b.  Any tower, spire, dome or cupola which exceeds 25 feet in height above the highest point at which it comes in contact with the roof, or which exceeds 200 square feet in area at any horizontal section, or which is intended to be used for any purpose other than a belfry or architectural embellishment, shall be entirely constructed of and supported by incombustible materials.
20.10-7  Water Tanks
a.  Water tanks of more than 500 gallons capacity placed on or in a building shall be supported on masonry, reinforced concrete, or steel construction; provided that when such supporting construction is located within the building it shall be of construction type IA.
b.  Such tanks shall not be placed over nor near a stairwell or elevator shaft.
c. Tanks shall  meet the provisions of NFPA No. 22.  Water Tanks, Private Protection
20.10-8   Cooling Towers
Cooling towers having a base area greater than 250 square feet, when located on the roof of buildings within the Conflagration Hazard District, or when located on buildings exceeding 55 feet in height outside the Conflagration Hazard District, shall be constructed of incombustible materials, except that drip bars may be of wood.

20.11  EXTERIOR TRIM, PORCHES AND BALCONIES
Exterior trim shall comply with the provision of this Section.  It shall be construed to include exterior wall decorations, cornices, gutters, leaders, balconies, storm enclosures, porches and all ornamental elements accessory to the structural building frame.
20.11-1  Cornices, Gutters and Leaders
a.  Cornices, gutters and leaders  hereafter erected on buildings in the Conflagration Hazard District or on buildings exceeding 40 feet in height, shall be constructed of incombustible materials.
b.  Cornices of combustible materials, except on buildings of Types VA and VB construction, and on Single-Family Dwellings f any construction type, shall be covered with incombustible materials when located on a wall facing an interior lot line at a distance of less than three (3) feet.
c.  Continuous exterior cornices of wood or having wood frames shall be fire-stopped in accordance with Section 20.14-3 h.
20.11-2  Balconies and Bay Windows
The floor, roof and wall construction of balconies and bay windows shall conform to the requirements of the type of construction required for the building to which they are attached.
20.11-3  Porches
Except as prescribed for Residential Buildings, in Section 8.2, all porches shall be  constructed of incombustible materials.

20.12  INTERIOR FINISH, TRIM AND DECORATION
20.12-1  General
a.  Combustible Finish Allowed
Combustible material may be used for floor finish, interior finish, and trim only as specifically provided in this ordinance for the occupancy in which it is installed.
b.  Use of Combustible Finish Not to Declassify Construction Type
Use of combustibles for interior finish in a building of construction type I or type II, within the scope permitted for such finishes in the various occupancies or uses, shall not declassify the building with respect to its type of construction
c.  Finish Not Required
These requirements shall not be considered as requiring the installation of interior finish, but where no finish is applied,the flame spread classification (see Section 20.12-3) of exposed materials shall be no greater than that of the interior finish permitted for such occupancy.
d.  Heavy Timber -- Exposed Portions
Exposed portions of structural members complying with the requirements for Heavy Timber construction (type III) shall be considered as Class 2 Interior finish (see Section 20.12-3)
e.  Interior Finish Explained
Interior finish shall include the exposed interior surfaces of buildings where the surface is an integral part of the building or affixed thereto.  Ordinary paint, floor coverings, curtains, draperies, and other furnishings shall not be deemed to be interior finish.  Interior finish shall include all wainscoting and paneling or surface applied for acoustical insulation, decoration  or similar purposes.  The use of a surface finish of paper or of a material of no greater fire hazard than paper shall  be permitted, provided such finish does not exceed one twenty-eighth (1/28) of an inch thickness and is applied directly to an incombustible base.  Requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim, doors and windows or their frames.
f.  Interior Trim Explained
Interior trim shall include all baseboards, moldings, chair, rails, trim around openings and similar items not more than twelve (12) inches in width.  Items more than twelve (12)  inches in width shall be considered finished.
20.12-2  Draperies and Hangings
In places of public assembly all draperies, hangings, and other decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be incombustible  or flame-resistant as required in Section 20.21-3.  The permissible amount of incombustible hanging shall not exceed 10 percent of the total wall and  ceiling area.
20.12-3  Classification of Finishes
a.  The classification of finishing materials for interior finish and interior trim used in buildings shall be determined by test in accordance with the Method of Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E84.  The flame spread and smoke developed ratings determined by that test shall be classified as follows, with the more limiting factor controlling the classification:

            Class                Maximum Flame Spread Rating                Maximum Smoke Developed

            1                        0 to 15                                                            0 to 100
            2                        16 to 75                                                        100 to 200
            3                        76 to 200                                                        over 200
               4                        over 200                                                        over 200

b.  Tests shall be made by an approved testing agency to establish flame spread characteristics and to show that materials when cemented or otherwise fastened in place will not readily become detached when subjected to a room temperature of 300 F or 25 minutes, or otherwise become loose through changes  in the setting from the effects of time or conditions of  occupancy.
c.  The moisture content and the surface treatment of finish materials tested and classified shall correspond to the conditions of service for which the materials are to be used in buildings.  Finishing materials which are subject to increase in flame spread, rating through the effects of gas moisture, or other conditions shall be subject to reclassification if in the opinion of the Building Commissioner the increase of flame spread rating will place the material into a higher classification.
d.  Finish materials that have surface treatments to reduce their flame spread, shall have equivalent treatment on both sides of the material unless any untreated surface is appropriately marked to indicate that it is not treated and is not to be installed as the exposed surface.
e.  Under the above test conditions, finishes that give off smoke or gases more dense or more toxic that given off by untreated  wood under comparable exposure to heat or flame shall not be permitted.
20.12-4  Interior Finish
Interior finish shall comply with the requirements of this Section and as prescribed for specific occupancies, as established in Part B of this Ordinance.
a.  General Rules
(1)  10 percent of the aggregate wall  and ceiling areas of any room, space, stairway, or hallway may have a flame spread rating of not more than 200 where interior finish materials are required to have a lower flame spread rating.
(2)  In rooms where occupants are forcibly restrained, Class I material only may be used.
(3)  Requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces are based upon spaces enclosed in partitions complying with the fire resistance requirements of this ordinance.  Enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling.  Partitions which do not shall be considered as enclosing spaces, and the rooms or spaces on both sides thereof shall be counted as one space.
(4)  In determining the applicable requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces, the specific room use or occupancy thereof shall be the governing factor whenever it would cause a lower flame spread classification than would be required by the occupancy group classification of the building or structure.
b.  Methods of Attachment
(1)  Direct.  Where walls, ceilings or other structural elements are required to be fire-resistive or to be constructed of incombustible materials, interior finish materials shall be applied directly against the exposed surface of such structural elements, or to furring strips attached to such surfaces, with  all concealed spaces created thereby fire-stopped in accordance with Section 20.14-3.
(2)  Furred.  Where wall, ceilings or other structural elements are required to be fire-resistive or to be constructed of incombustible materials, and interior finish is set out or dropped distances greater than one and three-quarter (1-3/4) inches from the surface of such elements, only material of which the concealed face qualifies as Class I shall be used, unless the concealed side is protected by automatic sprinklers or is attached to an incombustible backing or to furring strips attached to such backing, with all concealed spaces created thereby firestopped in accordance with Section 20.14-3.
(3)  Heavy Timber Construction.  Interior finish materials may be applied directly to the wood members and decking of Heavy Timber, construction type III, or to furring strips applied to such members, with all concealed spaces created thereby firestopped in accordance with Section 20.14-3.
(4)  Class 2, 3, and 4 Finishes.  Interior finish materials, other than Class I materials, which are less than one-quarter (1/4) inch in  thickness shall be applied directly against an incombustible backing unless the tests under which such material has been classified were made with the materials spaced away from an incombustible backing.
c.  Incombustible Backing
Incombustible backing for interior finish materials shall be a continuous surface with tight joints, equal in area to the area of the finish, and extending completely behind such finish in all directions.  It may be of any materials meeting the requirements for incombustible material.  When the incombustible backing does not constitute an integral part of the structural elements or system, it shall be attached directly to the structural elements or to furring strips applied to such members, with all concealed spaces created thereby firestopped in accordance with section 20.14-3 or it may be suspended from the structural members at any distance, provided concealed spaces created thereby are firestopped in accordance with section 20.14-3.  Where Class 3 interior finish is applied to a continuous incombustible backing beneath wood joist construction, the allowable area for firestopped required in Section 20.14-3 may be increased to 3,000 square feet.  For the purpose of this Section, fire retardant treated wood shall be acceptable as an alternate to incombustible materials.
20.12-5  Interior Trim
Interior trim shall be of Class 1, 2, or 3 except that trim around fire windows and doors shall comply with the requirements of Section 20.18; and except that only Class 1 or 2 material shall be used for trim  where the interior finish is restricted to class 1 material.  Brim of Class 4 material shall be allowed only where Class 4 interior finish is permitted and shall have a flame spread rating not exceeding that permitted for the interior finish.

20.13  FLOORING
20.13-1  Construction Types I and II
a.  In buildings of construction type I or II, except in stairways, stair enclosures and required exitways, as provided in Section 20.13-3, the use of combustible interior floor construction shall be permitted.
b.  Floor sleepers, bucks, nailing blocks and grounds may be constructed of combustible materials, provided the space between the fire-resistive floor construction and the flooring is solidly filled  with incombustible materials.  The space under the floor shall be firestopped in areas of not more than 100 square feet, provided no such open spaces shall extend under or through permanent partition walls.   Wood finish floorings  may be attached directly to the embedded or fire-stopped wood sleepers.
c.  Wood finish flooring and wearing surfaces of other approved materials; including cork, rubber composition, linoleum, asphalt, and composition tile, and other materials of similar combustible characteristics on-half (1/2) inch or less thick, shall be permitted when directly to a subfloor of wood backed up solidly with incombustible materials.
d.  Combustible insulating boards not more than one-half (1/2) inch thick may be used for sound deadening or heat insulating when attached directly to an incombustible floor assembly or to wood subflooring which is backed up solidly with incombustible construction and covered with finish flooring.
20.13-2  Construction Type III
In buildings of construction type III structural floors covered with one inch nominal tongue and grooved flooring shall have it laid cross-wise or diagonally to the structural floor.
20.13-3  Stairways and Exitways
In stairways required to be of incombustible construction, finish flooring of combustible materials not exceeding one-quarter (1/4) inch in thickness shall be permitted.

20.14  FIRESTOPPING
20.14-1  General
To prevent the free passage of flame through concealed spaces or openings in the event of fire, provision shall be made to provide effective fire barriers against the spread of fire between all subdivisions and all stories of the building, and to firestop all vertical and horizontal draft openings as specified herein.  Firestopping shall not be required in concealed spaces which have no combustible materials exposed therein.
20.14-2  Materials
a.  All firestopping shall consist of incombustible materials, except that in buildings of construction types IV and V firestopping may consist of wood not less than two (2) inches in nominal thickness or two (2) thicknesses of one inch nominal matched wood boards with staggered joints, or one-half (1/2) inch plywood with joints backed, and in buildings of any construction type incombustible material on both sides of combustible supports  shall be permitted.
b.  Incombustible firestopping may be of any of the following materials:  brick, concrete, gypsum, sheet steel, iron, asbestos, metal lath and portland cement or gypsum plaster, mineral wool, rock wool or any other material meeting the definition of incombustible material as found in Article III, RULES AND DEFINITIONS.
20.14-3  Firestopping by Part of Building
a.  Ceilings
In buildings of construction types III, IV and V, the following shall apply:  The space between joists which is concealed between a ceiling and flooring or roof shall be firestopped for the full depth of the joists at the ends and over supports of the joists.  Where a suspended ceiling is used, the space between the ceiling and the flooring shall be sprinklered or shall be firestopped to form areas of not more than 1,000 square feet, and the space between the ceiling and the roof shall be sprinklered or shall be firestopped to form areas of not more than 3,000 square feet.
b.  Floors
When the floor finish is not laid directly on the floor slab or base, the space between the floor finish and the slab or base shall be firestopped in such a manner that there will be no open spaces under the floor finish which will exceed 100 square feet in area.  Floors constructed of combustible materials shall be firestopped at walls and partitions.  All floors shall be firestopped where openings through the floor occur. When joists run parallel to the wall, the joist nearest the wall shall be tight against the wall.
c.  Wainscoting and Paneling
Except in dwellings, all spaces between combustible wainscoting or paneling and the wall or partition to which it is attached shall be firestopped to form areas not exceeding 12 feet in any dimension.
d.  Walls and Partitions
(1)  Firestopping shall be provided in all walls and partitions to cut off all concealed draft openings both horizontal and vertical; and to provide an effective fire barrier between stories and between the upper story and roof space.
(2)  In buildings of construction types IV and V, all stud partitions and walls shall be firestopped at the floor  and ceiling and at intermedial points as may be required to limit  any enclosed vertical space to eight (8) feet in height.  In buildings of construction types IV and V, where walls are furred, the space between the inside of the furring and the face of the wall shall be firestopped for the full depth of the combustible floor or roof joists.
e.  Attic Spaces
In buildings of construction types IV and V, attic spaces shall be subdivided into areas not exceeding 3,000 square feet by means of partitions of not less than one-half (1/2) hour fire-resistive construction, tightly fitted around ducts or other assemblies piercing such partitions.  Any doors in such partitions shall be of incombustible construction or afford protection equal to the assembly in which they exist; such doors shall be tight fitting.
f.  Stairs
When stairs are of combustible construction, the space between stair stringers shall be firestopped at top and bottom and at least once in the middle of each run, and firestopping shall also be provided between studs of adjoining stud partitions along and in line with the run of the stairway.
g.  Openings in Floors, Walls and Roofs
All vertical openings through floors and ceilings not specifically mentioned above, such as spaces around pipes conduits, power shafting or ducts, shall be fire-stopped.  Openings for belts and conveyors shall be provided with incombustible slotted doors or be otherwise closed off.
h.  Exterior Trim
Exterior combustible trim shall be firestopped at intervals not to exceed 20 feet vertically and horizontally.
i.  Beam and Girder Ends
In buildings of construction type III, wood girders framing into walls shall have at least eight (8) inches of masonry between their ends and the outside face of the walls and at least eight (8) inches of masonry between adjacent beams entering the wall from opposite sides.  In buildings of construction types IV and V, all wood and other combustible floors, roofs and structural members  framing into masonry walls shall project not more than four (4) inches into the wall, and the distance between embedded ends of adjacent beams or  joists entering the wall from opposite sides shall be not less than four (4) inches.
j.  Chimneys and Mantels
All spaces between chimneys and wood joists, beams or headers shall be firestopped by placing incombustible material to a depth of one inch at the bottom of spaces.  All spaces back of combustible mantels shall be filled with incombustible material.
20.14-4  Inspection
No firestopping shall be concealed or covered from view until inspected and approved by the Building Inspector.


20.15  FIRE-CUT STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
In buildings of construction types III and IV, all wood joists and rafters framing into masonry walls shall be fire-cut.  Girders shall be either fire-cut, supporting in pockets, supported in self-releasing metal boxes, or otherwise supported to minimize destruction of the wall in the event of fire.


2.16  FRAMING AROUND CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES
All wood beams, joists and studs shall be trimmed away from chimney and fireplaces.  Heads, beams, joists and studs shall be not less than two (2) inches from outside face of a chimney or masonry enclosing a flue.  Headers supporting a hearth shall be not less than 20 inches from the  face of the chimney breast.  Trimmers shall be not less than six (6) inches from the inside face of the nearest flue lining.  Firestopping shall be provided in accordance with Section 20.14-3.
20.16-2  Commercial and Industrial Type Incinerators
A clearance of four (4) inches shall be provided between the exterior surface of chimneys for commercial and industrial type incinerators and combustible material.
20.16-3  Woodwork -- Clearance from Back of Fireplace
No woodwork shall be placed within four (4) inches of the back of a fireplace; nor shall combustible lathing, furring, or plaster grounds be placed against a chimney at any point more than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches from the corner of the chimney.  This requirement shall not prevent plastering  directly on the masonry or on metal lath and metal furring; nor shall it prevent placing chimneys for low heat devices on the exterior of a building against the sheathing boards.
20.16-4  Factory-Built Fireplaces
The clearance between woodwork and a factory-built fireplace approved as a result of tests by a nationally recognized testing laboratory need not comply with  Section 20.16-3, provided the factory-built fireplace is installed in accordance with the conditions of its approval.
20.16-5  Woodwork -- Clearance from Fireplace Opening
No woodwork shall be placed within size (6) inches of a fireplace opening.  Woodwork above and projecting more than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches from a fireplace opening shall not be placed less than 12 inches from the top of a fireplace opening.


20.17  BUILDINGS HAVING EXTERIOR WALLS WITHOUT OPENINGS
In buildings having exterior walls without openings, or with fewer openings than meet the following requirements, access panels shall be provided to afford entrance to interior areas.  These panels shall be located along streets or public places where they are readily accessible for fire fighting, as follows:
20.17-1  Number of Access Openings Required
In every story up to and including the sixth story, there shall be at least one opening in every exterior wall which is accessible for fire fighting.  The length of such wall without an access opening shall not exceed 150 feet.
20.17-2  Access Panel Details
Access panels or openings shall be made obvious, and shall be so constructed as to be opened easily from the outside by fire fighters.  Their sill height above the lower level served shall not exceed 34 inches and their size shall not be less than 40 inches wide by 72 inches high.


20.18  FIRE DOORS, WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS
20.18-1  Unused Openings and Clearances Around openings
When a door or window in a wall required to be of fire-resistive construction is sealed off, the opening shall be bricked up or otherwise filled with construction equivalent to that of the wall.
20.18-2  Approved Types of Fire Doors, Fire Windows, Fire Shutters and Glass Block
a.  Certification and Installation
Fire doors, door frames, windows, and fire shutters having fire-resistive ratings shall bear a label or other identification showing the class and fire-resistive rating thereof.  Such a label shall e issued by an approved testing agency having a re-examination service.  Fire assemblies shall meet the requirements for installation of sills, lintels, frames, hardware and for automatic and self-closing devices, as established in NFPA No. 80.
b.  Fire Doors
Fire doors shall be of a type which has passed the fire test described in NFPA No. 252.  Compliance shall be indicated by  a report from an independent laboratory or by listing and labeling by Underwriters' Laboratories.  Doors of a size larger than those listed by  Underwriters' Laboratories may be approved on an individual basis by the Building Commissioner, provided they are accompanied by a certificate of inspection issued by  Underwriters' Laboratories certifying that such doors are in compliance with all requirements for design, materials and construction for doors of their type.
c.  Fire Shutters
Fire shutters listed and labeled by an approved testing sand inspection agency as adequate for purpose intended shall be approved
d.  Fire Windows
(1)  Fire windows shall have a fire protection rating of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour and shall have frames and sash of solid steel sections, or of other steel forms fabricated by pressing, rolling, riveting, interlocking, welding or crimping together, but not by the use of solder or other fusible alloy.
(2)  Wired glass not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch thick shall be used in all fire windows.  The area of individual glass lights in fire windows and the maximum dimensions of fire windows shall not exceed the limitations specified in NFPA No. 80
e.  Glass Block
Glass block when used to satisfy the requirement for a Class F opening protective shall be not less than three and seven-eighths (3-7/8) inches thick.
20.18-3  Fire Tests  of Opening Protective Assemblies
a.  Tests of opening protective assemblies of a given size may be accepted as covering assemblies of smaller sizes or of larger sizes, provided the latter do not exceed the area of assembly tested by more than 25 percent.
b.  Door opening protective assemblies shall be tested in accordance with the Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, ASTM E152.
20.18-4  Minimum Requirements for Opening Protectives
a.  General
Whenever protection of openings is required by this ordinance, openings shall be protected with fire doors, windows, shutters, dampers  or other protectives meeting the requirements of this Section, except as may be specified elsewhere in this Article.  In addition, wherever deemed necessary by the Building Commissioner, openings protectives may be required for the protection of exits or of adjoining property.
b.  Fire-Resistive Ratings and Classes
Requirements for opening protectives shall be determined from the following table:

TABLE 20.18-4 MINIMUM FIRE-RESISTIVE RATINGS AND
REQUIRED CLASSES OF PROTECTIVES FOR OPENINGS IN
WALLS AND PARTITIONS HAVING FIRE-RESISTIVE RATINGS


20.18-5  Fire Doors
a.  Multiple Doors
When two (2) fire door assemblies, each of which has qualified for a fire-resistive rating are  installed on two (2) sides of the same opening, such combined assembly shall be accepted as having a fire-resistive rating equal to the sum of the two (2) ratings.
b.  Openings to Exitways
When fire doors are used as openings to exitways or fire escapes, they shall be so arranged as not to obstruct such exitways or fire escapes.  Where fire doors are required on both sides of the wall, one may be an automatic horizontal sliding door normally open, and the other a self-closing door swinging with the exit travel.  The following types of doors are excluded from use on required exits; rolling steel doors or shutters, vertical sliding doors, and jackknife doors.  No door or leaf of a pair of doors used in a required exit shall exceed 48 square feet in area.
c.  Required Closing Devices
All required protectives for openings shall be arranged to be self-closing or to  close automatically in case of fire, except as follows:
(1)  Doors which are normally locked, such as doors on storerooms, janitors' closets, attic access openings, etc., and which are open only with a competent person in attendance, are not required to be self-closing or automatic.
(2)  Class E and F protectives are not required to be self-closing or automatic.
(3)  Protectives for vertical openings and for corridor smoke stop partitions shall be self-closing or shall be arranged to close automatically upon actuation of the building fire alarm system.  Each device for performing this automatic function shall be connected to the alarm system through a normally-closed (fail-safe) electrical circuit, shall have means for manually releasing the door by a normal pull on the door, and shall be of a type tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing agency for this service.  Fusible-link releases may be used in addition but not in lieu of the automatic operation herein specified.
d.  Fire Door Signs
A sign or plaque shall be permanently displayed near or on each required fire door, in letters not less than one inch high, to read "FIRE DOOR: DO NOT OBSTRUCT" on the following Classes of doors:  A, B, D, E, and F.
e.  Alternate for Fire Doors on Conveyor Openings
Where the installation of standard fire doors or hatches on conveyor openings through fire walls, partitions, floors and other fire-rated construction  is not possible or the conveyor would prevent their proper operation, a combination of automatic water spray protection and incombustible partial enclosures may be accepted by the Building Commissioner.  For openings up to eight (8) square feet, standard closed-head automatic sprinklers may be used in lieu of water spray protection.  Acceptable methods of protecting such openings are shown in the Handbook of Industrial Loss Prevention (prepared by Factory Mutual Engineering Division).
20.18-6  Glass Block
Glass blocks are suitable for the protection of exterior openings where a Class F protective is required when such openings do not exceed 120 square feet in area and neither the height nor width exceeds 12 feet.  Installation shall be in accordance with NFPA No. 80.
20.18-7  Fire Shutters
When equipped with fire shutters, at least one opening in every 150 feet in each story facing a street shall have such shutter arranged to be readily opened from the outside.  Distinguishing marks shall be provided on these shutters as an aid to firemen.
20.18-8  Transoms
Transoms, vents, or similar openings shall not be installed in partitions in buildings other than dwellings where such partitions separate public corridors or exitways from rooms in which sleeping accommodations are provided, unless the building is provided with approved automatic fire extinguishing equipment in such corridors or exitways and in all other parts of the building used for occupancies more hazardous than Class A,  Residential Buildings; nor shall they be installed where corridors are used as plenums for air conditioning systems.
20.18-9  Glass in Fire Doors and Windows
One-quarter (1/4) inch wired glass may be used in approved fire doors and windows provided that:
a.  Where specifically required by occupancy class to be solid, no glass shall be provided.
b.  Glass sizes shall be limited as indicated in Table 20.18-9, below.  The installation of glass in fire doors and windows shall be in accordance with NFPA No. 80.


TABLE 20.18-9
MAXIMUM SIZE OF WIRED GLASS PANELS

20.19  SMOKE AND HEAT VENTING
20.19-1  Where Required
Smoke and heat vents shall be required in all windowless and under-ground buildings and in all Industrial (Class G), storage (Class H), and High Hazard Class D) buildings and structures.  The addition of sprinklers to a building shall not lower venting requirements.  Venting shall be required only in the top story of a multi-story building, or in one-story buildings.
For the purpose of smoke and heat venting, certain occupancies shall be assumed  to be in heat release categories as follows:
a.  Low Heat Release Category
This category includes buildings or portions of buildings containing scattered, small quantities of combustible materials.  Such areas might include, but not be limited to, the following:
Meat packing plants
b.  Moderate Heat Release Category
This category includes those buildings or portions of buildings containing moderate quantities of combustible material which are fairly uniformly distributed.  Such areas might include, but not be limited to, the following:
c.  High Heat Release Category
This category includes buildings or portions of buildings containing either hazardous operations or concentrated quantities of combustible materials, or both.  Such areas might include, but not be limited to, the following:
  • Chemical plants
  • General warehouses
  • Oil, quenching departments
  • Painting departments
  • Paper mills
  • Rubber products manufacturing plants
d.  Uncategorized Activities
It is to be recognized that many buildings will have areas falling into one or more of the above classifications.  Activities not included in the above listing shall be assumed to all into the category which they most approximate.
20.19-3  Construction Vents
a.  Venting may be accomplished by the use of monitors, continuous gravity vents, unit type vents, sawtooth skylights, or exterior window walls if near the ceiling.  It is not intended that this listing should act as an obstruction to the development of new or improved devices.  Movement of air through a vent shall be by gravity, and shall not be dependent on mechanical or electrical systems.
b.  Opening of vents shall be automatic using fixed temperature, rate-of-rise, or  smoke detection devices, or other approved means suitable to their locations.  Vent openings shall not be dependent on electrical or mechanical systems which may fail in the fire.  Design of the vent and opening device shall be such that neither will fail due to accumulation of dirt, snow, ice, corrosion, or stacking of materials against the system.
c.  The effective vent area shall be the minimum cross-sectional area through which hot gases must pass en route to the atmosphere.  The minimum dimension for an effective vent opening shall be less than four (4) feet in any direction.
20.19-4  Area Ration and Spacing
The spacing of vents, and the ratio of their effective openings, shall be as specified in Table 20.19-4.

TABLE 20.19-4
VENT RATIO AND SPACING
20.19-5  Curtain Boards
a.  General
Curtain boards shall e provided  in areas required to have vents.  They shall be made of incombustible material, sturdy enough to remain in place in the locations for which they are designed.
b.  Location and Depth
Curtain boards shall extend down from the ceiling for a minimum depth of six (6) feet or provide ten (10) feet of clearance to the floor, whichever creates a smaller curtain.  Around special hazards the depth shall in all cases extend to within  ten (10) feet of the floor.  Door type devices, normally closed may be provided in curtain boards for convenience and clearance of tall objects passing in and out of an area.
c.  Spacing
The distance between curtain boards shall not exceed 250 feet and the curtained area shall be limited to 50,000 square feet.  In high heat release occupancies the distance between curtain boards shall not exceed 100 feet and the curtained area shall be limited to 10,000 square feet.  If monitors or continuous gravity  vents are used with prescribed spacing, no  parallel curtain boards shall be required.

20.20  FIRE RESISTIVE ASSEMBLIES
20.20-1  General
a.  The provisions of this Section shall govern the design and use of construction assemblies in respect to required fire resistance, as prescribed in Tables 20.5, 20.7-2, 20.7-3, and 20.8 and where otherwise regulated in this ordinance
b.  Thicknesses for materials, constructions, and assemblies, as established by tests for fire resistance, shall be  construed as establishing minimum requirements for fire resistance only and shall not preclude the application of other requirements of this ordinance where considerations of strength, durability, or stability require greater thicknesses.
c.  To supply the degree of fire protection achieved by a fire resistant, time rated construction, a construction must be equal or superior to that actually tested in all particulars, e.g., thickness, proportions of mixtures, methods of fastening, clearances, and similar considerations.
d.  Standard Fire ratings shall apply only to those portions of a structure upon which they were made.  For example, a given thickness of  ceiling protection shall not be assumed to give the same time rating when applied to a column.
20.20-2  Fire-Resistive Ceilings
a.  Fire-resistive ceilings which constitute an essential part of a fire-resistive floor or roof assembly or where used to protect beams, girders, or trusses, shall be continuous (see Section 20.20-5, Beams, Girders and Trusses), except that openings may be permitted in such ceilings  for incombustible pipes, ducts, and electrical outlets, provided the aggregate area of such openings in the ceiling shall be not greater than 100 square inches in any 100 square feet of ceiling area.   All pipes, ducts, electrical outlets and other fixtures shall be installed so as not to decrease the fire resistance of the assembly.  All duct openings shall be protected with approved incombustible dampers.
b.  Nothing in this Section shall be construed to prevent openings in fire-resistive ceilings for shafts or ducts, the enclosing walls of which are of construction equivalent in fire resistance to that of the ceiling.
c.  For firestopping of ceilings see Section 20.14-3.
20.20-3  Fire-Resistive Walls and Partitions
a.  Ends of Combustible Members Framing into Walls
(1)  Where combustible members frame into  a wall required to have a fire resistance rating, the wall shall be of such thickness that the solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between members framing from opposite sides, will be not less than that determined to be necessary on the basis of standard fire tests.
(2)  Where structural members project into hollow masonry units or hollow walls required to have a fire resistance rating, all hollow spaces shall be filled with incombustible materials the full thickness of the wall and six (6) inches or more above, between and below such members.
(3)  All masonry, tile, or block load-bearing partitions required to have a fire resistance rating shall be limited in  height not to exceed 30 times their thickness, except when securely anchored at top and bottom, and except where fire resistance ratings for such partitions of greater height than herein specified have been established by actual fire tests conforming with the requirements of Section 20.4.
b.  Wall Lintels
(1)  Metal
Unless supported or suspended from structural wall girders providing the required fire protection, or when the opening is spanned by a masonry arch of the required strength, all lintels over openings in masonry walls more than eight (8) feet in length shall be protected as required for wall girders of the specified type of construction.
(2)  Stone
Except when otherwise approved by the Building Commissioner, the use of stone lintels on spans exceeding four (4) feet shall be prohibited unless supplemented by fireproofed structural members or masonry arches of the required strength to support the superimposed wall load.
20.20-4  Columns
Where the fire-resistive covering on columns is subject to mechanical injury, the fire-resistive covering shall be protected by a metal covering or approved incombustible protective covering for a height sufficient to protect the column, but in no case less than five (5) feet.
20.20-5  Beams, Girders, and Trusses
Beams, girders and trusses may be protected individually or by a fire-resistive ceiling, except that beams, girders, and trusses supporting loads from more than one floor or roof, and beams, girders, and trusses supporting masonry or reinforced  concrete walls, shall be individually protected.  Ceiling protection requirements are in Section 20.2-2.
20.20-6  Embedment of Mechanical Services
Pipes, wires, conduits, cables, ducts or other service equipment shall not be embedded in the required fire protection of any structural member, nor shall they be installed between the required fire protection and the structural member protected, except as provided in Section 20.20-2 for the installation of such equipment in fire-resistive ceiling constructions.
20.20-7  Exceptions to Required Thickness of Fireproofing
a.  Fire protection may be omitted from the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles, or plates that are not a part of the structural frame.
b.  Brackets, wind bracing angels, lugs, gussets and other connection parts of structural members need not be protected by the full thickness of fire protective covering required for structural members, provided the extreme outer edge of such connection parts are covered with a minimum of one inch of the required protective covering.
c.  Thickness of protection for concrete or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of the reinforcement, except that stirrups and ties may project not more than one-half (1/2) inch into the protection.
d.  Structural members or frames for elevators included within elevator shaft enclosures shall not be required to be fire protected.


20.21  FIRE-RESISTIVE MATERIALS
20.21-1  General
All structural materials for constructions rated at more than one (1) hour fire resistance shall be incombustible, except that gypsum used in such construction may contain wood chips, shavings, or fiber not more than 12-1/2 percent, by weight, of the dry mix, except that wood nailing strips embedded in concrete shall be permitted.
20.21.-2  Flame-Resistive Draperies, Curtains, Scenery, Hangings, Decorations, Tents and other Fabrics
a.  General
Where required to be flame resistant under provisions of this ordinance, fabrics shall comply with this Section.
b.  Acceptance by Certified Test
(1)  New fabrics shall pass the Flame Test -- Larger Scale of the Standard for Flameproofed Textiles, NFPA No. 701
(2)  In addition, fabrics shall pass the Accelerated Dry Cleaning Test or the Accelerated Laundering Test and/or the Accelerated Water Leaching Test of the above standard, according to whether the fabric is to be dry cleaned, laundered, and/or exposed to the weather.
(3)  Certification of passage of the above required tests shall be by an approved independent laboratory.
c.  Acceptance by Field Test
(1) Fabrics not certified as above may be accepted by passage of the Field Test of Paragraph e., hereunder, performed by the Building Inspector. 
(2)  Such test shall be repeated by the owner after each laundering or dry cleaning of the fabric or at six (6) month intervals, whichever is shorter.  Fabrics  which then fail the test shall be either retreated and tested, or replaced.
d.  Inspection
When there exists serious doubt in the mind of the Building Commissioner as to the fire-resistive qualities of any fabric, he may require a field test (Paragraph e.) to be made.  Such test shall be made in such a way as to minimize damage to the material tests.
e.  Field Test
In conducting this test, a sample of the material shall be taken to a location where the test may be conducted safely.  The sample shall be held in a position favorable to burning and may be conducted safely.  The sample shall be held in a position favorable to burning and tested by application of a flame from  a common paper match held in a horizontal position one-half (1/2) inch under the sample; and at a constant location for a minimum of 15 seconds.  Observations shall be made to determine that the textile sample does not ignite and spread flame over its surface.  Failure to pass this test shall be cause for replacement or re-treatment.
20.21-3  Fire Retardant Treatment of Building Material-Coating Method
a.  Methods of Treatment
Fire retardant treatments of building materials may consist of pressure impregnation or fire  retardant coatings.
b.  Standards
The "coating" method of treatment shall meet Class A standards of NFPA No. 703
c.  Certification
Fire retardant coatings shall be certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.  The applicator shall certify that the application has been made in accordance with the manufacturer's directions.
d.  Maintenance
Fire  retardant treatments shall be maintained so as to retain their effectiveness.
20.21-4  Fire Retardant Treated Lumber
a.  Identification
All lumber shall bear the marking of a nationally recognized testing laboratory containing information indicating the lumber complies with the definition of fire retardant treated lumber in Section b., below
b.  Performance
Fire retardant treated lumber shall be treated by an approved pressure impregnation process and have a flame spread rating not higher than equivalent of 25 with no evidence of significant progressive combustion when tested for 30 minutes  duration under the Standard Test Method for Fire Hazard Classification of Building Materials of Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. U.L. 723, NFPA 255, ASTM E 84.
c.  Usage
No fire retardant treated lumber shall be exposed to the weather nor shall it be used in any occupancy where the relative humidity is normally 80 percent or more, or as part of any exterior element including walls, roofs, roof sheating, decks, railings, exterior stairs or as structural elements.
20.21-5  Concrete -- General
a.  Mixture and Ingredients
Concrete used for fire protection shall have proportions and aggregates of the same or superior fire-resistive qualities as that upon which the time rating to be achieved was based.  Siliceous aggregates shall be considered as inferior in fire-resistive qualities to limestone, trap rock, slag, burned clay and other aggregates.
b.  Gypsum Concrete
Gypsum concrete used for fire protection of structural members and for floor and roof construction shall conform to the standards of Article XXIX CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.
20.21-6  Prestressed Pretensioned Concrete
a.  Fire Resistance
The fire resistance rating of prestressed concrete shall be determined either by standard fire tests on individual shapes or by use of the presumptive fire-resistive values for covers, as specified in Table 20.21-6.
b.  Presumptive Fire Resistance for Concrete Cover
Table 20.21-6 establishes values of presumptive fire resistance for prestressed concrete.


TABLE 20.21-6
REQUIRED COVER FOR VARIOUS FIRE
RESISTANCE RATINGS * FOR UNRESTRAINED CONDITIONS

c.  Other Insulating Materials
The application of insulating materials other than concrete may be used to add to any particular hourly fire rating the member itself may have, as permitted in other types of construction.  Such insulation shall be capable of remaining in place under fire conditions.  Calculations of the effectiveness of added insulation shall be in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
d.  Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete
The provisions of Paragraph b. and c., above, shall not be deemed to apply to post-tensioned prestressed concrete.  Post-tensioned prestressed  concrete may be allowed as prescribed in Article IV, Section 4.6-3 (New Materials).
20.21-7  Unit Masonry Construction
a.  Ties for Metal Columns
In cases where fire test data does not provide definitive requirements, unit masonry protection for metal columns shall have metal ties embedded in each transverse joint where joints are more than 16 inches apart, and shall be spaced not more than sixteen (16)  inches apart in other cases.  Soffit  tile protecting  beam and girder flanges shall be tied to the flange.  Ties shall be of No. 8 U.S. gauge or larger.
b.  Construction
Material and mortar requirements shall be as found in Article XXVII MASONRY DESIGN  AND CONSTRUCTION.
c.  Wall Thickness
With constructions involving hollow block or tile, the wall thickness of the unit used must match or exceed that of the unit on which the fire resistance rating was achieved to qualify for the same rating
20.21-8  Lath and Plaster
a.  Construction
Gypsum and portland cement plaster, and gypsum and metal lath shall conform to the requirements of Article XXXI PLASTER DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.
b.  Furring
In buildings of construction type I and construction type II, lath and furring shall be of incombustible material except for furring strips applied directly against an incombustible surface  surface and firestopped in accordance with Section 20.14.
c.  Double Reinforcement
Except in solid plaster partitions, tar where otherwise determined by the prescribed fire tests, plaster protections of more than one (1) inch in thickness shall be reinforced with an additional layer of metal lath embedded at least three-fourth (3/4) inch from the outer surface and fixed securely in place.
d.  Injurious Locations
Gypsum plaster shall not be used for fire protection in locations where it would be subject to frequent wettings or standing water.
e.  Mixture
For the purposes of fire resistance, plaster of a richer mix or greater thickness than that on which a fire test was based shall be considered superior.  The use of perlite or vermiculite aggregate in place of sand in plaster shall be considered to increase its resistance to fire.
20.21-9  Wallboard and Sheathing Board
a.  Material
Gypsum wallboard shall conform to ASTM C36.  Gypsum sheathing board shall conform to the provisions of ASTM C79.
b.  Type "X" Gypsum Wallboard or Gypsum Backing Board
If the description of a fire rated construction includes a wallboard or backing board listed by an approved independent testing laboratory, wallboard of the same type of construction and design number as that given by the description must be used, to achieve the same fire resistance rating.
c.  Injurious Locations
Wallboards subject to deterioration when wet shall not be used for the fire protection in  locations where they would be subject to frequent wettings or standing water.
d.  The insulation  of gypsum wallboard shall be in accordance with American Standards Association A97.1.
20.21-10  Lightweight Aggregates
Vermiculite and perlite, when used as an aggregate with plaster, shall conform to ASTM C35.  The weight of the vermiculite shall not be less than six (6)  nor more than 10 pounds per cubic foot, as determined by measure in a cubic foot box, using the shoveling procedure as outlined in ASTM C29.  The weight of perlite shall not be less than seven and one-half (7-1/2)  nor more than 15 pounds per cubic foot measured by the same methods.
20.21-11  Sprayed Fiber Insulation
Sprayed fiber insulation shall be of a type listed and labeled by an approved independent testing laboratory, in accordance with the Standard Fire Test.



ARTICLE XXI
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION
REQUIREMENTS

Index
21.1           FIRE HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS

21.2            OBSTRUCTION OF EXITS OR OPEN AREAS
21.2-1            Locking of Doors
21.2-2            Obstruction of Exits
21.2-3            Obstruction of Safety Clearances

21.3            COMBUSTIBLES AND FLAMMABLES
21.3-1            Storage of High Flammable Materials
21.3-2            Coal Storage
21.3-3            Storage of Oils and Paints
21.3-4            Acids, Pitch and Paraffin
21.3-5            Oily Rags, Waste and Rubbish
21.3-6            Hazardous Wastes
21.3-7            Workman's Clothes Lockers

21.4          STORAGE OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS

21.5            HAZARDOUS OPERATIONS
21.5-1            Bleaching
21.5-2            Fumigation
21.5-3            Dust Producing Processes
21.5-4            Tank Welding

21.6            OPEN FLAME LIGHTS AND APPLIANCES
21.6-1            Open Flame Systems
21.6-2            Compressed Gas Systems Other Than acetylene

21.7            SMOKING RESTRICTIONS
21.7-1            Smoking Prohibited
21.7-2            "No Smoking" Signs

21.8            STANDARD  FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
21.8-1            Introductory Regulations
21.8-2            Classification of Systems
21.8-3            Alarm-Sending Stations
21.8-4            Alarm - Sounding Devices
21.8-5            Automatic Detectors
21.8-6            Electric Supervision
21.8-7            Electric Wiring
21.8-8            Power Supply
21.8-9            Trouble Signal
21.8-10            Visual Alarm
21.8-11            Application to Existing Buildings
21.8-12            Periodic Testing and Inspection
21.8-13            Repair of Systems

21.9        STANDARD FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
21.9-1            Introductory Regulations
21.9-2            Prohibited Fire Extinguishers
21.9-3            Classification and Rating
21.9-4            Inspection and Tests
21.9-5            Application to Existing Buildings

21.10        AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
21.10-1            Approved Automatic Sprinkler Systems
21.10-2            Introductory Regulations
21.10-3            Types of Systems
21.10-4            Installation
21.10-5            Periodic Testing and Inspection
21.10-6            Water Supply
21.10-7            Tank Construction
21.10-8            System Components
21.10-9            Spacing, Location and Position of Sprinklers
21.10-10            Sprinkler Piping
21.10-11            Sprinklers
21.10-12            Testing of Fire Protection Systems

21.11        STANDARD INSIDE STANDPIPE SYSTEMS
21.11-1            Introductory Regulations
21.11-2            Required Systems
21.11-3            Source of Water Supply
21.33-4            Multiple Systems
21.11-5            Number
21.11-6            Location
21.11-7            Piping
21.11-8            Fire Department Connection
21.11-9            Hose Stations
21.11-10            Valves
21.11-11            Pressure Gauges
21.11-12            Dry Pipe Systems
21.11-13            Standpipe Alarms
21.11-14            Testing



21.1  FIRE HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article  Any building structure, enclosure or premises which is perilous to  life or property by reason of deficiencies in fire protection equipment required by this Article, or where reason of deficiencies in fire protection equipment required by this Article, or where conditions exist which would hamper or impede the combating of a fire in or on the building, such building is hereby declared to be a nuisance and the Building Commissioner is empowered and directed to  cause any such nuisance to be abaited.  It shall be  unlawful to continue the use of, or occupy, any such building, structure or place until the changes, alterations, repairs or requirements found necessary to place the building in a safe condition shall have been instituted.
21.2    Locking of Doors
It shall be unlawful to lock or fasten any door or other means of exit from any building, room or space where persons are gathered for any other than domestic purposes, with the exception of means of exit in jails and mental institutions, during any of the time in which such space is so occupied, in any manner such as will not permit immediate opening from within of such means of exit without the use of a key and without special knowledge.
21.2-2  Obstruction of Exits
a.  No person shall at any time place an encumbrance of any kind whatsoever, before or upon any fire escape, balcony, ladder or stairway intended as a means of escape from fire.
b.  It shall be unlawful for any person to place, store, or keep or permit to be placed, stored, or kept under or at the bottom of any stairway, inside or outside, elevator, or other shaft in any building, any combustible or flammable materials, fluids or compounds, nor shall any such combustible or flammable materials be placed or stored or kept in any place where ignition or burning would obstruct or render hazardous, egress from the a building.
21.2-3  Obstruction of Safety Clearances
Spaces required as safety clearances shall be maintained free of obstruction and encumbrance by any combustible material.


21.3  COMBUSTIBLES AND FLAMMABLES
21.3-1  Storage of Highly Flammable Materials

a.  It shall be unlawful to deposit, store or stack in a loose condition nay hay, straw, shavings, excelsior, or sawdust in any open place within 100 feet of any building or structure of any description.  It shall be unlawful to deposit, store or stack any  sisal, jute, or hemp in any basement of any building unless such basement is equipped  with approved system of automatic sprinklers.
b.  Not more than 1,000 pounds of any hay, straw, broomcorn, hemp, jute, sisal, moss, sawdust, other wood dust shavings, excelsior, fiber, hair or any other similar material  which involves an equally or more serious flame hazard shall be stored in other than a  flammable material storage building or flammable material storage room.  Not more than 5,000 pounds of any such material in unbaled or loose condition shall be stored in any flammable material storage room.
21.3-2  Coal Storage
Soft coal shall be stored away from the brick work of boilers and furnaces and shall be kept only in a room the partitions of which are of incombustible material or two (2) inch plank, or its equivalent.  Such coal shall not be piled closer than 24 inches to combustible ceilings.  Wherever coal in storage shows indication of spontaneous ignition or gives off gases, it shall be the duty of the owner or agent, or person in charge or control of the premises where such coal is stored, to turn over or overhaul such coal pile and remove all portions of the coal showing indication of ignition or coking.   Such work shall be done under the supervision of a representative of the Building Department.
21.3-3  Storage of Oils and Paints
Unless otherwise specified in this ordinance, oils, paints, varnishes and similar fluids having a flash point above 150 F, shall if stored in any building used for other purposes in quantities exceeding 10 barrels aggregate, be placed in approved metal tanks and shall be drawn only by the use of approved pumps or other approved devices.  Quantities, less than 10 barrels aggregate may be stored in barrels or ordinary tanks and if drawn on the premises metal pans or other metal containers shall be provided to catch the drips.  Boxes of sawdust shall not be used for this purpose.  One or more approved chemical  extinguishers shall be provided as required by the Building Commissioner.  The premises surrounding such tanks shall be kept clean at all times.
21.3-4  Acids, Pitch and Paraffin
No person shall keep hydrochloric, nitric or sulfuric acid in excess of one day's supply except in a separate suitable building.  It shall be unlawful to boil or heat pitch, asphalt, tar, resin, turpentine, or paraffin where direct heat is used, unless it or on a  building of construction type I or type II or in an open apace at least 15 feet distant from any building.  This requirement shall not apply to portable kettles used for roofing, waterproofing and street paving.
21.3-5  Oily Rags, Waste and Rubbish
a.  Oily rags and waste shall be kept, during the day, in approved waste cans of heavy galvanized iron having at least four (4) inch legs and self-closing covers, and shall be removed from the building each night.
b.  Rubbish shall not be allowed to accumulate in any part of any building, nor outside of and adjacent to any buildings, and special care shall be paid to ventilate elevator and air shafts, under benches in closets, in dark and out-of-the-way places around electric machinery, steam pipes, and in premises and buildings in which oils are stored or used.
21.3-6  Hazardous Wastes
Except as otherwise herein specifically provided, the floor of every room used for the manufacture of sale of flammable articles or merchandise,   or upon which there accumulates any amount of flammable waste material, or waste material tending to produce spontaneous combustion, shall be thoroughly cleaned of waste material and all such waste material shall be removed there from at least once every 24 hours.  All such material shall be either destroyed as soon as removed, as required by this Section, or it may e kept in a room, the construction and location of which shall be subject to the approval of the Building Commissioner, and in such case all hazardous waste material shall be removed from the room and from  the building in which such room is located at least once a week.
21.3-7  Workmen's Clothes Lockers
Workmen's clothes shall be placed in well ventilated lockers or closets, or shall be hung in the open away from flammable material and where the air will circulate freely about them.  Where wooden lockers or closets are permitted 75 percent of the area of the door on such wooden locker or closet shall e open and covered only with wire mesh to provide ventilation  and allow inspection of the contents without opening the door of such locker or closet.  Oily or greasy work clothes shall not be allowed in wooden lockers.  No oily waste  or oily rags shall be permitted in clothes lockers or closets in locker rooms.
21.4  STORAGE OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
It shall be unlawful to store in any building other than a hazardous chemical storage building or vault constructed as required in Article XVI HIGH HAZARD BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES  any hazardous chemical specified in NF No. 49M, Hazardous Chemicals Data.  Storage of such hazardous chemicals shall be in accordance with the recommendations set forth in said NFPA No. 49M.


21.5  HAZARDOUS OPERATIONS
21.5-1  Bleaching
a.  Storage
Sodium peroxide and sulfur in excess of one day's supply shall be stored in a separate and suitable building.
b.  Construction Pots
Sulfur pots shall be so constructed that if the sulfur boils over it cannot drop on  combustible material.  In broomcorn factories, metal hoods shall be provided to prevent corn falling into or against the pots.
c.  Location of Grain
Grain bleachers shall be set at least 25 feet from frame grain elevators but may be set not closer than six (6) feet to a brick of fireproof elevator; provided, however, there are no unprotected openings in the elevator wall within 25 feet of  the bleacher.  Metal sprouts connecting the bleacher with the elevator shall each be provided with two a92) automatic dampers, one damped at each end of  metal spout.  All conveyors connecting the bleacher with the elevator shall be metal screw conveyors in metal or concrete casings.  No combustible material shall be used between bleacher and elevator.
d.  Location of Sulfur Furnace
The sulfur burning furnace shall be set at least 25 feet distant from bleacher in the opposite direction from the elevator and shall be of construction type I or II and unenclosed, unless it be an enclosure of construction type I or II.
21.5-2  Fumigation
a.  Notice Required
No person shall prevent or arrest the development of fungoid growths, disinfect premises, or exterminate vermin by means of lethal, toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive fumes or gases without first notifying the Building Commissioner.  Such notice shall be delivered not less than 24 hours before any such fumigation process is begun.  Such notice shall include the description and address of the premises and the name and address of the person in charge of such fumigation operations.  Such notice shall also state the name and character of the fumigating agent to be employed and the exact time and duration of such process.
b.  Safety Measures
Before the beginning of any fumigation process, referred to in Paragraph a., above, all automatic electrical devices shall be removed from service and all fires and open flames shall be extinguished.  The premises shall be adequately sealed to prevent escape of the fumigating agent into occupied quarters.  Warning placards shall be affixed in a conspicuous manner at each means of ingress to every space undergoing any fumigation process.  Such placards shall display the words "DANGEROUS GASES -- KEEP OUT" in letters not less than three (3) inches in height.  At the end of every such process of fumigation, it shall be the duty of the person conducting such process, to ventilate thoroughly such premises and to notify the Building Commissioner that such premises have been ventilated and are safe to enter.
c.  Exceptions
Where such processes enumerated in Paragraph a., are carried on daily in a gas-tight room or vault as a part of any production or renovating process, the provisions of this Section shall be held to apply only to the space in which such fumigating is done and a monthly return of the notices herein required shall suffice so long as such processes shall be continuous or of daily occurrence.
21.5-3  Dust Producing Processes
All buildings, structures and rooms housing dust producing process or occupancies shall comply with all applicable provisions of the standards constituting NFPA File: 60 Series -- Explosive Dusts.
21.5-4  Tank Welding
Gas cutting or welding operations upon tanks or containers which have at any time contained flammable liquids or gasses shall be in accordance with the provisions of the following publications:   American Welding Society A6.0, Safe Practices for Welding and Cutting Containers  That Held Combustibles;  American Standards Association Z49.1, Safety in Welding and Cutting;  National Board of Fire Underwriters "Suggested Ordinance for Welding or Cutting Operations".
21.6-2  Compressed Gas Systems Other Than Acetylene
a.  Scope of Regulations
The following regulations are intended to apply to installation and operation of compressed or liquefied gas systems for lighting or cooking, including the handling and storage of the charged and discharged cylinders, and are not intended to apply to plants devoted to the manufacture and compression of the gases utilized in these systems.
b.  General Requirements
No fire or artificial light other than incandescent vapor-proof lights shall be permitted within ten (10) feet of the cylinders.  Electrical apparatus, such as switches and other apparatus, which may cause sparking shall not be located within ten (10) feet of the cylinders and regulating valves.  Extra cylinders shall be stored in a suitably ventilated cabinet located outside of the main building or otherwise stored where they will be protected from extreme heat of the main building or otherwise stored where they will be protected from extreme heat and accumulation of ice and snow.  No readily combustible material shall be stored within ten (10) feet feet of cylinders.
c.  Location of Cylinders and Regulating Valves
Cylinders and regulating equipment shall be located outside of buildings.  The discharge from safety reliefs shall be located not less than five (5) feet away from any opening in any building below the level of the discharge.  Cylinders and regulating valves shall be enclosed in a well-ventilated steel cabinet or otherwise protected from tampering or exposure to the weather.
d.  Valves
Valves in the assembly of the system shall be arranged so that the changing or charging of cylinders may be accomplished without shutting down the system.  The system shall be provided with a shut-off valve to the building.
e.  Piping
In systems of a type in which compressed gas in liquid form enters the building, only heavy walled seamless brass or copper tubing may be used.  Internal diameter of such tubing should be not greater than three thirty-seconds (3/32) inch.  Tubing  should be as short as possible and so attached and protected as to avoid injury or damage.  Tubing shall be tested and proven tight under a pressure of at least 50 pounds per square inch after all connections have been made.
f.  Cylinders
Only approved cylinders, which are acceptable for distribution in interstate commerce, and marked to the effect that they comply with the Interstate Commerce Commission specifications and regulations (bearing test marks as prescribed in the Interstate Commerce Commission shipping specifications covering this class) shall be considered suitable for employment in any compressed system.  When cylinders are not in use, outlet valves shall be kept tightly closed even though cylinders may be considered empty.  Cylinders, when exhausted, shall have the valves closed.  Cylinders shall be protected against mechanical injury and tampering at all times.


21.7  SMOKING RESTRICTIONS
21.7-1  Smoking Prohibited
Smoking or the carrying of a lighted cigar, pipe or cigarette is prohibited in the following locations:
a.  High hazard rooms
b.  Institutional Buildings, except in the administration offer and in rooms designated as smoking rooms.
c.  Theaters, except in rooms designated as smoking rooms.
d.  Churches, Schools, Garages, and Hangars, except in rooms designated as smoking rooms.
e.  Structures housing livestock, including circuses and stock shows.
f.  Assembly rooms or areas where the occupancy content exceeds one person per 15 square-feet of floor area.
g. Any other room or space where the combustible nature and quantity of  contents are deemed by the Building Commissioner to be hazardous to life and property from fire.
21.7-2  "No Smoking" Signs
Standard "No Smoking" signs shall be conspicuously posted in every room, building, or premises where smoking is prohibited.  A standard "No Smoking" sign shall have a white field with the words "No Smoking" printed in red letters four (4) inches high with one-half (1/2) inch face.


21.8  STANDARD FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
21.8-1  Introductory Regulations
a.  Fire alarm system required by  this ordinance shall comply with the  provisions of this Section.
b.  These protective signaling systems consist of electrical circuits and associated instruments and devices having  their operation under the control or domination of the owner or others interested in the property to be protected.
c.  Complete information regarding the system, including specifications, wiring diagrams, and floor plans shall  be submitted to the Building Department for approval prior to installation of  equipment or wiring.
d.  All devices combination of devices, and equipment shall be constructed and installed in conformity with these requirements and all devices and equipment shall be approved for the purposes for which they are intended.
e.  Upon completion of a system, a satisfactory test of the entire installation shall be made in the presence of a representative of the Building Department.
f.  Devices shall be so located and mounted that accidental operation will not be caused by vibration or jarring.
g.  All systems shall test free of grounds except parts of circuits or equipment which are intentionally and permanently grounded to provide ground fault detection, emergency ground signaling, or circuit protective grounding.  All systems shall be so designed that they do not depend upon the effectiveness of any ground connection for normal operation.
h.  Fire alarms used in connection with the required standard fire alarm system shall be used only for fire protective or emergency signaling purposes.
21.8-2  Classification of Systems
Standard fire alarm systems shall be divided into two (2) classes, as follows:
a.  Class I
 a standard fire alarm system which shall be a non-coded closed circuit general alarm system and which shall be so installed and arranged that the operation of any alarm-sending station or automatic detector will automatically actuate all alarm-alarm-sending station has been restored to its original condition.
b.  Class II
 a standard fire alarm system which shall be a coded, closed circuit, pre-signal alarm system and which shall be so installed and arranged that the initial pre-signal alarm system and which shall be so installed and arranged that the initial  operation of an alarm-sending station or automatic detector will sound, at least four (4) times, the code of that alarm-sending station on the pre-signal alarm-sounding devices only.  Pre-signal alarm-sounding devices shall be so installed as not to alert all the  occupants of the building but to notify only those in authority and certain occupants that  a fire or emergency exits in the building.  Such pre-signal alarm-sounding devices  shall be  located at the telephone switchboard in the boiler room, general offices, and in such other  places in the building where the members of the fire brigade, employees, or attendants  work or assemble.  Every alarm-sending station of a Class II standard fire alarm system shall be equipped so that a coded, general alarm can be sounded by the use of keys, plugs,  or similar devices which shall, at all times, be available to persons with authority to sound  a general alarm.  In every building where a Class II standard fire alarm system is installed  there shall be on duty at all times at least two (2) adults charged with the responsibility of  sounding a general alarm.
21.8-3  Alarm-Sending Stations
Alarm-sounding devices shall be provided for such type and shall be so distributed that they can be heard clearly throughout the building.  At least one such sounding devices shall be installed on each floor and in the basement.  The lowest part of all alarm-sounding devices shall be located at least seven (7) feet above the floor.
21.8-5  Automatic Detectors
a.  Automatic detectors shall e installed as an integral part of required standard fire alarm system in rooms or portions of buildings as required for specific occupancies, as established in Part B and as follows:
(1)  In combustible attics or lofts
(2)  In hazardous shops or storerooms
(3)  In stairwells or elevator shafts
(4)  In any room or  area that the Building Commissioner shall define  as hazardous due to use or occupancy.
b.  All required automatic detectors shall e of a make, type and design which has been tested by the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. and is listed in the Fire Protection Equipment List or by Factory Mutual Laboratories and shall be installed in accordance with their provisions.
21.8-6  Electric Supervision
a.  A standard fire alarm system shall be electrically supervised so that the occurrence of a break or a ground fault condition which prevents the required operation of the system or failure of its main power supply source, will be indicated by a distinctive trouble signal.  The electrical supervision shall include:
(1)  Primary power supply circuit
(2)  All circuits for signals initiated by the operation of fire alarm boxes, fire detectors, automatically operated transmitters, or other appliance or devices which initiate or transmit signals either manually or automatically.
(3)  All circuits for operating alarm-sounding devices and appliances, except as follows:
(a)  When alternately connected to two (2) or more circuits and approximately equally distributed throughout the building, or
(b)  When connected to a return loop circuit so that a break or ground fault does not prevent the operation of any sounding device, and provides the means for testing the continuity of the circuit.
b.  Electrical supervision need not include any circuit which is supplementary to the system, provided the fault condition of this circuit wiring results only in the loss of the supplementary equipment or operation and does not interfere with the proper functioning of the system.
21.8-7  Electric Wiring
Wiring circuits for standard fire alarm systems and the installation and wiring of interconnecting system components shall comply with the provisions of Section 27(14-60-260) of the Chicago Electrical Code.
21.8-8  Power Supply
Power supply sources for standard fire alarm systems shall comply with the provisions of Section 27(14-60-260) of the Chicago Electrical Code.
21.8-9  Trouble Signal
a.  The electrical supervision circuit shall be provided with a trouble bell to  ring continuously in case of failure in the supervised circuits.
b.  The trouble bell shall be distinctive from all other audible alarms or devices and shall be located within audible range of some responsible person's office or station in the building, as directed by the Building Commissioner.
c.  The trouble bell circuit shall e equipped with a switch  for silencing the trouble bell and transferring the indication to the lamp.  The lamp shall remain in operation until the silencing switch is restored to its normal position.  The correction of the fault shall reactivate the audible signal unless the silencing switch has been restored to its normal position.
21.8-10  Visual Alarm
Visual alarm devices may be used to supplement the alarm-sounding devices but shall not be installed as substitutes for alarm-sounding devices.  In a building for the deaf, visual alarm devices shall be required in addition to the alarm-sounding devices.  All visual alarm devices shall operate when a general alarm is sounded
21.8-11  Application to Existing Buildings
a.  The provisions of this Section 21.8 are hereby declared retroactive and shall apply to both existing buildings an buildings hereafter constructed, extended or altered.
b.  Before any work is stated on the installation, alteration, or extension of any fire alarm system required by this ordinance, complete plans and specifications of the proposed system required by this ordinance, complete plans and specifications of the proposed installation shall be submitted to the Building Department for examination and approval.
21.8-12  Periodic Testing and Inspection
Every required fire alarm system now existent or which may hereafter be installed shall be inspected and tested semi-annually in the presence of the representative of the Building Commissioner, to ensure that the system is in good operating condition.
21.8-13  Repair of Systems
Any fire alarm system which fails to function  properly shall be repaired and placed in good operating condition within 24 hours of the discovery of the malfunction.


21.9  STANDARD FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
21.9-1  Introductory Regulations
a.  One standard fire extinguisher shall be provided for each 2,500 square feet of floor area, or fraction thereof, unless otherwise required for specific occupancies, as established in Part B, but not less than one on each floor, including basements and sub-basements.
b.  Where an extinguisher is hidden or out of sight, a sign shall be installed and maintained which will mark its location.
c.  Every required or non-required fire extinguisher, when installed, shall be fully charged and ready for immediate use.
21.9-2  Prohibited Fire Extinguishers
Extinguishers using carbon tetrachloride, chlorobromomethane, or similar highly toxic extinguishing agents shall not be permitted.
21.9-3  Classification and Rating
The classification of fires and the rating of fire extinguishers to determine their suitability or effectiveness or the size required for a particular use or occupancy, shall be in accordance with FPA No. 10.
21.9-4  Inspection and Tests
All fire extinguishers shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the standards set forth in NFPA No. 10.  After such inspection, and/or recharging the inspector shall  affix a tag to the extinguisher, certifying that such inspection and/or re charging has been made; such certificate shall include the date of inspection and the name of the inspector.
21.9-5  Application to Existing Buildings
The provisions of this Section 21.9 are hereby declared retroactive and shall apply to both existing buildings and buildings hereafter constructed, extended or altered.



21.10  AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
21.10-1  Approved Automatic Sprinkler Systems
a.  An approved automatic sprinkler system is a system of piping installed in a building with outlets distributed approximately uniformly in such a manner, that water can be discharged in a spray directly from special outlets, termed "heads", for the purpose of extinguishing an incipient fire and protecting the building, its contents and its occupants; with pumps, tanks and other equipment as necessary to provide an adequate supply of water to the heads.
b.  All required automatic sprinkler systems shall conform to the requirements of this Section 21.10.  Plans, setting forth all essential details of the system, shall be submitted to the Building Department for approval.  Plans for the remodeling, improvement, or extension of existing systems, involving the addition or alteration of more than five (5) sprinkler heads shall, also, be submitted to the Building Department for approval.
c.  Fire pumps, filling pumps, air compressors, sprinkler heads, hoses and all other equipment shall be of a make, type, and design which has been tested and approve and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
21.10-2  Introductory Regulations
a.  An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout every building utilizing the floor area or height premiums allowed in Article XIX, HEIGHT, AREA, AND VOLUME  LIMITATIONS
b.Refer to Part B of this ordinance for additional automatic sprinkler system requirements for each occupancy.
c.  An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the following spaces or rooms, except as prohibited in Section 16.3.2 of Article XVI
(1)  Storage
All spaces or rooms used for the storage of highly combustible or flammable materials, unless such space or room does not exceed 1,000 square feet in area and is located in a one-story building.
(2)  Basements
All basement rooms or spaces  for the storage of combustible material, unless such basement storage space does not exceed 1,000 square feet and is enclosed with walls and a ceiling providing a fire resistance of not less than two (2) hours
(3)  Combustible Attic Spaces
Combustible attic spaces in buildings of construction types IV and V shall be either sprinklered or firestopped in accordance with Section 20.14-3 of Article XX.
d.  Partial Sprinkler Systems
Sprinkler systems supplying no more than 10 sprinklers in any one room, or a total of 25 sprinklers on any one floor, may be supplied from the domestic water system provided the pipe size is not less than two a92) inches and adequate flow and pressure is available at the point of connection.  Where the adequacy of available water supply is questionable, the Building Commissioner may require that flow tests and hydraulic analysis be carried out.
e.  Specific Requirements
(1)  Spaces Below Ground Floors
In buildings requiring a sprinkler system, sprinklers shall be installed in all spaces below combustible ground floors, unless the following conditions exist:
(a)  The space is not accessible for storage purposes,
(b) The space contains no equipment such as conveyors, steam pipes or exposed electrical wiring, and
(c)  No flammable liquids are used on the story above
(2)  Elevators and Stairs
In buildings requiring sprinkler systems, heads shall be provided in the following locations:
(a)  At the top of each stairwell or elevator shaft.
(b)  If a stairwell serves two (2) or more separate  fire divisions, it shall be equipped with sprinklers at each floor landing.
(c)  Sprinklers shall be provided in every story for each 200 square feed in area.  Baffles shall be installed midway between sprinklers and arranged to baffle the actuating elements.  Baffles shall be of incombustible material at least six (6) inches in height.
(3)  Balconies
In buildings requiring sprinklers, sprinklers shall be installed under balconies and mezzanines  more than four (4) feet in width.
(4)  Refuse Chutes
Refer to Article XXXIV, CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENTS, Section 34.9-1 for the sprinkler requirements in refuse chutes and refuse rooms. These sprinklers shall  be required in all buildings regardless of construction type or occupancy class.
f.  Plastic Light Diffusing Ceilings
(1)  No plastic light diffusing ceiling shall be installed below sprinklers unless appropriate tests by a nationally recognized testing laboratory have shown that such ceiling does not prevent effective protection by the  sprinklers; or unless  sprinklers are located both above and below the light diffusing ceiling.
(2)  The installation of open grid or louvered ceiling beneath sprinklers shall conform to the requirements for specific occupancies, as established in Part B  of this ordinance.
21.10-3  Types of Systems
Refer to NFPA No. 13 for descriptions of the various types of sprinkler systems, and their design and application.
21.10-4  Installation
a.  General
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the provisions of NFPA No. 13.
b.  Inspection
When ready for service, the entire system shall be inspected and tested in the presence of a representative of the Building Department.  If the inspection discloses any defects or any violations of the requirements of this ordinance, such defects or violations shall be corrected before final approval certificate is given.
c.  Testing
All automatic sprinkler systems shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of NFPA No 13.  All testing shall be conducted in the presence of a representative of the Building Department.
d.  Drains
Installations in High Hazard occupancies and in locations where the accumulation of water from sprinklers may be a potential hazard, shall be provided with drains for the  removal of the discharged water.
21.10-5  Periodic Testing and Inspection
Every required automatic sprinkler system now existent or which may hereafter be installed shall be inspected and tested semi-annually in the presence of a representative of the Building Commissioner, to ensure that the system is in good operating condition.
21.10-6  Water Supply
a.  Restricted Use
The minimum amount of water available solely to supply an automatic sprinkler system shall be as indicated in Table 21.10-6, or as required to supply all of the sprinklers in the largest fire area, whichever is less.  For the purposes of this Section 21.10-6a, the following rules shall apply:
(1)  Classification of specific occupancies into "hazard of occupancy" groups shall be in accordance with NFPA No. 13
(2)  A "fire area" shall be that area enclosed by fire walls and by a floor below and a  floor or roof above.  Mezzanines, decks, platforms, or other partial floors or floors having large unprotected openings shall not be considered in determining a fire area.  Fire walls, including their opening  protectives, shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than one (1) hour for light hazard and ordinary (group 1) occupancies, two (2) hours for ordinary (group 2) occupancies, and three (3) hours for ordinary (group 3) and extra-hazard occupancies.

TABLE 21.10-6
MINIMUM WATER SUPPLY FOR
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

b.  Use for Other Services
(1)  A gravity tank may be used to supply water to a sprinkler system and for domestic and other purposes, but the capacity of the tank shall be increased by the amount required for each additional purpose and the piping and all connections shall be so arranged that the supplies for such other purposes are taken from the upper portion of the tank  at a height such that the quantity of the water required for the sprinkler system will remain in the lower portion of the tank at all times and cannot be used for other purposes.
(2)  Pressure tanks shall not be used for other purposes
(3)  A fire pump may supply both a sprinkler  system and an inside standpipe system but shall be of the required capacity and design to meet the requirements of the more severe service and shall not be used for any other purpose.
(4)  Water supply connection other than from the filtered public water supply shall be provided with double removable screens or strainers.
21.10-7  Tank Construction
a.  Gravity Tanks
Gravity tanks shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the provisions of NFPA No. 22.
b.  Pressure Tanks
(1)  The material and construction of pressure tanks shall be in accordance with ASME Rules for the Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessels
(2)  The tanks shall be installed on steel or reinforced concrete  supports.
(3)  The tanks shall be provided with a glass water column installed at such a height that the center of the gauge  glass shall be at the normal level of the water in the tank, and shall be equipped with aromatic safety cocks.
c.  Inspection
Immediately after the work is completed, a joint inspection of the tank equipment shall be made by are representative of the tank contractor and a representative of the Building Department.
 21.10-8  System Components
a.  Main Control Valve
Every sprinkler system shall be provided with an approved outside screw and yoke valve or indicator gate valve, located so as to be readily accessible to control all sources of water supply except that from the fire department connection
b.  Sprinkler Alarm
(1)  A weatherproof outdoor water motor and gong or electric alarm and alarm apparatus shall be provided on all sprinkler installations unless the system is connected to a constantly attended inside alarm or to a fire station or central protective service.
(2)  The alarm apparatus shall consist of an approved automatic alarm valve or other water flow  detecting alarm device and necessary attachments.
(3)  Water motor and gong shall be located as near the alarm valve or dry pipe valve as possible and shall be piped to a drain.    Drains shall be so arranged that there will be no danger of freezing.
(4)  A sign shall be placed near  the alarm-sounding device in a conspicuous place and shall bear the following:  "SPRINKLER FIRE ALARM -- when alarm sounds call fire or police department."
c.  Fire Department Connection
(1)  Every sprinklered building shall be equipped with an approved fire department connection.
(2)  The Siamese connection shall be connected directly to the system main through a four (4) inch pipe with a straightway check valve in the connection.
(3)  Each connection shall be drained between the check valve and the outside hose coupling, using a floating ball check valve.
(4)  The hose threads of such connections shall be uniform with those used by the local fire department and shall be protected with a cap securely attached to the connection.
(5)  At each connection, there shall be provided a metallic plate with the words "AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS" or, when only stories below grade are equipped, "BASEMENT SPRINKLERS", in raised letters not less than one (1) inch in height.
d.  Fire Pumps
Fire pumps and auxiliary equipment shall be of a type designed and approved for sprinkler service.  The pump shall be selected to meet the specific conditions of the installation and, if it takes its supply from a public water supply, it shall supply the full system capacity at its rated pressure.  If the fire pump is the only source of supply it shall be automatic in operation.
e.  Tank Supply Pump
(1)  A gravity tank used to supply a sprinkler system only shall be supplied by filling pump having a capacity such that the tank can be filled in not more than eight (8) hours. 
(2)  A gravity tank used to supply a sprinkler system and water for domestic or other purposes may be supplied by the pumps installed for such other purposes providing it be filled in eight (8) hours.
(3)  A pressure tank shall be supplied with water by a filling pump having a capacity of not less than 35 gallons per minute and with air by an air compressor having a capacity of not less than 20 cubic feet of free air per minute.
(4)  Where a sprinkler system is equipped with both gravity and pressure tanks, one filling pump may be provided for both.
f.  Valves
(1)  All gate valves in connections to water supplies and in supply piping to sprinklers shall be approved outside screw and yoke (O.S. & Y.) or approved indicator type.
(2)  Each main supply pipe shall be provided with a gate valve so that any portion of the system can be taken out of service for repairs or in an emergency without interfering with the operation of the remainder of the system.
(3)  A check valve shall be installed in all sources of water supply, except that where cushion tanks are used with automatic fire pumps no check valve is required in the cushion tank connection.
(4)  A gate valve shall be installed on the supply side of each check valve.
(5)  Where an elevated gravity tank is located in a yard, at least  the gate valve on the tank side of the check valve shall be of the outside screw and yoke type; the other shall be either an O.S. & Y valve or an indicator post valve.  Where the tank is located on or in a building, both gate valves shall be of the O.S. & Y. type.
(6)  Where a public water service is a source of supply, the service valve may be one of the required gate valves.  An O.S. & Y. valve or an indicator post valve shall be required only the system side of the check valve.
(7)  In the discharge pipe from a pressure tank or a gravity tank of less than 15,000 gallons capacity, no gate valve is required on the tank side of the check valve.
(8)  All gate valves controlling water supplies for sprinklers shall be located where readily accessible and, when necessary for access or operation, permanent ladders, chains, and wheels or other accepted means shall be provided.
(9)  All gate valves in supply pipes shall be sealed open in a satisfactory manner.
(10)  All control, drain, test, and alarm valves shall be provided with identification signs of the standard design adopted by the automatic sprinkler industry, and all gate valves shall be marked to indicate the area  which they control.
g.  Gauges
Pressure gauges shall be of the non-corrosive type and shall have a maximum limit not less than twice the normal working pressure at the point where installed.  They shall be installed to permit easy removal, and shall be equipped with a shut-off valve and with provision for draining.  Pressure gauges shall be installed in the following locations:
(1)  General
(a)  In the discharge pipe from each source of water supply.
(b)  At each test pipe a pressure gauge shall be installed with a connection not smaller than one-quarter (1/4) inch and with a one-quarter (1/4) inch plugged outlet for an inspector's gauge.
(2)  Wet-Pipe Systems
In sprinkler risers, above and below each alarm check valve or below each paddle type alarm.
(3)  Dry-Pipe Systems
(a)  On the water side and air side of each dry-pipe valve.
(b)  At the air compressor.
(c) At the air receiver
(d)  In each independent pipe from the dry-pipe supply to air systems
(4)  Pre-action or Deluge Systems
(a)  Above and below each pre-action valve and below each deluge valve.
(b)  On the air supply to each pre-action and deluge valve.
h.  Relief Valves
(1)  A one and one-half (1-1/2) inch brass relief valve shall be installed at all filling pumps used with pressure tanks, and shall be set to relieve pressures 10 percent in  excess of the maximum system air pressure.
(2)  A three-fourths (3/4) inch brass relief valve shall be installed between each air compressor and the controlling valve and shall be set to relieve  pressure 10 percent in excess of the maximum system air pressure.
i.  Hand Hose Connections
Hand hose, to be used for fire purposes only, may be attached to sprinkler pipes subject to the following restrictions:
(1)  Piping and hose valve shall be one (1) inch.
(2)  Hose shall be not larger than one and one-half (1-1/2) inch
(3)  Nozzle shall not be larger than one-half (1/2) inch nominal discharge capacity.
(4)  Hose shall not be connected to a sprinkler pipe smaller than two and one-half (2-1/2) inches  and never attached to a pre-action system or a dry pipe system.
21.10-9  Spacing, Location and Position of Sprinklers
a.  General
The spacing, location, and position of sprinklers shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA No. 13.
b.  Sidewall Sprinklers
Sidewall sprinklers shall be considered special purpose sprinklers, and as such their use shall be approved by the Building Commissioner.
21.10-10  Sprinkler Piping
a.  Piping
Pipe used in a sprinkler system shall be designed to withstand a working pressure of not less than 175 pounds, unless normal pressure in the system is more than 125 pounds, in which cases it shall be designed to withstand the working pressure plus 50 pounds.  Pipe shall be wrought-steel or wrought-iron or other type if listed for this service by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
b.  Size of Risers
Each system riser shall be of sufficient size to supply all the sprinklers on the riser on any floor of one fire division.  There shall be at least one  riser in each section of the building divided by fire separation walls.
c.  Piping Size
The piping for an approved automatic sprinkler system may be sized hydrostatically to deliver the required amount of water to each sprinkler head, or sized according to the tables established in NFPA No. 13.  Refer to Part B of this ordinance for the hazard classification of each occupancy.
d.  Flushing of System
Provision shall be made to facilitate flushing of system piping by providing flushing connections consisting of a capped nipple four (4) inches long on the end of the cross mains.  Nipples shall be one and one-quarter (1-1/4), one and one-half (1-1/2), or two (2) inches.
e.  Stair Towers
Stairs, towers or other such construction with incomplete floors, if piped on separate risers, shall be treated as one area with reference to pipe sizes, and feed mains shall be of sufficient size to supply the total number of sprinklers.
f.  Large Floor Openings
Buildings having large unprotected floor openings shall be treated as one room with reference to the pipe sizes, and the feed main or risers shall be of the size required for the total number of sprinklers.
g.  Mezzanines and Platforms
Floors having mezzanines or large platforms which cannot be closed or shut off shall be treated as one room with reference to pipe sizing.
h.  Long Runs of Pipe
Where NFPA No. 13 pipe sizing is used and the construction or conditions require unusually long runs or many angles, an increase in riser of feed main pipe sizes shall be required to compensate for increased friction losses.
i.  Return Bends
On systems using a raw water source, where piping on wet system is concealed, with sprinklers installed in pendent position below a ceiling, return bends shall be required and shall be connected to the tops of branch lines.  The return bend pipe and fittings shall be one (1) inch.
j.  Test Pipes
The following system test pipes shall be provided:
(1)  Wet Systems
A test pipe of not less than one (1) inch diameter terminating in a smooth bore corrosion resistant outlet giving a flow equivalent to one (1)  sprinkler shall be provided, in an upper story with connection at any convenient point on a cross main, branch line, or top of riser.  The discharge shall be located where it can be readily observed, and shall be properly drained.
(2)   Dry-Pipe Systems
A test pipe of not less than one (1) inch  diameter terminating in a smooth bore corrosion resistant outlet giving a flow equivalent to one sprinkler shall be provided on the end of the most distant sprinkler line in the highest story and shall be equipped with a one (1) inch shut-off valve and cast iron plug.
k.  Drainage
All sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be so installed that the system may be thoroughly drained, with auxiliary drains provided to drain all low or trapped points.  Drain pipes shall be so arranged as not to expose any part of the sprinkler system to frost.  All drains shall be so arranged as not to expose any part of the sprinkler system to frost.  All drains shall have at least four (4) feet of pipe beyond the valve in a heated room.
21.10-11  Sprinklers
a.  Types of Sprinklers
Sprinkler heads shall be of a make, type and design which have been tested, approved and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and they shall be installed in accordance with such listing.
b.  Corrosion -- Resistant Sprinklers
Approved corrosion-resistant or special coated sprinklers shall be installed in locations where chemicals, moisture, or other corrosive vapors exist sufficient  to cause corrosion of the sprinklers.
c.  Painting
Sprinkler heads shall not be painted.  Where  sprinklers with ornamental finish are desired only those specifically approved as such shall be used.
d.  Clear Space Below Sprinklers
A clearance of at least eighteen (18)  inches below sprinkler deflectors shall be provided to reduce possible obstruction  to the distribution of water.  Increased clearance of thirty-six (36)  inches shall be provided over large closely-packed  piles of combustible cases, bales, cartons or other closely-packed combustible stock.
e.  Stock of Extra Sprinklers
There shall be maintained on the premises a supply of extra sprinklers and fusible elements to provide for prompt replacement of those operated or damaged.. These  sprinklers and fusible elements to provide for prompt replacement of those operated or damaged.  These sprinklers stock of emergency sprinklers shall be at least as follows:

        Systems not over 300 sprinklers                    6 sprinklers
        Systems of 300 to 1000 sprinklers                12 sprinklers
        System over 1000 sprinklers                        24 sprinklers

This stock shall include not less than two (2) of each temperature rating  used in the building.
21.10-12  Testing of Fire Protection Systems
Testing of all fire protection systems and related equipment shall be performed by independent fire protection installation companies.  Such companies performing tests shall furnish sufficient equipment and personnel that are certified fire system inspectors and shall furnish certified inspection reports.  Discrepancies noted shall be repaired as soon as possible but within forth-eight (48) hours.  Repaired or malfunctioning systems shall  be retested immediately after repairs are performed.  These shall be made in the presence of a representative of the Building Commissioner to insure that the system is in good operating condition.


21.11  STANDARD INSIDE STANDPIPE SYSTEMS
21.11-1  Introductory  Regulations
a.  An approved standard inside standpipe system is a system which complies with all the requirements of this Article, and for which plans, setting forth all essential details, have been submitted to and approved by the Building Commissioner.
b.  Hose cabinets and racks, hose and fittings, valves and nozzles shall be of a make, type, and design which has been tested, approved and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
c.  A standard inside standpipe systems is an arrangement of piping installed in  a building with outlets located in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams through hose attached to such hose outlets, for the purpose of extinguishing a fire.
d.  A standard inside standpipe system may be either:
(1)  A wet standpipe system having the supply valve open and water pressure maintained at all times.
(2)  A dry standpipe system arranged through the use of approved devices to admit water to the system automatically by the opening of a hose valve.  Dry systems shall be used only when the area in  which the piping is located is not heated.
e.  Standard inside standpipe systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this Article and with NFPA No. 14
21.11-2  Required Systems
In addition to any special occupancy requirements established in Part B, a standard inside standpipe system shall be provided in all buildings exceeding four (4) stories or 55 feet in height.
21.11-3  Source of Water Supply
a.  The water supply shall be  capable of supplying not less than 250 gallons per minute for one standpipe and not less than 500 gallons per minute in buildings where two (2) or more standpipes are required, for a period of at least 30 minutes.
b.  The pressure at the highest hose outlet shall be not less than 25 pounds per square inch.
c.  Acceptable water supplies may be:
(1)  Public water system
(2)  Pressure tanks
(3)  Gravity tanks
(4)  Automatic fire pumps supplied by an approved source of  adequate capacity.
d.  The fire pump may supply both an inside standpipe system and a sprinkler system but shall be capable of meeting the requirements prescribed for the severest service.  The fire pump shall not be used for any other purpose.
e.  Gravity tanks
The minimum capacity of a gravity tank shall be 5,000 gallons
f.  Pressure tanks
Pressure tanks shall have a capacity of not less than 4,500 gallons and shall be designed to be two-thirds (2/3) full of water and one-third (1/3) full of air at a pressure of not less than 75 pounds per square inch.
21.11-4  Multiple Systems
a.  An inside standpipe system required in a building, the top floor of which is more than 260 feet above grade, shall be separated into two (2) or more systems, each of which shall include a fire pump, cushion tank and all other equipment and piping necessary for a complete installation.
b.  The lowest system shall serve the portion  up to and including the story of the floor which is 260 feet above grad.  Above this point systems shall be provided to serve zones of not more than 20 stories each.
21.11-5  Number
The number of standpipes shall be such that a nozzle attached to 100 feet of hose connected to a standpipe will reach to within 30 feet of all parts of the floor area.
21.11-6  Location
Standpipes shall extend from the lowest story of the building to the top most story and shall be so located that they are protected against mechanical and fire damage.  They shall have outlets within stairway enclosures as near the  stairway as possible, or be located outside or immediately inside of the exterior walls, within one foot of a fire tower, exterior stairway or fire escape.
21.11-7  Piping
a.  The piping system shall consist of mains from the source of supply, risers, branches, and other piping to the hose outlets and shall include the connection from the water supply to the pump suction.
b.  Standpipes shall be constructed of wrought iron, open hearth iron, or steel with
pressure of not less than 100 pounds per square inch in excess of the static head of water due to the height of the standpipe.
c.  Standpipes shall be equipped in every story with two and one-half (2-1/2) inch hose connections and valves located not more than five (5) feet above the floor level.
d.  Connections to each water supply, except fire department hose connections, shall be provided with a check valve and a gate valve located close to the supply.
e.  All hose threads in connections shall be uniform and conform with the standard used by the local fire department.
f.  The size of the standpipe shall be not less than four (4) inches in buildings not exceeding 260 feet in height and six (6) inches in buildings over 260 feet in height.
g.  Stop valves or check valves shall be provided to permit cutting off any standpipe riser without interrupting the supply to other risers from some adequate source of supply.
h.  Where more than one standpipe is installed in a building, they shall be connected as their bases by pipes of a size equal to that of the largest standpipe.
21.11-8  Fire Department Connection
a.  Each building equipped with a standpipe or sprinkler system shall be equipped with a Siamese fire department inlet connection located on a street front of the building, not less than eighteen (18  inches nor more than thirty-six (36) inches above the grade level.
b.  The pipe from the stand pipe to the Siamese connection shall  be at least four (4) inches in diameter, but not less than the cross-connection.
c.  The thread of such connections shall be uniform with that used by the local fire department.   Caps to protect the threads shall be provided on each connection.
d.  Just inside the building in a horizontal section of the standpipe connection, an approved straightway check valve shall be placed with an automatic drip connection valve between the check valve and the exterior Siamese connection to prevent freezing.
e.  Each outside connection shall be marked to identify its use by an approved metal sign rigidly attached to the building, having raised letters reading "Connection to Standpipe."
21.11-9  Hose Stations
a.  Standpipes may be equipped at each floor with approved one and one-half (1-1/2) inch hose, attached to each  outlet.
b.  Each hose line shall be provided with an approved one-half (1/2) inch nozzle, or an approved combination fog-straight stream nozzle.
c.  Each hose station shall be equipped with a rack  or cabinet securely fastened in position
d.  Hose stations shall be located in the corridor or space adjacent to the stair shaft and connected through the wall to the standpipe.
e.  Where the hydrostatic pressure at any hose outlet exceeds 50 p.s.i. an approved deice shall be installed at the outlet to reduce or limit the pressure to approximately 50 p.s.i.
f.  Each hose station shall be equipped with an approved hose valve of the gate or angle type.
21.11-10  Valves
a.  All parts of the system, including each standpipe riser, shall be provided with gate valves so that any portion of the system can be taken out of service for repairs.
b.  All valves in connections in water supply and from main to risers shall e outside screw and yoke (O.S. & Y.) pattern, or other indicating type and shall be assured open and plainly marked to indicate the area controlled.
21.11.11  Pressure Gauges
An approved three and one-half (3-1/2) inch pressure gauge shall be installed in the following locations:
a.  In the discharge pipe from each fire pump
b.  At the pressure tank
c.  At the top of the standpipe the greatest distance from the fire pump.
21.11-12  Dry Pipe Systems
a.  A dry pipe system shall be permitted only in a building, or a portion of a building, which is unheated or which is heated only part of the time.
b.  The dry pipe system shall be isolated from the water supply, or from the wet portion of the system if a combined wet and dry pipe system, b one or more dry pipe valves located at accessible points as near  as practical to the dry system.
c.  The valves shall automatically control the flow of water and shall be constructed and installed so that under normal conditions the portion of the piping in unheated spaces will remain dry.  The operation of a hose valve will permit water to flow into the piping to supply water at the hose valve.
21.11-13  Standpipe Alarms
a.  A weatherproof outdoor motor and gong or electrical alarm and alarm apparatus shall be provided on all standpipe installations unless the alarm is connected to a constantly attended inside alarm or to a fire station or central protective service.
b.  The alarm apparatus shall consist of an approved alarm device and necessary attachments; however a paddle type detector shall not be used in dry-pipe systems.
c.  Water motor and gong shall be located as near the alarm valve or dry pipe valve as possible and shall be piped to a drain.  Drains shall be so arranged that there will be no danger of freezing.
d.  A sign shall be placed near the alarm-sounding device in a conspicuous place and shall bear the following inscription:  "STANDPIPE FIRE ALARM -- When alarm sounds call fire department."
21.11-14  Testing
a.  The stand pipe system shall be tested hydrostatically at not less than 200 p.s.i. pressure for two (2) hours or at 50 p.s.i. in excess of the normal pressure if the normal pressure is in excess of 150 p.s.i.
b.  Each fire pump shall be tested for two (2) hours and shall deliver its rated capacity at the required speed and pressure, and shall deliver 150 percent rated capacity at 65 percent of rated pressure.
c.  The hose outlet at the top of the standpipe the greatest distance from the fire pump shall be tested for delivery of 250 gallons per minute at 25 p.s.i. for period of 30 minutes.



ARTICLE XXII
EXIT REQUIREMENTS
Index

22.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
22.1-1            Compliance with Requirements
22.1-2            Unobstructed Exits
22.1-3            Appropriate Exits
22.1-4            Exit Enclosures
22.1-5            Additional Exit Facilities
22.1-6            Building Alterations or Occupancy Change
22.1-7            Existing Buildings
22.1-8            Minimum Requirements

22.2        TYPES OF EXITS
22.2-1            From a Room
22.2-2            From a Story or Floor
22.2-3            From a Building or Structure
22.2-4            Continuous Means of Egress
22.2-5            Elevators
22.2-6            Slide Escape

22.3       ACCESS TO EXITS
22.3-1            General
22.3-2        Headroom
22.3-3        Accessibility and Distance to Exits
22.3-4        Aisles and Corridors
22.3-5        Unique Exit Passageways

22.4        EXIT OUTLETS
22.4-1            Access to Street or Open Space
22.4-2            Exit Courts and Passageways
22.4-3            Street or Yard Area

22.5        STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS
22.5-1            Interior Stairways
22.5-2            Exterior Stairways
22.5-3            Classification of Stairs
22.5-4            Treads and Risers
22.5-5            Landings
22.5-6            Handrails
22.5-7            Existing Skew and Curved Stairs
22.5-8            Smokeproof Towers
           
22.6        DOORS AND DOORWAYS
22.6-1            General
22.6-2            Widths
22.6-3            Power-Operated Doors
22.6-4            Revolving Doors
22.6-5            Turnstiles
22.6-6            Glass Doors

22.7        RAMPS
22.7-1            General
22.7-2            Classification of Ramps
22.7-3            Enclosures
22.7-4            Access
22.7-5            Exit Details
22.7-6            Doors
22.7-7            Handrails

22.8        HORIZONTAL EXITS
22.8-1            General
22.8-2            Egress from Area of Refuge
22.8-3            Bridges and Balconies
22.8-4            Units of Exit Width
22.8-5            Omission of Fire Separation wall on Street Floor

22.9        ACCESS TO ROOF
22.9-1            Stairway Access
22.9-2            Stairway Enclosures

22.10        MOVING STAIRWAYS AND WALKWAYS   
22.10-1            General Regulations
22.10-2        Construction and Arrangement
22.10-3            Exit Capacity Rating
22.10-4            Moving Walkways
22.10-5            Details of Construction and Installation

22.11        SLIDE ESCAPES
22.11-1            Use and Capacity Rating
22.11-2            Types
22.11.-3            Design
22.11-4            Location and Arrangement
22.11-5            Materials and Strength
22.11-6            Signs and Lighting

22.12        ELEVATORS
22.12-1            Unsuitable as Means of Exit
22.12-2            Escape Openings
22.12-3            Enclosure and Protection
22.12-4            Details of Construction and Installation

22.13        FIRE ESCAPES
22.13-1            Conformance with Stair Requirements
22.13-2            Construction and Access
22.13-3            Protection of Adjacent Wall Openings

22.14        EXIT SIGNS   
22.14-1            Required Signs
22.14-2            Designation of Non-Exits
22.14-3            Visibility
22.14-4            Directional Signs
22.14-5        Illumination of Signs

22.15         EXIT LIGHTING
22.15-1            Where Required
22.15-2            Degree of Illumination
22.15-3            Emergency Exit Lighting Systems



22.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
22-1  Compliance with Requirements
In every building or structure hereafter erected, exits shall comply with all applicable requirements of this Article, except those exits which are not required and which are not accessible for general  or public use.  The provisions of NFPA No. 101, BUILDING EXITS CODE, shall be considered accepted engineering practice for situations not covered by this ordinance.
22.1-2  Unobstructed Exits
All exits shall be free of obstructions and shall be so arranged and maintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts of every building or structure at all times.  No locks or fastenings to prevent free escape from the inside of any building or structure shall be installed, except as permitted in Section 22.6-1 g. of this Article and Section 9.4-6 of  Article IX, INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS
22.1-3  Appropriate Exits
Exits shall be provided of types, numbers, location and capacity appropriate to the individual building or structure, with due regard to the character of the occupancy the number of persons exposed, the fire protection available and the height and type of construction of the building or structure, to afford all occupants convenient facilities for escape.
22.1-4  Exit Enclosures
All vertical ways of exit shall be suitably enclosed or protected as necessary to afford reasonable safety to occupants while using exits and to prevent the spread of fire, smoke, or fumes through vertical openings from floor to floor before  occupants have entered exits, in accordance with Section 20.7 of Article XX.
22.1-5  Additional Exit Facilities
Where unusually hazardous conditions exit, additional exit facilities shall be provided as ordered by the Building Commissioner, when necessary to assure the safety of the occupants.
22.1-6  Building Alteration or Occupancy Change
No building or structure shall hereafter be altered so as to reduce the number, width or protection of exits to less than required by this ordinance, nor shall any change of of occupancy be made in any building or structure unless such building or structure conforms with the applicable requirements of this ordinance.
22.1-7    EXISTING BUILDINGS
Where a condition dangerous to life safety exists, buildings heretofore erected which do not provide exits as required by this ordinance shall be provided with means of egress providing an equal degree of life safety, as specified by the Building Commissioner.
22.1-8    Minimum Requirements
Nothing in this ordinance shall be construed to prohibit better or more exits or otherwise safer conditions than the minimum requirements specified in this ordinance.


22.2  TYPES OF EXITS
22.2-1  From a Room
An exit from a room may be a doorway or an exit from a story or floor.
22.2-2  From a Story or Floor
An exit from a story or floor may be a stairway, a smokeproof tower, a ramp, a horizontal exit, an exit passageway or a moving stairway.
22.2-3  From a Building or Structure
An exit from a building or structure may be a doorway opening upon a street or upon an open space with access to a street, or a horizontal exit or an exit court or passageway having access to a street.
22.2-4  Continuous Means of Egress
All exits shall provide continuous means of egress to the exterior of a building or structure by stairways, moving stairways, horizontal exits, doorways providing direct exit to the street or to an exterior open space leading to a street, by passageway or by ramps, conforming with the requirements of this Article.
22.2-5  Elevators
Elevators shall not be considered required exits
22.2-6  Slide Escapes
Slide escapes of incombustible construction shall be permitted as required exits only as specified in Section 22.11.



22.3  ACCESS TO EXITS
22.3-1  General
a.  All means of access to exits, and aisles and corridors constituting an integral part of exit facilities, shall comply with this Section and other applicable Sections of this Article.
b.  Where exit travel is not on the same level, differences in elevations shall be traversed by stairs or ramps in accordance with the requirements of this Article.
c.  In new construction, differences in elevation of less than 21 inches in any path of required exit travel shall be traversed by ramps, with the following exceptions:
(1)  A single step at an outside exit door, as permitted by Section 22.6-1
(2)  In single-family and two-family private dwellings
(3)  In any path of exit serving 10 or less persons.
22.3-2  Headroom
All stairways, corridors, passageways and other exit facilities shall be so designed and maintained as to provide adequate headroom; in no case shall this headroom be less than seven (7) feet.
22.3-3  Accessibility and Distance to Exits
a.  The arrangement of building, contents, and exits shall be such that at least one exit will be accessible from any point in the building within a maximum travel distance as specified for each specific occupancy in Part B of this ordinance, measured in accordance with the following provisions:
(1)  Distance to an exit shall be measured along the natural path of travel:  (1) to a door opening directly to the street or open air, (2) to a door to a stairway enclosure, or )3) to a door in a fire wall or to a door otherwise giving access to a place of safety
(2)  Distance to reach exits shall be measured from the most remove point subject to human occupancy in the case of open areas, and from the doors of individual rooms in the  case of buildings divided into rooms subject to individual occupancy by not more than six (6) persons, such as in hotels, where the path of travel from any point in the room to reach the room door doe snot exceed 50 feet.
(3)  In situations where open stairways are permitted as a path of travel to required exits, such as between mezzanines, or balconies and the floor below, the distance shall include the travel on the stairway and the travel from the end of the stairway to reach an outside door or other exit, in addition to the distance to reach the stairway.
(4)  In situations where travel through an open street floor area from a stairway to reach a street door is permitted, the street floor travel distance shall be included as part of the travel to reach the exit.
(5)  Distances shall be measured along the floor at the center line of the natural path of travel, starting at one foot from the inside wall at the most remote point, curving around any corners or obstructions with a one (1) foot radius from the outer-most point of the corner doorway or other opening.  Where measurement includes stairs, it shall be taken as a straight line in the direction of the pitch of the stairs at the center of the outer edge of treads.
b.  In no case shall access to an exit be through a bathroom, bedroom, or other room subject to locking.
c.  No hangings, draperies, etc., shall be placed over exit doors or be otherwise located so as to conceal or obscure any exit.
d.  No mirrors shall be placed on exit doors, or placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit.
e.  All ways of access to exits shall be clearly distinguished as such.
22.3-4  Aisles and Corridors
a.  Where exits are not immediately accessible from an open floor area, safe and continuous passageways, aisles, or corridors leading directly to every exit and so arranged as to be conveniently accessible to every occupant, shall be maintained at all times on all floors of all buildings.
b.  Widths of passageways, aisles or corridors shall be measured in the clear, at the narrowest points produced by any projection, radiator, pipe, or other object.  Doors swinging into passageways shall not restrict the effective width  at any point during their swing to less than the minimum widths hereinafter specified.
c.  The aggregate width of passageways, aisles, or corridors leading to any exit shall  be at least equal to the required width of the exit.  Where all travel to any exit is along as passageway, such passageway shall have a width at least equal to the required width of the exit; where several passageways lead to an exit, each shall have a width suitable for the  travel which it may be called on to accommodate.
d.  The minimum  width of any passageway, aisle or corridor shall be thirty (30) inches in the clear, unless otherwise specified in this ordinance.
e.  The floors of aisles and corridors shall be substantially level or, if sloping, shall comply with the requirements for ramps, as prescribed in section 22.7.
f.  The interior finish of corridors shall comply with the requirements of Section 20.12-4 of Article XX, FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS.
22.3-5  Unique Exit Passageways
Where exit passageways, such as those from stairs to the outside of the building, require a distance of travel of over one-hundred (100)  feet to reach the outside of the building, or where main floor areas are too large for direct exits to the outside of the building within the limitation of maximum travel  distance to reach exits, exitways meeting one or more of the following standards shall be provided:
a.  Tunnels
(1)  Where tunnels more than one hundred (100)  feet   long are used as exit passageways, such tunnels shall be not less than eight (8) feet wide and eight (8) fete high in the clear and shall be provided with adequate light and ventilation.
(2)  Tunnels shall be reached by stairs or ramps from the main floor above.  Such stairs may be unenclosed.
(3)  Tunnels shall be of at least two (2) hour fire-resistive construction with Class 1 interior finish and shall contain no combustible materials, but may serve as a means of access to toilet facilities and to employees' locker rooms if such rooms or spaces are sprinklered and separated from tunnels by self-closing fire doors
(4)  Tunnels shall discharge to outside  the building.
(5)  No tunnel serving for required exit purposes shall bed such as to require a travel distance of more than 1,000 feet to reach the outside of the building.
(6)  No tunnel shall be accepted as a means of required exit travel, unless regularly used during normal occupancy or regularly used during fire exit drills.
(7)  Tunnels shall be provided with adequate emergency lighting =, in accordance with Section 37.7 of Article XXXVII, ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS.
b.  Overhead Passageways
(1)  Where overhead passageways are used for required exit purposes, with exit travel up stairs to the passageway and through the passageway to the outside of the building the  vertical distance of travel up stairs shall not exceed eighteen (18) feet. 
(2)  Exit passageways shall be of at least two (2) hour fire-resistive construction with Class 1 interior finish, completely separated from the balance of the building, with self-closing one and one-half (1-1/2)  Class B fire doors protecting all openings between passageway and building.
(3)  Stairs leading from the main floor level up to the overhead passageway shall b enclosed in accordance with Section 20.7 of Article XX.
(4)  Overhead passageways shall be not less than eight (8) feet wide and eight (8) feet high in the clear.
(5)  Passageways shall be adequately lighted and ventilated, with provision for eliminating any smoke that may enter the passageway in case of fire below.  Such provision may be through permanently open roof vents or other approved means.
c.  Exterior Balconies and Roof Walkways
(1)  Any exterior balcony, porch, gallery or open flat roof space may serve as the required passageway to reach exits if it complies with all requirements as to width, arrangement, and materials of construction that are specified for interior corridors or passageways, and complies with the following provisions of this Section.
(2)  Balconies or other open spaces serving as passageways  to exits shall have solid floors, substantially level and shall have balustrades or railings not less than four (4) feet high.
(3)  Balconies or other open spaces serving as passageways shall have roofs to protect against the accumulation of snow or ice, unless the balcony serve as a sole normal means of access to the rooms or spaces served, in which case it may be assumed that snow and ice will be regularly removed in the course of normal occupancy.
(4)  Balconies or other open spaces shall be maintained as required path of travel, without obstruction by barriers separating sections of balcony appurtenant  to individual rooms or such congestion of porch furniture as to obstruct required minimum widths for exit travel.
(5)  Balconies and open roof spaces shall not be considered as exits for the purpose of this Article unless safe-guarded from fire within the building by fire-resistive construction equivalent to that required for stairway enclosures, with all openings therein protected by standard fire doors or fixed wire glass.



22.4  EXIT OUTLETS
22.4-1  Access to Street or Open Space
Every required exit shall discharge into the street, an open space leading to a street, or into an exit court or passageway leading into a street, or into an approved open space with  access to a street.
22.4-2  Exit Courts and Passageways
a.  Enclosure
Exit courts and passageways shall be enclosed with construction providing at least the degree of fire resistance specified for stairway enclosures in Section 20.7 of Article XX, but in no case shall they provide less than one (1) hour fire resistance.
b.  Width
The width of such courts and passageways shall be no less than the aggregate width of all the exits tributary thereto, and there shall be no reduction of width in the direction of exit travel.
22.4-3  Street or Yard Area
All exits shall lead to streets of adequate width to accommodate all persons leaving through the exits, or to yard area of adequate size provided with unrestricted access to the street.



22.5  STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS
22.5-1  Interior Stairways
a.  Construction
Interior stairways shall be constructed of incombustible materials throughout in the following buildings:
(1)  All buildings of construction type I
(2)  All Institutional, Educational and Assembly Buildings, as specified in Part B of this ordinance
(3)  All other buildings four (4) stories or more in height or having an occupancy content of more than 40 persons above or below the first story at street or grade level.
b.  Treads and Landings
(1)  When treads or landings are of slate, marble, stone, or composition they shall be suitably supported for their entire length and width.
(2)  Treads and landings shall be constructed and maintained in such a manner as to prevent persons from slipping thereon.
c.  Space Beneath Stairs
Except in single-family and two-family dwellings, no closet or storage space shall be located beneath stairs, unless enclosed by one (1) hour fire-resistive construction having no openings into the stair enclosure.
22.5-2  Exterior Stairways
a.  Construction
All exterior stairs or stairways shall be constructed of  incombustible materials, except in Residential Buildings of construction types III and IV, and all buildings of construction type V.  Except in single-family and two-family dwellings, exterior stairways shall be enclosed or otherwise protected from the  weather.
b.  Guardrails
Exterior stairways, unless adequately enclosed, shall be provided with an approved guardrail at least forty-two (42) inches high on each  unenclosed side.
c.  Wall Opening Protectives
Except in single-family and two-family dwellings, wall openings located less than thirty-five  (35) feet below any portion of an exterior stairway or within ten (10) feet horizontally or above any portion of such stairway shall be provided with opening protectives suitable for Class E or F locations; however, exterior wall openings in two (2) story Residential or Office Buildings having two (2) or more separate stairways from the second floor need not be protected.
22.5-3  Classification of Stairs
Required stairs shall be Class A, Class B, or Class C, depending upon the special occupancy requirements in Part B of this ordinance, and in accordance with Table 22.5-3, as follows:

TABLE 22.5-3
STAIRWAY REQUIREMENTS BY CLASSIFICATION


Note on Class A Stairs
Class A stairs are intended for use as main stairs in places of assembly or elsewhere where large crowds are to be accommodated.  Additional desirable provisions beyond those here required include curing the outer corners of landings on a radius of two (2) feet, or providing a 45 degree splay twenty (20) inches wide, and in the case of wide stairs with intermediate handrails, having the approach newel of the intermediate handrail six (6) feet high so that it may be readily seen in a dense crowd, thus avoiding the hazard of persons running against the end of the intermediate handrail.

Note on Class B Stairs
Class B stairs are intended for new construction for buildings of virtually all occupancies not covered by Class A.  The Type B Classification is intended also to cover existing stairs in existing buildings where Class A stairs would be specified for new construction.  The standard width of Class B stairs is forty-four (44) inches.  The permission to use stairs thirty-six (36) inches wide applies only in cases where the total occupancy is small.  The limit of 50 persons is that of the total population of all floors served by the stairway, not merely a proportional part of the number of occupants.

Note on Class C Stairs
Class C stairs are intended to cover existing stairs which although below the standard for new construction (Class B) are acceptable in most existing buildings; also for certain limited applications to roof stairs for new construction.  Class C permits conditions in existing stairs which are considerably below the standard for new construction, but are not  so hazardous as to justify requiring rebuilding, which  might in many cases be impossible without practically reconstructing the entire building.

a.  Exception -- Existing Small Buildings
In existing buildings with a maximum allowable occupancy of less than 50 on all floors served by a stairway, the Building Commissioner may accept Class C stairs not in  accordance with Table 22.5-3, subject to the following reductions in rated exit width:
(1)  Excessive Pitch
45 deg. to 50 deg, deduct 40%
50 deg. to 55 deg, deduct 65%
55 deg to 60 deg., deduct 80%
(2)  Substandard Width of Treat (does not apply if deduction has already been made for substandard pitch)
7 in. to 8 in. (exclusive of nosing or projection), deduct 20%
6 in. to 7 in. (exclusive of nosing or projection, deduct 40%
(3)  Winders
Where there are winders, measurements of tread, width, and pitch shall be taken at one (1) foot from the narrow end.  Thees reductions apply in addition to those of  items (1) and (2) above.
One (1) winder stair tread, deduct 25%
Each additional stair treat, deduct 1%
(Maximum deduction not to exceed 75%)
(4)  No stair having an inclination with the horizontal of more than 60 deg. nor a tread (exclusive of nosing or projection) of less than six (6) inches shall be permitted in any case.
b.  Length of Flight
The minimum number of steps in any one flight of stairs shall be as specified in Table 22.5-3.
22.5-4  Treads and Riser
a.  Treads and risers of required stairs shall be proportioned on the basis of accepted engineering practice.
b.  Every tread less than ten (10 inches wide shall be a nosing or an effective projection of approximately one (1) inch over the level immediately below, except that Class C stairs without nosings  may be accepted by the Building Commissioner.
c.  All required exit stairways, except within single-family dwelling units, shall have solid (not open) risers; and treads shall also be solid (without perforations).
d.  The use of winders shall be prohibited in stairways serving as required exits, except as permitted in Class C stairs in accordance with Section 2.5-3a., and shall be prohibited in all stairways in Institutional and Educational Buildings.
22.5-5  Landings
a.  No flights of stairs shall have a vertical rise of more than twelve (12)  feet between floors or landings; except that in stairways serving as exits in Assembly Buildings, such vertical rise shall not exceed eight (8) feet between landings.
b.  The length and width of landings shall not be  less than the width of the stairways in which they occur.  However, in stairways requiring an intermediate landing in which the  direction of travel is along the same line, the length of such landing shall not be  less than forty-eight (48) inches for Class A and Class B stairs and not less than thirty-six (36) inches for Class C  stairs or where the total occupancy content of all floors served  is less than 50 persons.
c.  Stairways and intermediate lands shall continue with no decrease in width along the direction of exit travel.
22.5-6  Handrails
a.  All stairs shall have walls, well-secured balustrades or guards, on both sides and shall have handrails on both sides, except that stairs less than forty-four (44) inches in width, and Class C stairs, need have a handrail on one side only.
b.  Any stairway eighty-eight (88)  inches or more in width, except for "monumental" stairways, shall be provided with one (1) or more intermediate handrails continuous between landings and substantially supported; the number and position of intermediate handrails shall be such that there will not be more than sixty-six inches between adjacent handrails.
c.  Handrails on stairs shall be not less than  thirty (30) inches nor more than forty-two (42) inches above the upper surface of the tread, measured vertically to the top of the rail from a point on the tread in line with the face of the riser at its outside edge, except that on stairways designed for use by children an additional handrail may be provided lower than the main handrail.
d.  Handrails shall provide a clearance of at lease one and one-half (1-1/2) inches between handrail and wall to which fastened.
e.  When not enclosed by walls or balustrades, the open edges of air landings, balconies, or platforms appurtentant  thereto, shall be suitably guarded by extension of the handrail along the open edge, and the provision of intermediate rails or other means to protect the space under the fail.
22.5-7  Existing Skew and Curved Stairs
a.  Skew Stairway
Any existing skew stairway may be accepted as a required Class C stair exit if otherwise complying with the requirements of this ordinance, provided that its rated unit of width shall be reduced by 10 percent  for each five (5) degrees by which the line of the outer edge  of the most skewd tread deviates from the right angle to the center line of the stairs.
b.  Curved Stairway
Any existing curved stairway with  either concave or convex curvature of the outer edge of the treads may be accepted as a required Class C stair exit if otherwise complying with the requirements of this ordinance, provided that its  rated units of width shall be determined on the basis of the length of  a straight line between the centers of the ends of the shortest tread (chord of the arc).
25.5-8  Smokeproof Towers
A smokeproof tower, as herein specified, shall be a continuous fire-resistive enclosure protecting a stairway from fire or smoke in the building served, with communication between the building and the tower by means of balconies, or vestibules directly open to the outer air or to an interior smoke shaft, so that under no  condition will fire or smoke from the building enter the tower, even though doors may be blocked open.
a.  Construction and Design of Stairs
stairs in smokeproof towers shall be of incombustible construction, and all requirements herein before specified as applicable to interior stairs shall apply to stairs in smokeproof towers.  Stair design shall be Class A or Class B, depending  upon the occupancy of the building served.
b.  Enclosure
Stairways shall be completely enclosed by walls of incombustible materials, providing  fire resistance of not less than three (3) hours.
c.  Wall Openings
There  will be no openings in walls, separating the enclosure from the interior of the building.  Openings in  an exterior wall of the enclosure shall be permitted only when such openings, are located not less than  thirty (30) feet from any opening in the walls of the same building, or from any adjacent lot line.
d.  Vestibules and Balconies
(1)  Except when an interior smoke shaft is provided, access to the stairway shall be provided from every story through vestibules open to the outside on an exterior wall or from balconies overhanging an exterior wall, but not subject to severe fire exposure hazard.
(2)  Every such vestibule, balcony, or landing shall have an unobstructed length and width not less than the required width of exit doors serving same, and shall be directly open to the street, alley, or yard, or to and enclosed court open at the top, not less than twenty (20 feet) in width and 1,000 square feet in area, or shall be open to an interior smoke shaft complying with the requirements of Section 22.5-8f.
(3  Balconies or vestibules shall have solid balustrades or railings not less than four (4) feet high.
(4)  The floors, walls and ceilings of all vestibules and balconies shall be of construction providing fire resistance of not less than three (3) hours.
(5)  Access from the building to vestibules or balconies shall be through doorways not less than forth (40) inches wide for new and thirty-six (36) inches wide for existing towers.  These openings and the entrances to the towers shall be provided with approved, self-closing fire doors swinging with the exit travel.  Clear wire glass shall be provided in all doors giving access to the enclosure.
(6)  Where doors are so located as to involve the possibility of their being blocked by snow or ice, the level of the vestibule or balcony floor shall be placed approximately seven and one-half (7-1/2) inches below the floor level of each story.  There shall be no step from the vestibule or balcony into the stair enclosure.
e.  Exterior Exits
The smokeproof tower shall terminate at grade level and shall have access directly to a public way, to an open area leading to a public way, or to an exit corridor leading to a public way and enclosed with construction providing at least three (3) hour fire resistance.
f.  Interior Smoke Shafts
Every interior smoke shaft  used in connection with an entrance vestibule or balcony of a smokeproof tower shall be at least five (5) feet square feet from its bottom to the sky; however, such shaft may be covered with a roof if the walls below such roof are open to the outside air on all sides with a total open area of not less than 100 square feet.  The smoke shaft shall be separated from all other parts of the building by construction providing fire resistance of not less than four (4) hours.  There shall be no opening from the building into the smoke shaft except the required openings from the vestibules or balconies.
22.6  DOORS AND DOORWAYS
22.6-1  General
a.  All doors used in connection with exits shall be substantially constructed and installed in a workmanlike manner, and be fitted with reliable hardware
b.  Vertically sliding doors, horizontally sliding doors (except those normally open and closed by the operation of a fusible link), rolling shutters and folding doors shall not be used on required exits or on openings necessary to reach required exits from any occupied room or space.  However, automatic horizontally sliding fire doors may be used to protect openings in fire walls, and overhead or sliding doors may be permitted in single-family and two-family dwellings.
c.  No exit door shall open immediately upon a flight of stair; doors providing access to descending stairs or means of travel from descending stairs shall be so arranged that the same floor or landing level is maintained on both sides of the door for a distance of at least the width of the door, except as otherwise permitted in Paragraph d., below and for Class C stairs.  Where the line of travel involves a change in direction, such as where after entering a door into a stairway enclosure a right angle turn is made to descend stairs, the measurement shall be made on a curve with a one (1) foot radius from the corner.
d.  Where necessary to prevent blocking of exit doors by accumulations of snow or ice, or due to differences in grade level, doors from enclosed stairways to the outside of a building and doors from the building to an outside balcony of a smokeproof tower or to the landing of an  exterior stairway may be so arranged that in passing through the door to the outside there is one step down, not to exceed seven and three-fourths (7-3/4) inches in height.
e.  All doors on exit, or providing required means of access to exits, shall be so arranged as to be readily opened from the side from which egress is to be made and swing in the path of travel, at all times when the building, structure, or area served is occupied.  Locks, if provided, shall not require any key to open from the inside except as otherwise specified in Section 9.4-6 of Article IX, INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS.
f.  Latches or other releasing devices to open exist doors, or doors in the path of travel to reach exits, shall be of simple types, the method of operation of which is obvious.
g.  Any devices or alarms installed to restrict the improper use of exits shall be so designed and installed that they cannot, even in case of failure, impede or prevent emergency use of  such exits.
h.  All doors designed to be kept normally closed in connection with exits, such as doors on stair enclosures and smoke stop doors, shall be provided with reliable self-closing mechanism, and shall shall not at any time be  secured in the open position.  All exit doors designed to be kept normally shall bear signs reading substantially as follows:

FIRE EXIT
PLEASE KEEP DOOR CLOSED
.22.6-2  Widths
a.  The unit of width for doorways shall be twenty-two (22) inches.  Door jambs shall not project into the required width of doorways by more than two a92) inches for each twenty-two (22) inches unit (20 inch net opening).
b.  Credit for fractions of units shall not be allowed, except that  a credit of one-half (1/2)  unit shall be allowed for twelve (12) inches of clear width added to one or more twenty-two (22) inch units of width, and except as provided in Section 22.6-4 for revolving doors.
c.  Where a doorway is divided into two (2) or more separate door openings, each such opening shall be measured separately in computing the number of units of exit width.
d.  No exit doorway shall be less than thirty (30) inches wide (nominal), except as permitted for single-family dwellings in Section 8.4-7 of Article VIII.
e.  Where a doorway is divided into two (2) or more separate door openings, the minimum clear width of each such opening shall be not less than twenty-eight (28) inches.
22.6-3  Power-Operated Doors
Where required doors are operated by power, such as doors with photoelectric actuated mechanism to open the door upon the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure the door may be manually opened to permit exit travel or closed where necessary to safeguard ways of exit.
22.6-4  Revolving Doors
a.  All revolving doors shall be of approved collapsible type with the mechanism which controls their collapse of stainless steel or other approved noncorrodible  metal, and having an approved speed control governor designed to prevent rotation of the doors at too rapid a rate to permit orderly egress.
b.  Revolving doors shall not be used on required exits except that approved revolving doors may be used between street floor and street where permitted for specific occupancies, as established in Part B of this ordinance, but not at the foot of stairs from upper floors or at the head of basement stairs.  Where used, revolving doors shall not constitute more than 50 percent of the required door width, except that revolving doors may serve as exits, without adjacent swinging doors, for street floor elevator lobbies if no stairways or doors from other parts of the building discharge through the lobby and the lobby has no occupancy other than as a means of travel between elevators and street.
c.  The width of each clear passageway shall not be less than twenty-two (22) inches when the leaves  of the revolving door are in collapsed position.
d.  Each revolving door shall receive credit as constituting one-half (1/2) unit of exit width.  At any location, the number of revolving doors constituting required exits shall not exceed the number of units of swinging door width immediately adjoining or within  twenty (20) feet, except as allowed in Paragraph b., above.
22.6-5  Turnstiles
a.  No turnstile or similar device designed to restrict travel to one (1) direction, or to collect fares or admission charges, shall be so placed as to obstruct any required exit, except that approved turnstiles not over three (3) feet high, which turn freely in the direction of exit travel,  may be used in any occupancy where revolving doors are permitted.
b.  Turnstiles in or furnishing access to required  exits shall  be of such design as to provide twenty-two (22) inches clear width as the turnstile rotates.
c.  No turnstile shall be placed in any required exit, or barring the way of access thereto or travel therefrom, unless immediately adjacent or within twenty (20) feet there is a swinging door or gate opening freely in the direction of exit travel, or an open passage serving the same general path of travel as the turnstile.
d.  Turnstiles which turn freely int he direction of exit travel shall be rated the same as revolving doors as regards units of exit width and rates of travel.
22.6-6  Glass Doors
Glass doors shall mean those doors made of glass in which the glass is not supported by a framework of another material which is self supporting.  All glass doors as defined herein regardless of their location, and whether part of a required exitway or not, shall be made of approved tempered glass, or approved safety glass.


22.7  RAMPS
22.7-1  General
a.  All ramps used in connection with exits shall be of a substantial construction, adequately designed for use as exits.
b.  Corridors or other sloping floor surfaces with a slope of less than one in 16 (3/4 inch per foot) shall not be classed as ramps but shall conform to the provisions of Section 22.3-4 applicable to corridors.
22.7-2  Classification of Ramps
Ramps shall be of Class A, Class B,or Class C types, depending upon the special occupancy requirements contained in Part B of this ordinance, in accordance with the following table:

TABLE 22.7
CLASSIFICATION OF RAMPS

22.7-3  Enclosures
All inside ramps shall be enclosed or protected to safeguard the ramp as an exit and to prevent passage of fire or smoke up the ramp, in accordance with the provisions of Section 20.7 of Article XX.
22-7.4  Access
a.  All other requirements of this Article shall be complied with as applicable to ramps.
b.  Doorways serving exit ramps shall provide units of doorway width at least equal to the number of units of ramp width required to serve the floor or floors from which the ramp leads, except that doorways serving Class B or Class C ramps may have 25 percent less units of exit width.
c.  Doorways leading from ramps in the direction of exit  travel shall provide units of exit width sufficient to permit the full utilization of the ramps.
22.7-5  Exit Details
a.  All new ramps (and platforms, landings, etc., used in the connection therewith) in existing buildings four (4) stories or more in height, and in all new buildings required by this ordinance to be of fire-resistive construction, shall be of incombustible construction throughout.  (Handrails are exempted from this requirement)  Ramp floors shall be solid (without perforations).
b.  There shall be no variation in pitch in any individual ramp surface except that a variation of not to exceed one percent in pitch on opposite sides of the ramp may be permitted where necessary to  provide proper adjustment to grade of floors and landings.
c.  Where the material of the ramp surface is such as to involve danger of slipping, non-slip material shall be provided.
d.  The space beneath any ramp shall be left entirely open or be completely enclosed without door or other opening.
e.  All new ramps shall be straight on any individual ramp section; changes in direction, if any, shall be on level landings.
f.  Ramp and intermediate landings shall continue with no decrease in width along the direction of exit travel, except that existing raps with decrease in width may be accepted, subject to the provision that the narrowest point shall determine the rated width for all floors above that point (or below in the case of basements).
22.7-6  Doors
a.  Doors shall not open immediately on a ramp of slope steeper  than one in 12 (8-1/3%), but rather, on a landing at least the width of the door, except on exiting Class C ramps.
b.  Doors giving access to ramps shall swing in the direction of exit travel.  Doors, during their swing shall not block ramps or  landings and in no case shall any door at any point in its swing reduce the effective width of ramp or landing to less than twenty-two (22) inches, nor, when open, interfere with the full use of the ramp.
c.  Doors from ramps to outside of building shall swing out, and be so arranged as not to restrict the effective width of the ramp.
22-7-7  Handrails
a.  All ramps shall have walls or well secured balustrades or guards on both sides.   Ramps with slope steeper than one (1) in twelve (12 (8-1/3%) shall have handrails on both sides, except in Class C ramps.  Any Class B or Class C ramp eighty-eight (88) inches or more in width shall be provided with one or more continuous intermediate handrails substantially  supported; the number and positions of intermediate handrails to be such that there will be not more than sixty-six (66) inches between adjacent handrails.
b.  Handrails on ramps shall not be less than thirty (30) inches nor more than forty-two (42) inches above the floor surface of the ramp, measured vertically.
c.  Handrails shall provide a clearance of at least one and one-half (1-1/2) inches between handrail and wall to which fastened.
d.  Where not enclosed by walls or balustrades, the open edges of landings, balconies, or platforms appurtenant to ramps shall be suitably guarded by extension of the ramp rail along the open edge and the provision of intermediate rails or other means to guard the space under the rail.


22.8  HORIZONTAL EXITS
22.8-1  General
a.  A horizontal exit shall consist of a way of passage, on the same or approximately the same level, from one building or fire area to an area of refuge in another building, or in the same building if separated by a fire wall, party wall, or fire separation wall affording safety from any fire or smoke there from in the area from which escape has been made or in any other area communicating therewith.  Such intermediate wall shall provide at least two (2) hour fire resistance.  All openings in such intermediate walls whether or not such openings serve as exits, shall be adequately protected in accordance with the provisions of Section 20.18 of Article XX.
b.  Horizontal exits, as regulated in this Section, may be substituted for stairways or other exits, in accordance with the applicable provisions contained in Part B of this ordinance; provided, however, that the aggregate exit capacity of stairs, ramps and doors leading outside the building shall not be  less than one-half (1/2) that which would otherwise be required for the entire area of the building or connected buildings if there were no horizontal exits.
c.  Each horizontal exit shall be equipped with an automatic or self-closing fire door.
d.  Swinging fire doors on horizontal exits shall swing with the exit travel.  Where a horizontal exit  serves areas on both sides of a wall there shall be adjacent openings with swinging doors at each, opening in opposite directions, with signs on each side of the wall or partition indicating  as the exit the door which swings with the travel from that side; or other approved arrangements providing doors always swing with any possible exit travel.
e.  Normally open automatic sliding fire doors shall not be used on horizontal exits serving as part of the required exit capacity of a building.
f.  Where there is a difference of level between connected areas, ramps meeting the requirements of Section 22.7 shall be used.  Steps shall be used where  the difference in elevation exceeds twenty-one (21) inches.
22.8-2  Egress from Area of Refuge
a.  Every fire division for which credit is allowed in connection with a horizontal exit shall have in addition to the horizontal exit or exits at least one stairway, doorway leading outside, or other standard exit.  Any fire division not having a stairway or doorway  leading outside shall be considered as part of an adjoining section with stairway. 
b.  Construction and arrangement shall be such that the stairway or other exit from each possible area of refuge cannot be obstructed by the fire or smoke from the area from which refuge is taken.
c.  Every horizontal exit for which credit is given shall be so arranged that there are continuously available paths  of travel leading from each side of the exit to stairways or other standard means of egress leading to the outside the building.
d.  Doors used in connection with horizontal exits shall be kept unlocked and unobstructed whenever premises are occupied on either side of the exit, except that such doors may be locked against entry from the side from which they are not used as a horizontal exit.
e.  The floor area on either side of a horizontal exit shall be sufficient to hold the occupants of both floor areas, allowing not less than three (3) square feet net clear area per person.
22.8-3  Bridges and Balconies
a.  Where horizontal exits utilize b ridges between buildings, or outside balconies providing a path of travel around firewalls, such bridges or balconies shall comply with the structural  requirements of Section 20.8 of Article XX.
b.  Bridges or balconies shall be at least as wide as the the doors leading to them.
c.  Every door leading to a bridge or balcony serving as a horizontal exit from a fire area shall swing with the exit travel, out of the fire area.
d.  Where the bridge or balcony serves as a horizontal exit in one direction only, the door from the bridge or balcony into the area of refuge shall swing in.
e.  Where the bridge or balcony  serves as a horizontal exit in both directions, doors shall be provided in pairs swinging in opposite directions, only the door swinging with the exit travel to be counted in determination of exit width, unless the bridge or balcony has sufficient floor area to accommodate the population of either connected building or fire area on the basis of three (3) square feet per  person.
f.  The bridge or balcony floor shall be level with the building, except that where there is a possibility of doors being blocked by snow or ice the bridge or balcony floor shall be approximately seven and three-quarters (7-3/4) inches below the building floor level.
g.  All wall openings in both of the connected buildings or fire areas, any part of which are within twenty (20) feet of any bridge or balcony as measured horizontally or from below, shall be protected with fire doors or metal frame wired glass windows; provided, however that  where bridges have solid sides not less than six (6) feet in height, such protection of wall openings may be omitted.
22.8-4  Units of Exit Width
Units of exit width for horizontal exits shall be the same as specified for doors in Section 22.6-2.
22.8-5  Omission of Fire Separation Wall on Street Floor
a.  Where fire separation walls are used to provide horizontal exits on upper floors of a building but the street or ground floor is one open fire area, the horizontal exits shall qualify as required exits only where safeguards are provided to prevent spread of fire or smoke from the street or ground floor to floors above on either side of the fire separation wall, as specified in Paragraph b., below and required exits from the upper floor areas on both sides of the fire separation walls lead outside without travel through the street or ground floor area.
b.  Safeguards to prevent the spread of fire and smoke upwards from the street or ground floor area shall consist of complete fire-resistive construction with no opening between street and ground floor area and stories above, or if there are openings, such as for stairs or  elevators, protection shall consist of one (1) hour fire-resistive enclosures with one (1) hour Class B fire doors at all openings in the enclosure and automatic sprinkler protection throughout the street or ground floor, in accordance with Section 21.10 of Article XXI.
c.  Where fire separation walls are used to provide horizontal exits for basement floor or any floors below the street or ground level, but the street floor is one open fire area, the  horizontal exits shall qualify as required exits only where the  construction of the building is fire-resistive or automatic sprinkler protection is provided, and all required exits from all basement or below-grade areas on both sides of the fire partition lead outside without travel through the street or ground floor area.

22.9  ACCESS TO ROOF
22.9-1  Stairway Access
When the roof of a building is used as a roof garden or for other purposes, sufficient stairways shall be extended to provide the necessary exit facilities required for  such use.  In all buildings more than three (3) stories in height with roofs having a slope of less than twenty (20) degrees, at least one (1) stairway shall extend to the roof.   All other roofs on buildings more than three (3) stories in height shall be provided with access scuttles and ladders.
22.9-2  Stairway Enclosures
Stairways extending through roofs shall be enclosed in  roof structures of fire-resistive construction meeting the requirements of Section 10 of Article XX.


22.10  MOVING STAIRWAYS AND WALKWAYS
22.10-1  General Regulations
a.  Moving stairways shall be accepted as the equivalent of ordinary stairways where designed as exits and complying with all requirements of this ordinance, subject to the limitations specified in Part B of this ordinance
b.  Moving stairways  not qualifying as required exits shall nevertheless be enclosed or protected as provided in Section 20.7 of Article XX, and shall have, near the point of entrance to each flight a sign or signs indicating the direction to reach a stairway or other recognized exit in accordance with Section 22.14, unless exits are so near and clearly visible that their location is unmistakable even without signs.
c.  All moving stairways serving as required exits shall comply with all requirements for exit stairs as specified in Section 22.5, except as modified by this Section, including  enclosure of the stairway and its appurtenant landings to provide a continuous safe path  of travel to the street, exit  signs, lighting, and other features the same as required for stairs.
d.  Where moving stairways are used in conjunction with other types of required exit, combined to form a single way of required exit, as for example, where an enclosed moving stairway is used on the lower floors of a building and the upper floors are served by a  stairway connecting with the moving stairway, each type of required exit shall comply with  the applicable requirements of the individual Sections of this Article, and the combined  exit types shall be so arranged  that the combination of facilities will, in its entirety, provide a safe path of exit in conformity with the general principles of this ordinance.
22.10-2  Construction and Arrangement
a.  Moving stairways serving as required exits shall be designed for their intended service, in accordance with Article XXXIII, ELEVATORS AND SIMILAR MECHANICAL DEVICES
b.  Only moving stairways operating in the direction of exit travel shall be given credit as required means of exit.
c.  Moving stairways serving as required means of exit shall be of horizontal tread type and shall be of incombustible construction throughout, except step tread surfaces, handrails and step wheels.
d.  For moving stairways serving as required exits, the height of the step risers shall not  be  more than eight and one-half (8-1/2) inches.
e.  No single moving stairway unit serving as a required exit shall have a vertical travel of more than two (2) stories or 35 feet.
f.  Moving stairways serving as required exits shall have top and bottom landings similar to those specified for stairways serving as required exits.
22.10-3  Exit Capacity Rating
A moving stairway shall be credited with the same exit capacity as a non-moving stairway of the same dimensions.
22.10-4  Moving Walkways
a.  Moving walkways consisting of conveyor belts designed for transportation of persons, shall be treated as corridors or passageways if level or as ramps if inclined and shall be accepted as exits only where they comply with all requirements applicable to corridors, passageways or ramps.
b.  Moving walkways shall be accepted as required exits only for travel in the direction of the movement of the walkway.
c.  The exit capacity or rate of travel on a moving walkway shall be determined on the assumption that the walkway is stopped.
22.10-5  Details of Construction and Installation
For further details on construction, installation and safety requirements for moving stairs and walkways may be found in Article XXXIII, ELEVATORS AND SIMILAR MECHANICAL DEVICES.


22.11  SLIDE ESCAPES
22.11-1  Use and Capacity Rating
a.  Slide escapes shall not be used as required exits except as specifically authorized by provisions contained in Part B of this ordinance, which provide for the following uses:
(1)  To supplement otherwise inadequate exit facilities in existing Educational and Institutional Buildings.
(2)  As a primary exit from upper stories of existing High Hazard Buildings or Structures.
b.  Slide escapes, where permitted as required exits, shall be rated at one exit unit per slide, with rated travel capacity of 60 persons per minutes.
c.  Slide escapes, except as permitted for exiting High Hazard Buildings or Structures, shall not constitute more than 25 percent of the  required number of units of exit width from any building or structure, or any individual story or floor thereof.
2.11-2  Types
This Section covers enclosed spiral and straight chutes attached to buildings or structures or erected independently of them, but connected by bridges, including:
a.  vertical spiral enclosed chutes
b.  Enclosed straight chutes parallel to or at right angles to buildings
22.11-3  Design
a.  For all chutes the slope shall not be  less than 24 degrees and not more than forty-two (42)  degrees with the horizontal.  On spiral chutes the slope shall be measured by   developing the spiral line on the cylindrical section, two (2) feet from the inner edge.
b.  On all straight chutes having slopes greater than thirty (30) degrees, there shall be a section at the lower end at least ten (10) feet long, set at an angle not to exceed 15 degrees with the  horizontal, connected with the upper section by a curved compensating section.
c.  On spiral chutes, transition from one pitch interval to another where necessary on  account of differing story heights shall be made by the use of compensating plates so that  there is no perceptible interruption of the slide.
d.  Spiral chutes for ordinary use shall not be less than twenty-eight (28) nor more than forty-two (42) inches  wide; straight chutes shall not be less than twenty-four (24)  inches nor more than forty-two inches (42)  wide.  Where hospital pads are to be used, the clear width shall be not  less than thirty-four (34) inches and not more than forty-tow (42) inches for either spiral or straight chutes.
e.  The slide ways of spiral chutes shall be banked from a point twelve (12) inches from the outer edge to a point five (5) inches above the level of the center of the chute.
f.  Doors to chutes shall be provided at each entrance, swinging with the exit travel so  constructed that they will not obstruct the use of the chute; the door openings shall be at  least thirty (30) inches wide and at least six (6) feet six (6) inches high except that where hospital pads are to be used the openings shall be not less than thirty-four (34) inches wide.  Where entrance is direct  from the building with no intervening landing or balcony, access openings shall be not less than forty-two (42) inches high.
22.11-4  Location and Arrangement
a.  Chutes installed inside buildings shall conform to all requirements for enclosure of stairways.
b.  Chutes installed outside buildings shall be protected from fire within the building to which they are attached b one of the following methods.  The order indicates the desirability of protection:
(1)  Incombustible and enclosed chutes affording protection against weather, smoke, or fire and with access direct  or through covered balconies at vestibules.
(2)  Chutes entirely shielded by blank walls, access from wall openings to chutes being  by horizontal balconies.
(3)  Chutes shielded by approved stationary metal frame, windows glazed with wired glass and balconies extending in one or both directions to openings protected with approved doors or wired glass windows.
c.  The lower edge of the chute at the discharge point shall be at least  twelve (12) inches and not more than twenty (20) inches above the ground or walkway level.  Where hospital pads are to be used on a chute, the lower end shall terminate in a straight, level discharge table at least fifteen (15) feet in length, so arranged  as to allow access to both sides.
d.  No doors shall be allowed at the bottom or discharge point of the chute.
e.  At the discharge point, protection against snow and ice shall be provided.
f.  All chutes shall lead directly to the street, to a yard or court connected with the street, or to a fire-resistive passage leading to the street, in accordance with Section 22.4
g.  On straight chutes the entrance landing shall be flush with the lowest point in the adjoining surface of the slideway.  On spiral chutes the center of the entrance landing shall be not less than twelve (12) inches nor more than eighteen (18) inches above the lowest point in the adjacent slideway in the same radial vertical plane.
22.11-5  Materials and Strength
a.  Iron, steel, concrete, or other approved incombustible materials shall be used in construction of slide escapes, balconies, platforms, and other features appurtenant thereto.
b.  Slideways shall be made of galvanized steel or other approved material with similarly smooth and corrosion-resistant surfaces.  Joints shall lap over in the direction of descending  load or  have the  edges of adjoining sections  flanged so as to form a flush joint; all rivets, bolts., etc., shall be flat-headed, countersunk, and protected by solder to form a smooth sliding surface.
c.  The chutes and their supports shall be designed to carry the weight of the structure itself and 100 pounds per lineal foot of slide (as measured at the middle of the slideway) with a safety factor of six (6).  Balconies shall be designed to carry a live load 100 pounds  per square foot within a  safety factor of six (6).
d.  All supporting members for balconies and chutes, which are in tension and are fastened directly to the building, shall pass through the wall and be securely fastened on the opposite side, or they shall be securely  fastened to the frame-work of the building.  Where  metal members pass through walls, they shall be protected effectively against corrosion.
e.  Balcony and chute enclosures and railings shall be designed to withstand a horizontal pressure of 50 pounds (with safety factor of six) per running root of railing or enclosure without serious deflections and support at walls for balcony railings or enclosures shall be in the manner specified in Paragraph d., above, for tension members.
22.11-6  Signs and Lighting
Straight or spiral chutes and passageways thereto shall be provided with illumination and signs the same as required for  fire escape stairs, but no light shall be required within chutes.  Signs directing the way and the entrances to such chutes shall contain the words "EMERGENCY EXIT CHUTE" or '"ESCAPE CHUTE" in letters not less than two and one-half (2-1/2) inches high.


22.12  ELEVATORS
22.12-1  Unsuitable as Means of Exit
Elevators shall not constitute required means of exit
22.12-2  Escape Openings
All elevator cars shall be provided with escape hatches or doors designed to permit the escape or rescue of occupants in case they are trapped by the stopping of  cars between floors due to power failure, fire or other emergency
22.12-3  Enclosure and Protection
Elevator shafts shall be enclosed and protected to prevent the spread of fire and smoke in accordance with the requirements of Section 20.7 of Article XX.
22.12-4  Details of Construction and Installation
Construction details and installation and safety requirements for elevators may be found in Article XXXIII, ELEVATORS AND SIMILAR MECHANICAL DEVICES


22.13  FIRE ESCAPES
Fire escapes shall not be permitted except as approved by the  Building Commissioner for existing buildings where additional exits are necessary and conditions do not permit the use of more adequate exit facilities.   Fire escape  stairs shall not constitute more than  thirty-three and one-third (33-1/3)  percent of the required exit capacity in any case.
22.13-1  Conformance with Stair Requirements
Exterior fire escapes, where permitted, shall conform so far as possible with the requirements for interior stairs, as established in Section 22.5.  However, the width of fire escapes shall be not less than 24 inches; maximum height of risers shall be eight (8) inches; and minimum width of tread, exclusive of nosing, shall be nine (9) inches.
22.13-2  Construction and Access
Fire escapes shall be constructed of incombustible material on buildings of construction Types I, II and IV, and shall be arranged and located so that they can readily be reached by occupants of the building without going through rooms and so that safe egress is provided at the foot of the fire escape, in accordance with Section 22.4
22.13-3   Protection of Adjacent Wall Openings
Wall openings located adjacent to fire escapes shall be protected as required in Section 22.5-2 for openings adjacent to exterior stairways.


22.14  EXIT SIGNS
22.14-1  Required Signs
All required exits and the ways of access thereto shall be identified by readily visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach it is not immediately obvious to the occupants, an in any case where specifically required by the applicable provision of Part B of this ordinance.
22.14-2  Designation of Non-Exits
Doors, stairways, or passageways which are not exits or do not provide access to an exit, and which are so located as to be possibly mistaken for an exit shall be clearly marked to so indicate, as "NOT AN EXIT", or shall be identified by signs indicating their actual character.
22.14-3  Visibility
a.  Every exit, stairway and fire escape sign shall bear the words "EXIT", "STAIRWAY" and 'FIRE ESCAPE" respectively, in block letters at least four and one-half (4-1/2) inches high, with the principle strokes or letters not less than five-eighths (5/8) inch wide.
b.  All such letters shall be red in color on a white translucent field.
c.  No decorations, furnishings, or equipment which impair visibility of signs shall be permitted, nor shall there be any brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), permitted, nor shall there be any brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), display,  or object in or near the line of vision to the required exit sign of such a character as to so detract attention from the exit sign that it may not be noticed.
2.14-4  Directional Signs
a.  Signs reading "TO EXIT", "TO STAIRWAY" or similar designation with an arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in locations where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately apparent, and near all elevators, or moving stairways (not so arranged as to qualify as required exits) where in the event of fire persons accustomed to using only the elevators or moving stairway would have to use a stairway or other alternate exit.
b.  Lettering on such directional signs shall  be in block letters at least three and three-eights (3-3/8) inches high with a stroke not less than five-eights (5/8) inch wide.  The  arrow shall be at least one-half (1/2) inch wide and as long as the lettering.  The letters and arrows shall be red in color on a  white translucent field.
22.14-5  Illumination of Signs
a.  Exit signs shall be  suitably illuminated by a reliable light source giving a value of not less than five (5) foot-candles on the illuminated surface.  Such illumination shall be continuous, and where emergency lighting facilities are required, exit signs shall be illuminated from the same source.  Artificial lights giving illumination to exit signs other than the internally illuminated types shall have screens, discs or lenses of not less than twenty-five (25) square inches in area made of translucent material to show red color on the side of the approach.
b.  Internally illuminated exit signs shall be provided in all occupancies where reduction of normal illumination is permitted, as in motion picture theaters, and may be used in any occupancy.  They shall be so designed as to provide intensity of illumination at least equivalent in visibility to externally illuminated signs, as specified in paragraph (1), above.


22.15  EXIT LIGHTING
22.15-1  Where Required
Exit lighting shall be provided for all buildings and structures  where artificial lighting is provided for normal use and occupancy of the building or structure.  No artificial lighting for exits shall be required in buildings or structures designated solely for daylight occupancy and where no artificial light is provided for purpose of general use and occupancy.
2.15-2  Degree of Illumination
All exits and the necessary ways of approach thereto shall be illuminated to facilitate egress.  Such illumination shall be continuous during the time that the conditions of occupancy require that the exitways be open or available.  Artificial lighting shall maintain the illumination specified in Section 23.3 of Article XXIII, LIGHT, NATURAL VENTILATION, AND MINIMUM PLANNING REQUIREMENTS.
2.15-3  Emergency Exit Lighting Systems
Emergency exit lighting shall provide not less than one foot candle of illumination, measured at the floor, from a power source meeting the requirements of Section27(14-48-030) of the Chicago Electrical Code.  For the type of power supply required for emergency exit lighting, see the specific occupancy requirements in Part B of this ordinance.  Where no requirements are given, emergency exit lighting is not required.



ARTICLE XXIII

LIGHT, NATURAL VENTILATION
MINIMUM PLANNING REQUIREMENTS

Index
23-1        SCOPE
23-1-1            Requirements Included
23.1-2            Requirements Not Included
23.1-3            Compliance with Zoning Requirements

23.2        LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS
23.2-1            General
23.2-2            Means of Providing
23.2-3            Night Lighting
23.2-4            Stairways, Hallways, and Exitways

23.3        ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

23.4        NATURAL LIGHT BY ENGINEERING DESIGN

23.5        NATURAL LIGHT BY THE FLOOR AREA RATIO METHOD
23.5-1            General
23.5-2            Glass Area Required
23.5-3            Windows and Equivalent Light Transmitting Panels
23.5-4            Alcoves
23.5-5            Mezzanine Spaces

23.6        VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS
23.6-1            Intent
23.6-2            Means of Providing Ventilation
23.6-3             Situations Not Covered

23.7        NATURAL VENTILATION BY ENGINEERING DESIGN
23.7-1            General
23.7-2            Effect of Wind
23.7-3            Maintained Temperature
23.7-4            Fresh Air
23.7-5            Bath and Toilet Rooms
23.7-6            Inlets and Outlets

23.8        NATURAL VENTILATION BY THE FLOOR AREA RATIO METHOD
23.8-1            General
23.8-2            Minimum Required Area of Openings
23.8-3            Acceptable Openings
23.8-4            Location of Openings

23.9        YARDS
23.9-1            Yards Required by Zoning
23.9-2            Yards Not Required by Zoning

23.10        COURTS
23.10-1            General
23.10-2            Width
23.10-3            Area
23.10-4            Projection
23.10-5            Intakes
23.10-6            Drainage
23.10-7             Accessibility

23.11        EXISTING BUILDINGS, ALTERATIONS, AND BUILDINGS ON THE SAME LOT
23.11-1            Existing Buildings
23.11-2            Wall Color
23.11-3            Alterations
23.11-4            Buildings on the Same Lot

23.13        INSECT SCREENING

23.14        VENTILATION OF STRUCTURAL SPACES
23.14-1            Crawl Spaces
23.14-2            Attic Spaces


23.1  SCOPE
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class of construction type, shall comply with the requirements in this Article.
23.1-1  Requirements Included
This article covers requirements for natural and artificial light, natural ventilation, and minimum room planning requirements.  The provisions contained herein shall constitute minimum requirements.
23.1-2    Requirements Not Included
a.  Removal of Dangerous Gases, Mists, or Dusts
Ventilation of High Hazard Buildings and Structures (Class I) and other  buildings and structures for the purpose of removing noxious, explosive, or flammable gases or dusts, is covered in Article XXXV, HEATING, MECHANICAL VENTILATING, AND REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS.
b.  Smoke and Heating Vents
Smoke and heat ventilating is regulated in Section 20.19 of Article XX, FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS.
23.1-3  Compliance with Zoning Requirements
Nothing in this Article shall be construed to nullify the provisions of the Cook County Zoning Ordinance with respect to regulation of yards, courts, or other spaces required for light and ventilation.  In case of conflict, the more restrictive requirement shall apply.


23.2  LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS
23.2-1  General
Every room or space in a building shall be provided with a light source meeting the standards of this Article.
23.2-2  Means of Providing
Three (3) methods of providing lighting are established in this Article.  They are:
(a)  Lighting based on a floor area to glass area ration
(b)  Lighting based upon engineering design using a natural light source, and
(c)  Lighting based upon engineering design using an artificial source.  Except where a given method is required for specific occupancies in Part B, or for exitways as established in Article XXII, EXIT REQUIREMENTS, any method or combination of methods may e used.  The methods are treated in detail in Section 23.3, 23.4 and 23.5.  Where one method of providing lighting is required, other methods may be used in addition to, but not in place of, that method which is required.
23.2-3  Night Lighting
Buildings and spaces customarily occupied at night shall have artificial light.
23.2-4   Stairways, Hallways, and Exitways
a.  Every stairway and public hallway in a building shall be provided with artificial light in accordance with Section22.15-1 of Article XXII, EXIT REQUIREMENTS.
b.  Every recess or return opening off a hallway, the depth or length of which exceeds twice the width of the hallway, and every part of such hallway that is shut off from any other part by a door or doors, shall be considered as separate hallways requiring separate lighting.


23.3  ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
Where artificial light is provided to satisfy the requirement for lighting it shall be adequate to provide an average illumination over the area of the space at the height of thirty (30) inches above the floor level (unless otherwise specified in this ordinance), of ten (10) foot candles for normally occupied spaces and five (5) foot candles for normally unoccupied spaces, stairs, elevator interiors and exitways.


23.4   NATURAL LIGHT BY ENGINEERING DESIGN
 Where a design system of natural lighting is provided to satisfy the requirement for lighting, it shall be adequate to provide an average illumination over the area of the room, at a height of thirty (3) inches with an average sky brightness of one hundred sixty (160) candles per square foot (which is the average brightness of the whole clear sky in candles per foot at 8:00 a.m. or 4:p.m. on December 21st of ten (10) foot candles for normally occupied space, and five (5) foot candles for normally unoccupied spaces, stairs and exitways.


23.5  NATURAL LIGHT BY THE FLOOR AREA RATIO METHOD
23.5-1  General
a.  Where natural light is provided by the floor area ratio method it shall be in accordance with the requirements of this Section.
b.  All rooms shall be lit by windows or their equivalent, meeting the requirements of Section 23.5-1.
23.5-2  Glass Area Required
The aggregate glass area of required windows shall be not less than one-tenth (1/10) of the floor area served by them, except as follows:
a.  Habitable Rooms
When  the glass area of a habitable room is located in only one wall, the glass area shall be not less than one-eighth (1/8) the floor area if the dimension of the room perpendicular to the plane of the window(s) is more than sixteen (16) feet, or if either adjacent wall of the room is more than nine (9) feet measured in the plant of the window from the side of the window.
b.  Bathrooms and Water Closet Compartments
The window area of bathrooms and water closet compartments shall be one-tenth (1/10) of the floor area, but not less than three (3) square feet.  Where a water closet in a bathroom or  water closet compartment is completely enclosed, such enclosure shall be separately lit.
c.  Storage Rooms, Unoccupied Rooms and Public Hallways
The window area of storage rooms, unoccupied rooms and public hallways shall be one-twentieth (1/20) of the floor area served by them.  There shall be at least one (1) window at the end of such hallway adequate to light the hallway for its entire length, or there shall be at least one (1) window within each 50 feet of length.
d.  Basements and Cellars
Except where provided for a particular usage having more stringent requirements window area shall be one-fiftieth (1/50) of the floor area served thereby.
e.  Stairways
If natural light is provided to meet the requirements for light in stairways, the glass area shall equal one-tenth (1/10) of the floor area, except that in buildings not over two (2) stories or twenty-five (25) feet in height a stairway of one continuous flight may be lighted and ventilated by a glazed door or windows having a glass area of not less than ten (10) square feet.
23.5-3  Windows and Equivalent Light Transmitting Panels
 a.  Light Transmission
Where windows are used to satisfy the requirement for lighting by the floor area ratio method, skylights, glazed doors, transoms, glass block, or other light transmitting panels shall be deemed to be the equivalent of windows to the extent of their lighting area.  If any material other than clear  glass is used to provide required natural light, the light transmitting area required shall be increased to admit an amount of light equivalent to that transmitted by the required area of clear glass.
b.  Exposure
(1)  Every required window or permissible equivalent shall face directly on a street  or other permanent public space, or on a yard conforming to Section  23.9, or on a court conforming to Section 23.10.
(2)  The required effective glass area of a window shall be increased twenty-five (25) percent when the window faces a wall of other obstruction at a distance of less than ten (10) feet.
(3)  Openings providing required natural light which open on an unenclosed covered porch or have an overhang projecting more than four (4)  feet from the face of the window, shall have their glass area increased ten (10) percent for each foot of such projection more than four (4) feet when a plane through the head of the window to the outside of such projection forms an angle with the horizontal of less than forty-five (45) degrees.
(4)  Enclosed porches onto which required windows open shall have a glass area or opening area equal to not less than three (3) times the aggregate glass area opening of required windows facing onto porch.
c.  Heights of Windows in Habitable Rooms
When light is to be provided by the floor area ratio method, the tops of required windows in habitable rooms  shall be not more than one (1) foot below the finished ceiling, unless the tops of such windows are at least six (6) feet, eight (8) inches above the finished floor.  Where dormer windows are used in habitable rooms with sloping ceilings, the tops of the required windows may be not less than six (6) feet above the floor.
23.5-4  Alcoves
a.  Any alcove opening off a room, unless separately lighted, shall be included as part of that room in computing the amount of window area required.  The alcove shall have an unobstructed opening between it and the main room of at least eighty (80) percent of the wall area of the common wall, measured on the alcove side.
b.  The floor area of the alcove shall not exceed fifty (50) percent of the floor area of the room to which it is attached, nor shall its depth, measured at right angles to the wall opening exceed one-half (1/2) its width.
23.5-5  Mezzanine Spaces
In mezzanine spaces which are open to, and form a part of, another room the area of such mezzanine space shall be added to the floor area of the room in which it is located in computing the window area required for both spaces.


23.6  VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS
23.6-1  Intent
It is the intent of this Article that all rooms and spaces be provided with ventilation consistent with health, safety and a minimum degree of comfort.
23.6-2  Means of Providing Ventilation
a.  Three (3) methods of providing ventilation are provided for in this ordinance.  They are (a) natural ventilation based on a floor area ratio, (b) natural ventilation based on engineering design, and (c) mechanical ventilation based on engineering design in which a mechanical supply and/or exhaust is used.
b.  Natural ventilation based on floor area ratio is covered in Section 23.8.
c.  Natural ventilation based on engineering design is covered in Section 23.7.
d.  Mechanical ventilation based on engineering design is regulated in Article XXXV, HEATING, MECHANICAL VENTILATING, AND REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS.
23.6-3  Situations Not Covered
If the air condition in any habitable room becomes objectionable due to causes other than occupancy by human beings, and the Building Commissioner finds that  the health of human occupants is endangered thereby, he shall require that suitable action be taken to correct the condition.


23.7  NATURAL VENTILATION BY ENGINEERING DESIGN
23.7-1  General
A natural ventilation system based on engineering design shall meet all the requirements of this Section.  The system shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
23.7-2  Effect of Wind
The quantity of air moving through any opening due to the force of the wind acting alone shall be assumed not greater than that given by the following formula:

Q   =   A   x  1.4
Where:                    Q is the air flow  in cubic feet per minute
                                A is the free area of inlet or outlet opening
                                (whichever is smaller) in square feet.
Where no outlet exist, one-half (1/2) the inlet area
shall be considered as the outlet.

23.7-3  Maintained Temperature
The system shall be designed to maintain an indoor dry bulb temperature not more than ten (10 deg. F) above the outside dry bulb temperature when the outside dry bulb temperature is in excess of 80 deg. F.
23.7-4  Fresh Air
The system shall supply outside air in quantities not less than those shown in Table 23.7-4, below, based upon the occupancy content as specified in Article XXII, EXIT REQUIREMENTS.

TABLE 23.7-4
MINIMUM OUTSIDE AIR REQUIRED PER  PERSON
(In Cubic Feet Per Minute)
23.7-5  Bath and Toilet Rooms
a.  Where a water closet is completely enclosed by partitions it shall be separately ventilated.
b.  Individual vents or ducts for natural ventilating of toilet rooms or spaces shall be constructed as required for ducts under Section 35.21 of Article XXXV, HEATING, MECHANICAL VENTILATING, AND REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS, and shall have a minimum cross-sectional area  of one-half (1/2) square foot plus an additional one-third (1/3) square foot for each additional water closet or urinal above two (2) in  number.  Such ducts shall be of adequate height and so located as to ensure a minimum supply of two (2) cubic feet of fresh air per square foot of room area.
23.7-6  Inlets and Outlets
The inlets and outlets of an engineered system of natural ventilation shall be so located and constructed as to ensure circulation of air throughout the room.

23.8  NATURAL VENTILATION BY THE FLOOR AREA RATIO METHOD
23.8-1  General
The floor area ratio method of natural ventilation may be used whether or not lighting is provided by the floor area ratio method.
23.8-2  Minimum Required Area of Openings
Windows or other openings shall be required in each building space.  Such windows or other openings shall have an aggregate net free openable area of at least fifty (50) percent of the glass area required for lighting by Section 23.5, but not less than three (3) square feet for bathrooms and water closet compartments, with the following exceptions:
a.  When any portion of the room is more than sixteen (16)) feet from a required opening the area of the opening shall be sixty (60) percent of the required glass area.
b.  When openings for natural ventilation occur on two (2) sides of a room the area shall be not less than forth (40) percent of the required glass area.
23.8-3  Acceptable Openings
Required ventilation openings may consist of windows, french doors, hinged or sliding doors, louvers, skylights, monitors or other openings located in the exterior walls or roof of a building.  Ground floor main entrance doors may be included in the required ventilation area of rooms, provided they are not the sole means of ventilation.
23.8-4  Location of Openings
Any location allowed for a window under Section 23.5-3b., shall be allowed as a ventilation opening location.


23.9  YARDS
23.9-1  Yards Required by Zoning
Yards upon which required light and ventilation openings face shall be those required at the front, rear, and sides of buildings in accordance with the Cook County Zoning Ordinance.
23.9-2  Yards Not Required by Zoning
For yards not required by the Cook County Zoning Ordinance, and  upon which required light and ventilation openings face, the following requirements shall apply:
a.  Yard width shall be not less than one-quarter (1/4) of the building height, but in no case less than 15 feet.  The bottom of the yard shall be at least six (6) inches below the sill of the lowest window or ventilation opening served by it.  The width of the yard shall be taken as the minimum distance from the building in question to the lot line.  Where two (2) or more buildings are on the same lot, the yard width shall be taken as the minimum distance between the two (2) buildings.
b.  Each end of a yard shall open onto a space which is larger in area than the yard in question.  Such space shall be open to the sky and shall be either a public space, a space lying wholly within the lot on which the building is built, a permanent easement, or a combination of two (2) or more such spaces.


23.10  COURTS
23.10-1  General
Courts upon which required light and ventilation openings face shall be of the minimum sizes specified in this Section.
23.10-2  Width
a.  Outer Court for Habitable Rooms
Every outer court required to serve habitable rooms shall have a minimum width of one-third (1/3) of the average height of walls forming the court, but in no case less than eight (8) feet.  The width of an outer court shall be that dimension parallel to the open side of the court.
b.  Courts for Other Than Habitable Rooms
Every court required to serve other than habitable rooms shall have a minimum  width of one-quarter (1/4) of the height of walls forming the court, but in no case less than five (5) feet.
23.10-3  Area
The cross-sectional area of a required inner court shall be not less than one and one-half (1-1/2) times the square of its required minimum width.  The area of a required outer court shall not be greater than four (4) times the square of its width.
23.10-4  Projections
Every court shall remain unobstructed for its required width and full height, except that for outer courts cornices and eaves  projecting no more than twelve (12) inches from a wall, ordinary window wills or belt courses projecting not more than four (4) inches from a wall, and drop  awnings, shall not be deemed obstructions.  This requirement shall not prohibit clothes poles, arbors, garden trellises and other such accessories from being used in courts.
23.10-5  Intakes
Every court having ventilation openings which serve one or more habitable rooms, and having its least dimension less than its height, and which is not open for its full height in one or more sides to a street or yard, shall be connected, at or near the bottom, with a street or yard by an intake or passage.  Such intake or passage shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than twenty-one (21) square feet and shall remain fully open at both ends and unobstructed for its full length, except that grills may be permitted at the ends.
23.10-6  Drainage
The bottom of every court shall be graded, drained, and paved or otherwise surfaced with impervious material.
23.10-7  Accessibility
Every court that is not otherwise accessible at the bottom shall be made accessible by a door or other means to enable it to be cleaned.



23.11  EXISTING BUILDINGS, ALTERATIONS,  AND BUILDINGS ON THE SAME LOT
23.11-1  Existing Buildings
Existing Buildings or spaces in which the standards of light ventilation, and room size do not meet the requirements of this ordinance and which are thereby dangerous to the health and/or safety of the occupants, shall be required by the Building Commissioner to be repaired or altered so that they meet the standards of this ordinance.
23.11-2  Wall Color
In existing buildings, when, by reason of location or arrangement of courts, windows in normally occupied rooms facing on courts do not receive sufficient light to provide an average illumination of ten (10) foot candles at a height of thirty (30) inches above the floor, with an average sky brightness of one hundred sixty (160) candles per square foot, the Building Commissioner may require the walls of the courts to be white-washed or painted a light color and to be so maintained in good condition.
23.11-3  Alterations
No existing building shall hereafter be altered or rearranged so as to reduce the size of a room, or the  fresh air supply or the amount of light below that required for new buildings.  No new room in an existing building shall be created unless it conforms to requirements for new rooms.  New rooms may be of the same height as existing rooms in the same story  unless, in the opinion of the Building Commissioner, greater heights are necessary to secure healthful living conditions.
23.11-4  Buildings on the Same Lot
New buildings on the same lot with existing buildings shall not be constructed so as to reduce light and ventilation in the existing buildings below the standards of this Article


23.12  PLAN REQUIREMENTS
23.12-1  Lighting
a.  General
Plans submitted in application for a building permit shall show, in chart form, the method by which each space is to be lighted.  Plans shall include a plot plan drawn to appropriate scale showing lot lines, the building in question, and all other buildings and structures on the same lot with their heights indicated to the nearest foot.
b.  Floor Area Ratio Method
Where the floor area ratio method of providing light is used, the floor area and the equivalent glass area provided shall be listed in chart form.
c.  Designed System of Natural Light
Where a designed system of natural light is used, the floor area, room height, equivalent glass area, orientation (i.e. to the North, South, Northwest skylight, etc.) of the glass and   light reflectance values of the walls of each room or space shall be listed in chart form.
d.  Artificial Light
Where artificial light is provided in exitways, the plans need show only the location of lighting fixtures.  Where artificial light is used to satisfy the requirement for lighting in other spaces, drawings shall contain sufficient detail from which the effectiveness of the system may be determined.
23.12-2  Ventilation
a.  General
Plans shall show, in chart form, the method by which each space is to be ventilated. 
b. Where the floor area ratio method of providing ventilation is used, the floor area and the ventilation opening area for each space shall be shown in chart form.
c.  Designed System of Natural Ventilation
Where a designed system of natural ventilation is used, details on the drawings shall be sufficient to determine the effectiveness of the system.  Size and location of ventilating openings shall be indicated.
d.  Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation plans shall comply with the requirements of section 35.25 of Article XXXV, HEATING, MECHANICAL VENTILATING, AND REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS.


23.13  INSECT SCREENING
Kitchens and dining spaces occurring in any occupancy and used by the public shall provide all ventilation and other openings leading directly to the outside with insect screening from May 1 to October 1.  When a vestibule exists, having doors to the dining room and the outside, neither door shall be required to be screened.


23.14  VENTILATION OF STRUCTURAL SPACES
23.14-1  Crawl Spaces
a.  In buildings and structures constructed over crawl spaces, the space provided under the first floor shall be not less than eighteen (18) inches deep and shall be vented with at least one vent on each exterior wall.  The net free area of such vents shall be not less than one-two hundredth (1/200) of the area vented.
b.  If a vapor barrier having a transmission rate not exceeding one perm is provided between the ground and the space vented, the net free area may be reduced to one-fifteen hundredth (1/1500) of the area vented.
c.  No vents shall be required if one side of a crawl space is completely open to a basement of greater area than the crawl space, or if the crawl space is used as a plenum for a year round mechanical heating and/or cooling and ventilation system.
23.14-2  Attic Spaces
a.  All attic spaces and spaces between roofs and top floor ceilings shall be ventilated by not less than two a(2) opposite screened vent openings having a net free area of one-two hundredth (1/200) of the area vented.
b.  If a vapor barrier having a transmission rate not exceeding one perm is provided between the vented space and the rooms below, or if the vent area consists of continuous  eave and ridge vents on a pitched roof, the vent area may be reduced to one-three hundredth (1/300) of  the area vented.


ARTICLE XXIV
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

Index
24.1        SCOPE
24.1-1          General
24.1-2            Safe Support Required
24.1-3            Load Tests

24.2        DEAD  LOADS
24.2-1            Weight of Materials and Construction
24.2-2            Weight of Fixed Service Equipment
24.2-3            Provision for Partitions

24.3        LIVE LOADS
24.3-1            Uniform Live Loads
24.3-2            Concentrated Loads
24.3-3            Roof Trusses
24.3-4            Stairway and Balcony Railings
24.3-5            Partial Loading
24.3-6            Impact Loads
23.3-7            Reduction in Live Loads
23.3-8            Posting of Live Loads
24.3-9            Restrictions on Loading
24.3-10            Minimum Roof Loads

24.4        WIND LOADS
24.4-1            Minimum Design Pressure
24.4-2            Design
24.r-3            Exterior Walls
24.4-4            Roofs
24.4-5            Anchorage
24.4-6            Shielding
24.4-7            Overturning and Sliding
24.4-8            Torsional Resistance
24.4-9            Structures Not Covered

24.5        SOIL AND HYDROSTATIC LOADS
24.5-1            Pressure on Walls
24.5-2            Uplift

24.6        MISCELLANEOUS LADS
24.6-1            Effect of Miscellaneous Forces
24.6-2            Handrails
24.6-3            Load Resistance of Interior Walls
24.6-4             Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls

24.7        ALLOWABLE DEFLECTIONS

24.8        ALLOWABLE INCREASED INS TRESS VALUES FOR WIND LOADS
24.8-1            Elastic Design
24.8-2            Plastic Design
24.8-3            Effect not Accumulative for Wood

24.9        ERECTION LOADS

24.10        EXISTING BUILDINGS
24.10-1            Additions and Alterations
24.10-2            Retention of Existing Live Loads
24.10-3            Change of Occupancy

24.11         PLANS


24.1   SCOPE
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
24-1-1    General
These requirements are intended to govern assumptions for dead, live and other loads in the design of buildings and other structures which are subject to the requirements of this ordinance.
24.1-2    Safe Support Required
Buildings or other structures, and all part thereof shall be designed and constructed to support safely all loads, including dead loads, without exceeding the allowable stresses for the materials of construction in any of the members and connections.
24.1-3  Load Tests
The Building Commissioner may require a load test of any construction whenever there is reason to question its safety for the intended occupancy or use.  Such tests are prescribed in Section 4.6 of Article IV, GENERAL PROVISIONS


24.2  DEAD LOADS
24.2-1    Weight of Materials and Constructions
In estimating dead loads for purposes of design, the actual weights of materials and constructions shall be used, provided that in the absence of definite information, values satisfactory to the Building Commissioner may be assumed.  The weights listed in Appendix 7 shall be considered satisfactory to the Building Commissioner.
24.2-2    Weight of Fixed Service Equipment
In estimating dead loads for purposes of design, the weight of fixed service equipment, such as plumbing stacks and risers, electrical  feeders, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems, shall be included, whenever it is carried by structural members.
24.2-3  Provision for Partitions
Floors in office buildings and other buildings where partition locations are subject to erection or change shall be designed to support, in addition to all other loads, a uniformly distributed load of twenty (20 pounds per square foot, whether or not partitions are shown on plans. Such uniform load shall not be required if the live load equals or exceeds eighty (80) pounds per square foot.


24.3  LIVE LOADS
24.3-1  Uniform Live Loads
The live loads to be assumed in the design of buildings and other structures shall be the greatest loads that probably will be produced  by the intended use or occupancy, but in no case less than the minimum uniformity distributed unit loads listed in Appendix 8.  For occupancies or uses not listed in Appendix 8, live loads shall be assumed to be equal to the occupancy or use most closely resembling the one in question.
24.3-2  Concentrated Loads
Floors shall be designed to support safely the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Appendix 8 or the concentrated load in pounds given in Table 24.3,  whichever produces the greater stresses.  Unless otherwise specified, the indicated concentration shall be assumed to occupy an area of two and one-half (2-1/2) feet square and shall be so located as to produce the maximum stress conditions in the structural members.

TABLE 24.3
CONCENTRATED LOADS

24.3-3  Roof Trusses
Any panel point of the lower chord of roof trusses or any point of other primary structural members supporting roofs over garage, manufacturing, and storage  floors shall be capable of carrying safely a suspended concentrated load of not less than 2q000 pounds in addition to and simultaneously with, all other loads
24.3-4  Stairway and Balcony Railings
Stairway and balcony railings, both exterior and interior, shall be designed to resist a horizontal thrust of fifty (50) pounds per lineal foot applied at the top of the railing in an outward or inward direction of a load of two hundred (200) pounds applied at any point downward or horizontally.  The greater load or combination of loads shall control the design.
24.3-5  Partial Loading
When the construction is such that the structural elements thereof act together in the nature of an elastic frame due to their  continuity and the rigidity of the connections, and the live load exceeds one hundred fifty (150) pounds per square foot or twice the dead load the effect of partial live load such as will produce maximum stress in any member shall be provided for  in the design.
24.3-6  Impact Loads
The live loads specified in Section 24.3-1 of this Article shall be assumed to include adequate allowance for ordinary  impact conditions.  Provisions shall be made in the structural design, for uses and loads which involve unusual vibration  and impact forces.
a.  Elevators
All moving elevator loads shall be increased one hundred (100) percent for impact, and the structural supports shall be designed within the limits of deflection prescribed in Article XXXIII, ELEVATORS AND SIMILAR MECHANICAL DEVICES
b.  Heavy Machinery
For the purpose of design, the weight of heavy machinery and moving load shall be increased not less than twenty-five (25) percent for impact, unless otherwise specified.
c.  Craneways
All craneways shall be designed to resist a horizontal transverse  force equal to twenty-five (25) percent of the crane capacity plus the weight of the trolley applied one-half (1/2) at the of each runway rail for impact; and a horizontal longitudinal force equal to twelve and one-half (12-1/2) percent of the total of the maximum wheel loads applied at the top of each rail.
24.3-7  Reduction in Live Loads
a.  Roof Live Loads
No reduction shall be applied to the roof live load.
b.  Live Loads 100 Pounds per Square Foot or Less
For live loads of one hundred (100) pounds or less per square foot, the design live load on any member supporting one hundred fifty (150) square feet or more may be reduced at the rate of 0.08 percent per square foot of area supported by the member, except that no reduction shall be made for areas to be occupied as places of public assembly.  The reduction shall exceed neither R, as determined by the following formula, nor 60 percent:

                                                                                                D + L
                                                                    R = 100 x         ---------
                                                                                                4.33L
                            in which                       
                                                                     R = reduction in percent
                                                                    D = dead load per square foot of area supported by the member
                                                                    L = design live load per square foot of area supported by the member


c.  Live Loads Exceeding 100 Pounds per Square Foot
For live loads exceeding 100 pounds per square foot, no reduction shall be made except that the design live loads on columns may be reduced 20 percent.
24.3-8  Posting of Live Loads
a.  Permanent Plates
In every building or other structure or part thereof, used for commercial, office, industrial, or storage purposes, the loads approved by the Building Commissioner shall  be marked on plates of approved design which shall be supplied and securely affixed by the owner of the building, or his duly authorized agent, in a conspicuous place in each space to which they relate.  Such plates shall not be removed or defaced but, if lost, removed, or defaced, shall be  replaced by the owner or his agent.
b.  Special Conditions
(1)  When the effect of the shape of roof structure, as determined by actual test or experience, indicates less or greater snow-retention value than specified herein, the roof load shall be modified as directed or approved  by the Building Commissioner.
(2)  When valleys are formed by a multiple series of roofs, special provisions shall be made for the increased load at the intersections.
c.  Special Purpose Roofs
When used for incidental promenade purposes, roofs shall be designed for a minimum live load of sixty (60) pounds per square foot; and one-hundred (100) pounds per square foot when designed for roof-garden or assembly uses.  Roofs to be used for other special purposes shall be designed for appropriate   loads as directed or approved  by the Building Commissioner.


24.4  WIND LOADS
24.4-1  Minimum Design Pressure
Buildings or other structures shall be designed and constructed to withstand the applicable horizontal pressures shown in Table 24.4-1, allowing for wind from any direction.


TABLE 24.4-1

24.4-2  Design
a.  For buildings of traditional construction whose ratio of height to least  width is less than two and one-half (2-1/2) to one, in which the walls, floors and partitions contribute to the lateral rigidity, no design  computations need be submitted.  The Building Commissioner may , however, require evidence of the safety of the structure.
b.  For buildings whose ratio of height to least width is equal to or greater than any two and one-half (2-1/2) to one, and buildings of new types of construction such as those consisting of prefabricated  panels or of unusually light supporting members, the Building Commissioner shall require evidence that the construction is capable of resisting the pressure to which it may be subjected.
24.4-3  Exterior Walls
Every exterior wall shall be designed and constructed to withstand the pressures specified in Section 24.4-1, acting either inward or outward.
24.4-4  Roofs
a.  Outward Pressures
The roofs of all buildings or other structures shall be designed and constructed to withstand pressures acting outward normal to the surface, equal to three quarters 3/4) of those specified for the corresponding height zone in which the roof is located.  The height is to be taken as the mean height of the roof structure above the average level of the ground adjacent to the building or other structure, and the pressure assumed on the entire roof area.
b.  Inward Pressure
Roofs or sections of roofs with slopes greater than thirty (30) degrees shall be designed and constructed to withstand pressures acting inward normal to the surface, equal to  slope only.
c.  Combined Pressures
Roofs shall be capable of withstanding the loads given in Table 24.4-2, acting simultaneously on the windward and leeward slopes.

TABLE 24-4-4
REQUIREMENTS FOR  COMBINED LOADINGS ON ROOFS

24-4-5  Anchorage
Adequate anchorage of the roof to walls and columns and of walls and columns to the  foundations, to resist overturning, uplift and sliding, shall be provided in all cases.
24.4-6  Shielding
No allowance shall be made for the shielding effect of other buildings or structures.
24.4-7  Overturning and Sliding
a.  Overturning
The overturning moment due to the wind load shall not exceed 66-2/3 percent of stability of the building or other structure due to the dead load only, unless the building or other structure is anchored so as to resist the excess overturning moment without exceeding the allowable stresses for the materials used.  The axis of rotation for computing the overturning moment and the moment of stability shall be taken as the intersection of the outside wall line on the leeward side and the plane representing the average elevation of the bottoms of the footings.  The weight of earth superimposed over footings may  be used in computing the moment of stability due to dead load.
b.  Sliding
When the total resisting force due to friction is insufficient to prevent sliding, the building or other structure shall be anchored to withstand the excess sliding force without exceeding the allowable stresses for the materials used.  Anchors provided to resist overturning moment may also be considered as providing resistance to sliding.
c.  Tension in Columns
Tension in columns and connections when caused by wind forces, shall not exceed 66-2/3 percent of the stability of the connection or column due to dead load acting alone.
24.4-8  Torsional Resistance
The structural frame of all buildings and structures subject to wind loads shall be designed to resist the torsional  moment due to eccentricity of the resultant load, with respect to the center of rigidity of the structure.
24.4-9  Structures Not Covered
The Building Commissioner may require evidence to support the values for wind pressure used in the design of structures not specifically covered in this ordinance.

24.5  SOIL AND HYDROSTATIC LOADS
24.5-1  Pressure on Walls
In the design of basement walls and similar-approximately vertical structures below grade, provision shall be made for the lateral pressure of adjacent soil.  Due allowance shall be made for possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads.  When a portion, or the whole, of the adjacent soil is below a free-water surface, or below the highest anticipated ground water level, computations shall be based on the weight of the soil diminished by buoyancy, plus full hydrostatic pressure.  However, walls retaining drained earth, may be designed for pressure equivalent to that exerted by a fluid weighing thirty (30) pounds per cubic foot and having a depth equal to that of the retained earth.  Clay backfill shall not be  considered as drained earth.
24.5-2  Uplift
In the design of basement floors and similar approximately horizontal construction below grade, the upward pressure of water, if any, shall be taken as the full hydrostatic pressure applied over the entire area.  The hydrostatic head shall be measured from the underside of the construction.


24.6  MISCELLANEOUS LOADS
24.6-1  Effect of Miscellaneous Forces
Where appropriate, consideration shall be given to the effect of forces due to prestressing, shrinkage, temperature change, creep and unequal settlement of supports.
24.6-2  Handrails
Handrails shall be of such design and so supported as to withstand a load of two hundred (200) pounds applied at any point, downward or horizontally, or a horizontal load of twenty (20) pounds per lineal foot.  The greater load, or combination of loads, shall control the design.
24.6-3  Load Resistance of Interior Walls
All interior walls, including applied finishes, shall be designed to resist a uniform horizontal load of five (5) pounds per square foot acting outward from the center.
24.6-4  Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls
Concrete or masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors and roofs which provide lateral support for  the wall or are required to provide stability for the wall.  Such anchorage shall be capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified in this Article for wind, soil, and hydrostatic loads, or a minimum force of two hundred (200) pounds per lineal foot of wall, whichever is greater.


24.7  ALLOWABLE DEFLECTIONS
In structures designed for human occupancy, combined live and wind load deflections shall be limited to L/240 for roofs and floors not supporting plastered ceilings, and L/360 for roofs and floors which support plastered ceilings; where "L" is the span between  supports.


24.8  ALLOWABLE INCREASED IN STRESS VALUES FOR WIND LOADS
24.8-1  Elastic Design
Members resisting wind loads, when designed by elastic methods of stress distribution and constructed of materials having a safety factor of 1.65 or more, may have the working stresses increased 33-1/3 percent.  However, the strength of members so proportioned shall not be less than would be required by other combinations   of loading not including wind.
24.8-2  Plastic Design
Members  proportioned by plastic design methods shall not have an increase in working stress for wind loads, but shall have load factors applied to wind loads as specified in the respective sections on plastic design in steel and concrete.
24.8-3  Effect Not Accumulative for Wood
The effect of an increased working stress for wood shall not be accumulative with other increases allowed for duration of load as specified in Article XXVI, WOOD DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.


24.9  ERECTION LOADS
All structural members and connections shall be designed so as to prevent overstressing due to temporary construction loads and wind loads which may occur during  construction of a building.
24.9-2  Temporary constructions necessary to the construction of a building, such as framework, scaffolding, shoring, bracing, needling, nets, hoists, and similar items shall be designed to support the loads for which they are intended, in accordance with accepted engineering practice.


24.10  EXISTING BUILDINGS
24.10-1  Additional Alterations
When an existing building or structure is enlarged, altered, or otherwise required, all uncovered existing portions and all new portions affected by such enlargement, alteration, or repair shall be designed and strengthened so that all loads will be supported safely without exceeding the allowable stresses for the materials of construction in the structural members and connections.
24.10-2  Retention of Existing Live Loads
Any exiting building, heretofore approved, in which there is no change in use to a use causing greater floor loads, may be posted for the originally approved live  loads, provided that the building is structurally safe in all its parts, and that the public safety is not endangered thereby.
24.10-3  Change of  Occupancy
When an existing building, heretofore approved, has a change of occupancy, the building shall be capable of  supporting the loads required for a new building of the new occupancy.  However,, if the new occupancy is used for commercial, industrial, office, or storage purposes the structure may be posted for loads which are both less than these required for new buildings and within the load-carrying capacity of the building under the structural provisions of this ordinance.

24.11 PLANS
The plans for all buildings and structures other than single-family detached dwellings shall how the dead, live, concentrated and wind loads for which floors, walls and roofs have been designed.


ARTICLE XXV
EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS

Index

25.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
25.1-1            Scope
25.1-2            Loads
25.1-3            Structural Design
25.1-4            Foundations, Required to Extend Below Frost Level
25.1-5            Settlement
25.1-6            Safety Factor for Theoretical Analysis
25.1-7            Plan Requirements
25.1-8            Detrimental Vibrations
25.1-9            Weaker Underlying Strata
25.1-10            Change in Ground Water Level

25.2            EXCAVATIONS
25.2.1            Safety of Excavations
25.2-2            Support of Adjoining Property
25.2-3            Support of Adjoining Structures
25.2-4            Backfilling
25.2-5            Access to Adjoining Premises
25.2-6            Failure to Protect

25.3        SOIL BARING VALUES
25.3-1            Method to be Used in Determination
25.3-2            Classification of Soils
25.3-3            Bearing Values of Soils
25.3-4            Soil Borings
25.3-5            Load Tests

25.4        FOOTINGS
25.4-1            General
25.4-2            Plain Concrete Footings
25.4-3            Reinforced Concrete Footings
25.4-4            Timber Grillage Footings
25.4-5            Steel Grillages

25.5        PILES
25.5-1            General
25.5-2            Pile Driving Formula
25.5-3            Load Tests for Piles
25.5-4            Timber Piles
25.5-5            Structural Steel Shape Piles
25.5-6            Concrete Filled Steel Pipe Piles
25.5-7            Precast Concrete Piles
25.5-8            Cast-in Place Concrete Piles
25.5-9            Composite and Special Piles

25.6        PIERS
25.6-1             Subsurface Explorations
25.6-2            Allowable Bearing
25.6-3            Bell Requirements
25.6-4            Lateral Support
25.6-6            Pier Bottoms Under Water
25.6-7            Plain Concrete Piers
25.6-8            Reinforced Concrete Piers

25.7        RETAINING WALLS
25.7-1            Materials
25.7-2            Loads

25.8        FOUNDATION WALLS
25.8-1            Materials
25.8-2            Thickness
25.8-3            Waterproofing or Damproofing


25.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
25.1-1  Scope
Design and construction of foundations, and construction of excavations, shall conform to the requirements of this Article, to the specific standards of accepted engineering practice referred to in this Article and in matters not otherwise covered to accepted engineering practice.
25.1-2  Loads
All foundations shall be designed with an adequate factor of safety against ultimate failure, and so that probable differential and total settlements of the foundation and structure, including  super imposed fill material, will be within the limits specified in this ordinance.  Foundations shall be designed to resist the actual force for which they are intended, but in no case forces less than those found in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS.  The full dead load, including the eight of footings, foundations, and overlying fill, the live loads from the floor above reduced in accordance with Section 24..3-7 of Article XXIV, and the wind loads, shall be considered.
25.1-3  Structural Design
The quality and design of materials used structurally in excavations, footings, and foundations shall conform to the requirements for respective materials in Articles XXVI, XXVIII, XXIX  and XXX.
25.1-4  Foundations Required to Extend Below Frost Line
Exterior foundations, or foundations which will during the life of the structure be exposed to outdoor temperatures, shall extend not less than three (3), six (6) inches below grade, except when erected on solid rock,and except for one story buildings of construction types II, III or V used for purposes other than dwellings and not exceeding five hundred (500) square feet in area.
25.1-5  Settlement
Footings shall be so designated as to limit unequal settlement to that which can be tolerated by the structure.
25.1-6  Safety Factor for Theoretical Analysis
Allowable soil bearing values based upon laboratory tests, and determined  by accepted engineering practice, shall provide a safety factor of three (3) and may be increased as provided for in Article XXIV for wind loads.
25.1-7  Plan Requirements
When the bearing capacity of the support offered a foundation by the underlying ground is determined by excavations, borings, or test loads at the site, the location of such excavations, borings, or test loadings shall be shown on the plans submitted in application for  a building permit.  Where borings are used, the nature of the subsurface materials shall be indicated in the plans.
25.1-8  Detrimental Vibrations
Where the bearing materials under foundations are subject to vibration due to machinery or other causes, and where the soils are susceptible to change in volume due to vibration, foundations shall be carried through the vibration sensitive material, or vibrations in the equipment from the supporting equipment foundations.  Resonance effects shall be considered.
25.1-9  Weaker Underlying Strata
Where the bearing materials directly under a foundation overlie a stratum having smaller allowable bearing values, these smaller values shall not be exceeded at the level of such stratum.  Computation of the vertical pressure in the bearing materials at any depth below a foundation shall be made on the assumption that the load is spread uniformly at an angle of sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal.  Other more refined methods of stress distribution consistent with accepted engineering practice may be used if substantiated in writing by a licensed Illinois Architect or Structural Engineer.
25.1-10  Change in Ground Water Level
Allowance shall be made in determining the bearing capacity of  subsurface materials for the effect of a possible change in ground water level.


25.2  EXCAVATIONS
25.2-1  Safety of Excavations
a.  Excavations for buildings, and excavations accessory thereto, shall be protected and guarded against danger to life and property.  Permanent excavations shall have retaining walls sufficient in strength to retain the embankment, together with any surcharged loads.  No excavation for any purpose shall extend within the volume included  below a plane which slopes downward on a two (2) horizontal to one vertical slope from the bottom of the footing or foundation, unless such footing or foundation is first properly underpinned or protected against settlement, or unless approved soil testing and analysis indicates that the supporting soil has sufficient strength to provide a factor of safety of three (3) against failure of the foundations.
25.2-2  Support of Adjoining Property
a.  General
The person causing any excavation to be made shall prevent the movement of the earth of adjoining property and the trees and natural objects thereon, and maintain or restore all public sidewalks, curbs, pavements, and the property of public utilities located within street lines, which may be affected  by the excavation.
b.  Permanent Excavations
Permanent excavations shall be protected by permanent means, where necessary, to prevent the movement of the earth of adjoining property.  Such protection shall be provided on the property of the person causing the excavation to be made, and at his own expense.
25.2-3  Support of Adjoining Structures
a.  Excavations Not More Than Eight (8) Feet Below Grade
When an excavation extends not more than eight (8) feet below the established grade nearest the point of excavation under consideration, the owner of any adjoining structure, the safety of which may be affected by the excavation, shall be notified in writing by the one causing the excavation to be made.  Such notice shall be served at least thirty (30) days before the excavation is commenced and it  shall state the depth and location of the proposed excavation.  The owner of the structure shall be afforded the necessary license to enter the premises where the excavation is to be made, and at his own expense, shall maintain, support, and protect the structure.
b.  Excavations More Than Eight (8) Feet Below Grade
When an excavation extends more than eight (8) feet below the established grade nearest the point of excavation under consideration, the one causing the excavation to be made, if given the necessary license to enter the adjoining premises, shall, at his own expense, maintain, support, and protect any existing structure, the safety of which may be affected by that part of the excavation which extends to a depth greater than eight (8) feet below the established grade nearest the point of excavation under consideration, whether or not the adjoining structure extends to the depth of eight (8) feet or more below such grade.
c.  Party Walls
A party wall, the safety of which may be affected by the excavation, which is in good condition and otherwise suitable for continued use, shall be maintained, supported, and protected at the expense of the person causing the excavation to be made.
25.2-4  Backfilling
Backfilling and related work shall be so done and the quality of the materials used shall be such as will prevent the movement of the earth of adjoining property or sidewalks.
25.2-5  Access to Adjoining Premises
When the necessary license to enter adjoining premises for the purpose of examining or of supporting the adjoining property, or maintaining, supporting, and protecting adjoining structures is afforded the person causing the excavation to be made, he shall provide adequate protection for such adjoining premises against damage due to the elements resulting from such entry.  If such license is not afforded, the owner of such adjoining property or structures shall be responsible for their maintenance, support, and protection at this own expense, and for the purpose he shall be afforded the necessary license to enter the premises where the excavation is to be made.
25.2-6  Failure to Protect
If the person whose duty it is, under the foregoing provisions, shall neglect or fail to make safe an excavation, prevent movement of adjoining earth, and maintain, support, and protect adjoining structures, the Building Commissioner may enter upon the premises and make safe such excavation and adjoining property or structure at the expense of the negligent person.


25.3  SOIL BEARING VALUES
All applications for building permits for (1) the construction of a structure or building, or (2) the alternation of a structure or building involving an increase in load on the foundations, or (3) for the underpinning of a structure or building, shall be accompanied by a foundation report satisfactory to the Building Commissioner and prepared by a licensed Illinois Architect or Structural Engineer.  The report shall include a description of the procedure used to perform the field sampling and testing, and the laboratory work; an analysis of the soil conditions encountered; recommendations for allowable soil bearing pressures and foundation design; and a discussion of any special or unusual situations which may be encountered during and after construction.  The foundation report may be  waived for Residential Buildings (Class A) not exceeding two (2) stories in height and for  buildings of construction types II, III, IV and V not exceeding one story in height.  Where there is reasonable doubt as to the character or bearing capacity of the soil, the Building  Commissioner may require such borings, test pits, test loads, soil tests, or laboratory analysis as he deems necessary to determine the actual conditions.
25.3-2  Classification of Soils
Insofar as practicable, the following terms shall be used in the description and classification of subsurface materials:
a.  Niagaran Limestone.
This formation constitutes the bedrock for the Cook County area.  The condition and structural competency of the limestone shall be established on the basis of cores and/or compressive strength tests.  Sound, unweathered limestone without  visible voids and with the minimum thickness of eight (8) feet shall be described as solid rock.  Limestone not satisfying the requirements  for solid rock shall be described as weathered, porous rock containing fissures, joints, fossils, bedding planes, solution paths., etc.
b.  Boulders
Rounded to angular rock fragments having a least dimension not less than eight (8) inches
c.  Cobbles
Rounded to angular rock fragments ranging in size from two and one-half (2-1/2) inches to eight (8) inches
d.  Gravel
Rounded to angular rock fragments ranging in size from No. 4 U.S. Standard sieve size (4.76 millimeters) to two and one-half (2-1/2) inches.  Gravel with sizes larger than one (1) inch shall be described as "coarse";  gravel with sizes ranging from three-eighths (3/8) inch to one (1) inch shall be described as "medium"; and gravel between three-eighths (38) inch and the No. 4 sieve shall be described as "fine".
e.  Sand
Rock fragments and cohesion less soil grains ranging in size from the No. 200 U.S. Standard sieve size (0.074 millimeters) to the No. 4 sieve.  Sand with sizes larger than the  No. 20 sieve (0.6 millimeters) shall be described as "course"; sand with sizes ranging between the No. 60 sieve (0.250 millimeters) and the No. 20 sieve shall be described as "medium"; and sand finer than the No. 60 sieve shall be described as "fine".  The condition of said deposits shall be based on Standard Penetration Resistance Data as follows:

Condition of Deposits                            Blows Per Foot
Very loose                                               0 - 4
Loose                                                     5 - 9
Medium Dense                                        10 - 29
 Dense                                                    30 - 59
Very Dense                                            60 and over

f.  Inorganic Silt
Non-plastic mineral grains finer than the No. 200 sieve.    The condition of inorganic silt deposits shall be based on Standard Penetration Resistance Data, as established in Paragraph e., above
g.  Inorganic Clay
Plastic mineral grains, usually finer than two (2) microns.  The consistency of a clay shall be defined as the unconfined compressive strength of relatively undisturbed  cylinder of soil whose  length is from one and one-half (1-1/2) to two (2) times its diameter.  The test specimen should be loaded at a rate of strain of two (2) percent per minute to failure or a minimum strain of 20 percent.  The consistency of clay deposits shall be described as follows:
           
                                                                            Unconfined Compressive
                                                                            Strength (in Tons Per
                Consistency                                            Square Foot)
                Very Soft                                                Less than 0.35
                Soft                                                        0.35 to 0.59
                Stiff                                                        0.60 to 0.99
                Tough                                                    1.00 to 1.99
                Very Tough                                            2.00 to 3.99
                Hard                                                        4.00 and over

h.  Hardpan
A cohesive or cemented material that offers great resistance to hand excavating tools, and consists of a mixture of varying proportions of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, which mixture has been consolidated by the weight of superimposed glaciers.
i.  Organic Silt
Non-plastic to slightly plastic (plasicity index not exceeding 10) mineral grains passing the No. 200 sieve and finely divided particles of organic matter. Shells and visible fragments of partly decayed vegetative matter may also be present.
j.  Organic Clay
Clay soil which owes some of its significant physical properties to the presence of finely divided organic matter.
k.  Peat
Highly organic deposit recognized by its dark brown to black color and fibrous particles of vegetable matter in varying states of decomposition.
l.  Fill
Fill shall be classified either as controlled fills, or uncontrolled fills.  All existing man made deposits shall be classified as uncontrolled fills, unless conclusive evidence or subsurface investigations disclose the quality of the fill.  Controlled fills shall be placed under the supervision of a licensed Illinois Architect or Structural Engineer, and evidence of the acceptability of the placed material shall be submitted to the Building Commissioner.
25.3.3  Bearing Values of Soils
a.  Allowable Bearing Values
Except when determined by field loading tests, field penetration or density tests, or by analysis based on laboratory tests, or a combination of these, the maximum allowable pressure on the supporting soils at the bottom of the footings shall not exceed the values established in Table 25.3-3


TABLE 25.3-3
BEARING VALUES OF SOILS

b.  Exceptions to Allowable Bearing Values
(1)  Variation in Soils
Where portions of the foundations of the same structure rest upon soils which vary substantially in bearing value, special provisions shall be made to prevent serious differential settlements which will impair the safety of the structure.
(2)  Where the bearing materials directly under a foundation overlie a stratum having smaller allowable bearing values, these smaller values shall not be exceeded at the  level of such stratum.  Computation of the vertical pressure in the bearing materials at any depth below a foundation can be made on the assumption that the load is spread   uniformly at an angle of sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal.    Other more refined methods of stress distribution consistent with accepted engineering practice can be used if substantiated in writing by a licensed Illinois Architect or Structural Engineer.
(3)  Subject to the approval of the Building Commissioner bearing values greater than those required in Section 25.3-3a., may be used if analysis based on the laboratory tests field loading tests, or other pertinent information demonstrate that the greater values will not lead to excessive settlement.
c.  Unclassified Soils
For soils not classified in Table 25.3-3, allowable bearing values shall be established on the basis of field and/or laboratory tests.
25.3-4  Soil Borings
Whenever borings are required to determine the subsurface conditions, they shall be made in accordance with ASTM Method D-1586 for cohesionless and dense materials.  ASTM Method D-1587 for cohesive soils, and ASTM Method D-2113 for rock coring.  In addition, data shall be obtained on the consistency of the clay samples.
25.3-5  Load Tests
a.  General
Load tests, when required, shall conform to the requirements of this Section.  Loading tests shall not be used except in conjunction with soil borings in accordance with Section 25.3-4, so that the information can be properly interpreted in terms of the overall soil conditions.
b.  Number
A sufficient number of tests shall be made to determine the bearing value of the soil at footing depth over the entire building site.  On sandy soils, the Building Commissioner may require a sufficient number of tests to establish a relationship between size of footings and settlements for uniform soil pressures.
c.  Area
Each load test shall be on an area of not less than four (4) square feet, except that tests on soils having a bearing capacity in excess of 10,000 pounds per square foot may be made on an area not less than one (1) square foot.
d.  Test Procedure
Loads shall be applied in increments not exceeding 25 percent of the proposed safe load until the total load reaches two hundred (200) percent of the proposed safe load.  The increments up to the  proposed bearing value shall be applied at uniform intervals, such that the proposed safe  load is reached in not less than eight (8) hours.  This load shall remain until the settlement rate has decreased to less than .001 inch per hour for a period of sixteen (16) hours for cohesive soils  and .001 inch per eight (8) hours for a period of sixteen (16) hours for cohesion less soils.  Measurements of settlements before and after each increment of load shall be taken and recorded diagrammatically.  Also readings shall be taken at elapsed time intervals of fifteen (15) minutes  and a relationship between time and settlement plotted for each increment of load.
e.  Conditions of Acceptance
The proposed safe load shall be approved if the following conditions are satisfied.  The total settlement under the proposed safe load shall not exceed three-eighths (3/8) inch, and the total settlement under double the design load shall not exceed one (1) inch.  The load test results shall be accompanied by a foundation engineering report which presents  evidence that soft compressible strata do not occur within the significant depth range below the proposed footings.


25.4  FOOTINGS
25.4-1  General
a.  Materials
Footings shall be of masonry, concrete, or reinforced concrete.  Timber shall only be used as provided for in Section 25.4-4.
b.  Depth
Exterior footings shall extend a minimum depth of three (3) feet six (6) inches below the adjoining ground surface, except that the Building Commissioner may approve designs for foundations of lesser depth which eliminate structural damage from frost action.
c.  Stepped Footings
Foundations for all buildings where the surface of the ground slopes more than one (1) foot in ten (10) feet shall be level or shall be stepped so that both top and bottom of such foundations are level.
d.  Footings at Different Levels
Where footings are to be placed at varying elevations the effect of adjacent loads shall be included in the foundation analysis.
e.  Lateral Support for Footings
When the ground surface slopes downward adjacent to a footing, the sloping surface shall not encroach upon a prism of bearing material under the footing having sides that make an angle with the horizontal of sixty (60) degrees for rock and thirty (30) degrees for soil, and the horizontal distance from the lower edge of the rooting to the sloping surface shall be at least two (2) feet for rock and six (6) feet for soil.
25.4-2  Plain Concrete Footings
a.  Strength
Concrete in unreinforced foundation footings shall be so proportioned as to develop an ultimate compressive strength of not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days.
b.  Deposition
When poured under or in the presence of water, the concrete shall be deposited by approved means which will not cause segregation of the mix.   A tremie or bottom dump bucket used in accordance with accepted engineering practice is an approved means.
c. Dimensions
In unreinforced concrete footings, the edge thicknesses  shall be not less than eight (8) inches for footings on soil, and not less than twelve (12) inches above the tops of piles in footings on piles.
d.  Protection
Concrete footings shall be protected from freezing during deposition and for a period of not less than five (5) days thereafter, and in no case shall water be allowed to blow through the deposited concrete.
25.4-3  Reinforced Concrete Footings
a.  Edge Thickness
The thickness at the edge shall be not less than five (5) inches above the reinforcement if the soil, and not less than twelve (12) inches if on piles
b.  Pile Caps
The minimum distance from the edge of the cap to the nearest pile surface shall be three (3) inches and there shall be at least one (1) inch of concrete between the top of the pile and the steel reinforcement of the cap.  The pile caps shall extend not less than four (4) inches below the pile cut-off.
c.  Protection
When the concrete is deposited directly against the ground, the reinforcement shall have a minimum covering of three (3) inches.  At all other surfaces of foundation concrete, the reinforcement shall have a minimum covering of two (2) inches.
25.4-4  Timber Grillage Footings
Timber grillage footings may be used only for structures on construction type V.  Timber grillages may be used to cap timber piles.  Where timber grillages are used other than below the permanent water level  they shall be pressure treated, as for timber piles.
25.4-5  Steel Grillages
All steel grillages beams shall be separated with approved steel spacers, be entirely encased in at least three (3) inches of concrete, and have the spaces between beams completely filled with concrete or cement grout.  When used on soils, steel grillages shall rest on concrete beds not less than six (6) inches thick.

25.5   PILES
25.5-1  General
Allowable Loads
(1)  The allowable loads on piles  shall not cause compressive stresses in the piles exceeding those allowed in other parts of this ordinance for the materials from which the piles are made.  The average compressive stress on any cross-section of a pile, under such portion of the design load as is carried to that section, shall not exceed the allowable value for the material.
(2)  The allowable load for a pile shall not exceed that computed by summing up the available side friction and the tip bearing capacity determined by accepted engineering methods based on soil test data and applying a factor of safety of three (3).  For pile loads up to forty (40) tons, the piles shall be driven below predetermined minimum depth of penetration based upon soil test  data and accepted engineering practice) until in accordance with the dynamic pile driving formulas listed in Section 25.5-2.
(3)  Allowable loads in excess of forth (40) tons per pile shall be determined by static load test, in accordance with Section 25.5-3 and for end bearing piles on rock by the allowable bearing value of the rock.
(4)  In no case shall the total allowable load on any cluster of group of piles exceed the bearing capacity on the gross loaded area of the  underlying soil stratum, assuming a uniform load spread within an angle of sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal from the area occupied by the pile group, plus a margin of one (1) foot surrounding the periphery of the cluster.
b.  Lateral Support
All piles standing unbraced in air, water, or material not capable of lateral support shall conform with the applicable column formula as specified in this ordinance.  The depth of fixity of piles shall be dependent upon the stiffness of the pile and the density and consistency of the soil.
c.  Piles in Subsiding Soil
Where piles are driven through subsiding fills or other subsiding strata and derive support from underlying firmer materials, consideration shall be given to the downward support from underlying firmer materials, consideration shall be given to the downward frictional forces which may be imposed on the piles by the subsiding upper strata.
d.  Group Action
Consideration shall be given to the reduction of allowable pile load when piles are placed in groups.  Where  soil conditions make such load reductions advisable or necessary, the  allowable axial load determined for a single pile shall be reduced by any rational method or formula approved by the Building Commissioner.
e.  Protection From Soil
(1)  Where the boring records of site conditions indicate possible deleterious action on  pile materials because of soil constituents, changing water levels, or other factors, such  materials shall be adequately protected by methods or processes approved by the Building Commissioner. The effectiveness of such methods or processes for the particular purpose shall have been thoroughly established by satisfactory service records or other evidence which demonstrates the effectiveness of such protective measures.
(2)  The presence of cinder fill, or waste from any kind of chemical operation, shall be considered sufficient reason for protective jacketing  unless chemical study and analysis of the soil indicates it to be inactive.
f.  Jetting
Jetting shall not be used below a level of five (5) feet above the final penetration of a pile in the bearing stratum and shall be  carried out in such a way that the carrying capacity of existing piles and structures shall not be impaired.  However, where friction piles are used, jetting shall not be used, except where, and as specifically permitted, by the Building Commissioner.  After withdrawal of the jet, piles shall be driven down until the required resistance is obtained.
g.  Precautions While Driving
The method of driving piles shall be such as not to impair their strength.  Both the butt and the top of a pile shall, if necessary, be protected from injury during driving.
h.  Injury to Adjacent Piles While Driving
If, in the opinion of the Building Commissioner, the supporting capacity of any pile or pile shell may have been impaired during driving or by subsequent operations, he may, up to the time of capping, order such pile or pile shell redriven to the required resistance, or require additional piles to be driven.
i.  Inspection
(1)  The Building Commissioner shall require a competent inspector, hired by the owner, qualified by experience and training and satisfactory to the Building Commissioner, to be on the work at all times while piles are being cast, driven, or filled, or while test  piles are being loaded.
(2)  The inspector shall make and submit  such records  of piles driven or subjected to load test as the Building Commissioner may require.
j.  Piles Out of Plumb
During driving, all piles shall be held in  their design location and position and shall be driven plumb.  If any pile is out of plumb more than two (2) percent of the pile length, or is driven more than three (3) inches laterally from design location, the design shall be modified by the responsible Architect or Structural Engineer to provide for resultant  eccentricity.
k.  Splices
Splices shall be avoid whenever practicable.  Such splices as are unavoidable shall be designed as for column splices.
l.  Pile Caps
See Sections 25.4-2 and 25.4-3 for requirements for concrete pile caps.
m.  Minimum Distance Between Piles
The minimum center-to-center spacing of piles not driven to rock shall be not less than twice the average diameter of a round pile, nor less than twice the diagonal dimension of a rectangular or rolled structural steel pile, nor less than two (2) feet six (6) inches.  The minimum center-to-center spacing of piles driven to rock shall be not less than the greatest diameter of a round pile plus one (1) foot, nor less than the diagonal dimension of a rectangular or rolled structural steel pile plus one (1) foot.
n.  Stability of Footings
The vertical pressures in the materials penetrated by or underlying the pile produced by the loads on any pile or group of piles in a foundation shall not exceed the allowable bearing values  of such  materials.  In addition, the pressures should not be such as to result in excessive settlement, as defined in Section 25.1-5.
25.5-2  Pile Driving Formula
a.  For pile loads not exceeding forth (40) tons, the allowable pile loads may be determined by the value R obtained by one of the following formulas:
(1)   For single-acting steam hammers:

                                                                            2WH
                                                        R =            -------
                                                                            S + 0.1
      
 (2)  For double-acting and differential  steam hammers:

                                                                            2E
                                                        R =            -------
                                                                            S + 0.1

b.  For piles or mandrels whose weight is greater  than the weight of the striking parts.

(1)  For single-acting steam hammers:

                                                                2WH            (                           P)
                                                R =         ------                1 -0.1             ---
                                                                S + 0.1          (                        W)

(2)  For double-acting and differential steam hammers:

                                                                2E                (                            P)
                                                R =         -----                1 - 0.1                ---
                                                                S +0.1                                        W)

In the above formulas:
R = allowable pile load in pounds
W = weight of striking part of hammer in pounds
H = effective height  of fall in feet
E = actual energy delivered by the hammer per blow in foot-pounds.
S = penetration of pile per blow, in inches, determined under conditions acceptable to the Building Commissioner
P = weight of pile or mandrel in pounds.

25.5.3  Load Tests for Piles
a.  General
(1)  Where load tests are used to determine allowable loads for piles,  such tests shall be conducted as specified herein.
(2)  In clay soils, load tests shall not be made within three (3) days after tests  piles have been driven.  At least one pile in each area of uniform soil conditions, or in each 15,000 square feet or part thereof of building area where soil conditions are not uniform, shall be test loaded
b.  Allowable Test Loads
When the allowable axial load of a single pile is determined by load test, the following method shall be used:  The allowable load shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of the load which causes a net settlement, after deducting rebound, not exceeding one one-hundredth inch (1/1/100 in.) per ton of test load, which has been applied for period of at least 24 hours.
c.  Application of Test Loads
In the subsequent driving of the foundation piles for a structure, a pile shall be deemed to have a bearing value equal to that determined by the load test pile for that are of the  foundation when the foundation pile, using the same or equivalent make and model of pile hammer, and the same operation of the hammer with regard to speed, height of all, stroke and pressure and all other variable factors, shall develop equal or greater final resistance to driving than the load test pile.  The foundation piles shall be driven to the depth at which the bearing conditions are similar to those of the test pile.
25.5-4  Timber Piles
a.  Material
Round timber piles shall meet the Class A and B standards of ASTM D25.  Sawn timbers may be of any suitable grade and species.  Piles which will not have their cut-off points  located below the lowest possible  ground water level assumed to exist during the life of the structure shall have preservative treatments in accordance with the applicable provisions of AWPA C1, C3 and C12.  For short piles and light loads (less than 15 tons), round piles measuring at least eight (8) inches in smallest diameter at cutoff and six (6) inches  smallest diameter at the tip may be used with the approval of the Building Commissioner.  Squared timber piles less than eight (8) by eight (8) inches, nominal, shall not be used.  For loads from 15-20 tons, a minimum butt diameter of ten (10) inches and minimum tip diameter of seven (7) inches are required.  For loads greater than twenty (20) tons, a minimum butt diameter of twelve (12) inches and minimum tip diameter of eight (8) inches are required.
b.  Stresses
The allowable stress in compression parallel to the grain of round wood piles shall not exceed seventy-five (75)  percent of the basic stress for clear material set forth in ASTM D245.  Sawn timbers shall have the allowable stresses listed for structural lumber in Article XXVI, WOOD DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.
c.  Cutoff
The tops of timber piles shall be sawn off along a horizontal plane.
25.5-5  Structural Steel Shape Piles
Rolled structural steel piles shall be of "H"  form with flange projection not exceeding 14 times the minimum thickness of metal in either flange or web, with total  flange width equal to at least eighty-five (85) percent of the depth of the section.  No rolled structural nominal thickness of metal less than three-eighths (3/8) inch, nor a steel pile shall have a nominal depth in the direction of the web less than eight (8) inches.  Stress in the steel shall not exceed 12,000 pounds per square inch.
25.5-6  Concrete Filled Steel Pipe Piles
a.  Material
Steel pipes shall meet the requirements of ASTM A252.  Concrete shall have a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch.  Stress in the steel pipe shall not exceed 12,000 pounds per square inch, and stress in the concrete shall be in accordance with Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.
b.  Size and Details
(1)  Steel pipe piles may be driven either open-ended or with ends closed.  Steel pipe piles driven open-ended shall have a nominal outside diameter of not less than ten and three-quarter (10-3/4) inches and a nominal wall thickness of not less than 0.30 inch, or if fourteen (14) inches or over in nominal outside diameter the nominal wall thickness shall not be less than 0.375 inch.  Pipe of less wall thickness may be driven open-ended if a suitable cutting shoe is provided.  If steel pipe piles are to be driven with closed ends a forged or cast steel or flat plate end of approved design shall be used.  Steel pipe piles driven with ends closed may be of smaller sizes and wall thickness than specified above but no such pile of uniform  section shall have a nominal outside diameter or less than eight and five-eighths (8-5/8) inches.
(2)  Piles shall be driven in such order and with such  spacing as to insure against distortion of or injury to piles already in place.  The pipe, driven empty, shall be cleaned of all dirt or other foreign matter before the concrete is place.  The concrete shall be placed in such a manner as to insure complete filling of the pile.
c.  Reinforcement
Reinforcement, if any, shall be assembled and tied together so that it may be placed in the pile as a unit.  No reinforcement shall be placed within one (1) inch of the steel shell.
25.5-7  Precast Concrete Piles
a.  Material
The concrete in precast concrete piles shall conform to the requirements for concrete as established in Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.  No precast concrete pile shall be driven before the concrete has attained a compressive strength of at least 3,000 pounds per square inch.  The Building Commissioner may require compressive tests on six (6) inch by twelve (12) inch Cylinders, cast from the same batches of concrete and cured under the same conditions as the piles.  At no time after casting shall a precast pile be handled or loaded in such a way as to cause injury or overstressing.  The Building Commissioner may require the contractor to furnish him with all data necessary for  computing the theoretical and allowable stresses in precast concrete piles during handling.
b.  Concrete Protection
A minimum protective cover of one and one-half (1-1/2) inches of concrete shall be provided over all reinforcement, except that for piles subjected to severe exposure, the cover shall be greater, and shall be approved by the Building Commissioner.
25.5-8  Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles
a.  Material
The concrete in cast-in-place concrete piles shall conform to the requirements  for concrete as established in Article XXIX, Concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength at 28 days of 2,500 pounds per square inch.  Stress in the steel casing shall not exceed 12,000 pounds per square inch, except that no stress shall be allowed in steel casing whose wall thickness is less than 1/10 inch.  The water cement ratio shall in no case exceed seven (7) gallons per sack of cement, as placed.  A cast-in place concrete pile shall be filled in a continuous placement operation.  In forming such piles no concrete shall be placed through water except with the written approval of the Building Commissioner, who may specify the proportions  of the concrete to be so placed and the method of placing.  Concrete  shall be so place as to insure a continuous and full-sized pile.
b.  Uncased Piles
Concrete piles cast in place against earth in drilled or bored holes shall be made in such a manner as to insure the exclusion of any foreign matter and to secure a full-sized shaft.  The length of such pile shall be limited to not more than thirty (30) times the average diameter.
c.  Reinforcement
If reinforcement is to be placed in a cast-in-place concrete pile, it shall be assembled and securely tied together so that it may be placed in the pile as a unit.  No reinforcement shall  be placed within one (1) inch of the metal casing.  Where no permanent casing is used, reinforcement shall have a minimum protective cover of one and one-half (1-1/2) inches of concrete, except that for piles subject to severe exposure, the protective cover of concrete shall be greater, and shall be approved by the Building Commissioner.
d.  Placement
Piles shall be driven in such order and with such spacing as to insure against distortion of or injury to piles already in place.  No pile shall be driven within ten (10) feet of a pile filled with concrete less than 24 hours old.
e.  Inspection
The contractor shall give the Building Commissioner full facilities for inspecting the shell or space for the concrete of each pile previous to the placing of the concrete.  No dirt, water or other foreign matter shall be permitted in the space to be filled with concrete.
25.5-9  Composite and Special Piles
The use of composite piles consisting of any combination of the types of piles  provided for in this ordinance, or of types of piles not specifically mentioned herein, and the use of piles under conditions not specifically covered herein, may be permitted subject to the approval of the Building Commissioner, provided test results indicate continuity and structural adequacy at the junction of the composite pile.


25.6  PIERS
25.6-1  Subsurface Explorations
Where the subsurface explorations at the site of the project indicate variations in the structure of the rock or hardpan upon which foundation piers are to be constructed, a hole shall be drilled at the site of a representative number of the piers to a depth equal to the width of the bearing area (six (6) feet minimum)  into the bearing a stratum to verify that the bearing stratum extends a satisfactory depth for the design pressure.  The Building Commissioner may waive this requirement when in his opinion such drilling would be detrimental to the construction of a satisfactory foundation.  In addition, each pier or caisson excavation must be inspected by a qualified engineer retained by the owner and satisfactory to the Building Commissioner, to verify the bearing stratum in all cases where the shaft and bell dimensions are sufficient to permit physical inspection.  For small loads, where the shaft and belt size requirements are not sufficient to permit physical inspection, a sample of the bearing stratum must be obtained by other means (sample from the drilling bucket, auger, or from a sampler attached to the kelly bar) and tested prior to approval of the pier or caisson.
14.6-2  Allowable Bearing
The bases of all foundation piers shall be deigned so that the allowable bearing pressure of the bearing material shall not be exceeded, except that the allowable bearing pressure of the rock may be increased above that stated in Section 25.3-3, to equal the unit allowable compressive stress in the pier itself, provided the pier bears on bed rock which is substantially level or benched, and the bearing surface is prepared by hand in  level or benched areas, and provided such loaded areas shall not be within ten (10) feet of the lot line unless at least forty (40) feet below. the curb level and provided that 45 degree slopes extending downward from the periphery of the bearing areas shall fall outside of and below any adjoining excavation.
25.6-3  Bell Requirements
If the bottom of a pier is to be belled so as to increase its load-carrying capacity, such bell shall be at least six (6) inches thick at its edge, and the sides  shall slope at an angle of not less than sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal, except where the bell is large enough to permit inspection, in which case the bell slope angle requirement can b reduced to forty-five (45) degrees.
25.6-4  Lateral Support
The piers shall be laterally supported by surrounding materials.  The design of free standing piers or piers in open water, shall be treated as columns.
25.6-5  Vertical Tolerance
The design shall allow for a tolerance from the vertical of one (1) percent of the pier height.  Maximum surface alignment tolerance shall be five (5) percent of the shaft diameter, but shall not exceed two (2) inches.  Greater errors shall require a re-checking or modification of the design by the responsible architect or engineer.
25.6-6  Pier Bottoms Under Water
Where piers are to be founded below water level, the piers shall be constructed by  a method which will provide for accurate preparation and inspection of their bottoms and insure sound concrete.  Where concrete is to be poured through more than three (3) inches of water, the tremie or bottom dump bucket or other suitable method shall be used to prevent segregation in the concrete.
25.6-7  Plain Concrete Piers
a.  If constructed of plain concrete, where the height of the pier exceeds eight (8) times the least horizontal dimension, (except where the least horizontal dimension is six (6) feet or greater), the maximum allowable stress shall be determined as follows:
                   
                                                (                  H     )
                            f;  =   f         (1.3  --         ---    )
                                                (                  20D )
                              
in which:
f'      is the reduced allowable stress in pounds per square inch
f    is the allowable stress in pounds per square inch for the concrete
H    is the height of the pier in feet
D    is the least horizontal dimension in feet

b.  In no case shall the height exceed sixteen (16) times the least horizontal dimension,  of the compressive stress exceed 850 pounds per square inch.
24.6-8  Reinforced Concrete Piers
If constructed of reinforced concrete, piers may be constructed with spiral or tied reinforcement, or vertical reinforcement, or both, as prescribed for reinforced concrete construction, with the following modifications; except that with all other conditions fulfilled the requirements for long columns need not apply.
a.  The maximum allowance for spiral reinforcement shall be limited to one (1) percent and the maximum stress permitted on the gross section, including vertical reinforcement, shall be limited to 1,0000 pounds per square inch.  When spirally reinforced, and where piers are six (6) feet or greater in diameter, or where the ratio of height to diameter is 16:1 or less, vertical reinforcement may be omitted.  A minimum of three-quarters (3/4) of one  percent of vertical reinforcement uniformly spaced around the perimeter shall be used in  all other cases.  Where the pier is not encased in a steel shell, a minimum cover or three (3) inches of concrete over the reinforcing steel shall be provided.
b.  Where a pier is circular and entirely encased by a steel shell with a minimum thickness of three-eighths (3/8) of an inch, that percentage of shell thickness which corresponds with  the efficiency of the vertical joint may be considered as the equivalent of an equal volume of the spiral reinforcement.  If horizontal joints are spliced, the shell may be considered as  the vertical as well as the spiral reinforcement up to the efficiency of the horizontal joints in tension.  When using the shell in lieu of reinforcing steel, the effective thickness of the  shell shall be considered one-sixteenth (1/16) inch less than the actual.
c.  Shells shall not be used as reinforcement for piers in corrosive (pH-4 or less) soils without adequate protection against this action, and then only with the approval of the Building Commissioner.


25.7  RETAINING WALLS
25.7-1  Materials
Retaining walls shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, heavy timber treated as for piles, or steel sheet piling.
25.7-2  Loads
a.  Loads on retaining walls are covered in Section 24.5 of Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS.
b.  The walls shall be designed for stability against:  (1) overturning, (2) sliding, and (3) maximum soil pressure, as well as for moment, shear, bond and maximum pressure on the wall.


25.8  FOUNDATION WALLS
25.8-1  Materials
Foundation walls shall be of masonry, concrete, or steel encased in concrete.
25.8-2  Thickness
The minimum thickness of foundation walls shall be sufficient to resist all applied loads.  When thickness is not determined by structural analysis, walls of conventional construction having average soil conditions may be of the thickness shown in Table 25-8-2.    The Building Commissioner may require strengthening of such walls if structural analysis shows them to be inadequate.


TABLE 25.8-2
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF FOUNDATION WALLS

25.8-3  Waterproofing or Damproofing
a.  Foundation walls subject to standing water shall be provided with approved waterproofing.
b.  Foundation walls not subject to standing water shall be provided with approved damproofing, and where deemed necessary by the Building Commissioner, approved foundation drains protected by a properly designed filter to prevent washing of fines into the drains.


ARTICLE XXVI
WOOD DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Index
26.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
26.1-1            Scope
26.1-2            Structural Design
26.1-3            Plan Requirements
26.1-4            Application of Loads
26.1-5            Items Not Included

26.2        MATERIALS
26.2-1            Stress-Grade Lumber
26.2-2            Non Stress-Grade Lumber
26.2-3            Glued Laminated Structural Members
26.2-4            Plywood
26.2-5            Poles
26.2-6            Timber Connectors
26.2-7            Pressure Treatment for Lumber
26.2-8            Plywood Component Structural Members

26.3        BASIC WORKING STRESSES FOR WOOD
26.3-1            Stress Grade and Blued Laminated Lumber
26.3-2            Non-Stress Grade Lumber
26.3-3            Grades not Covered
26.3-4            Plywood
26.3-5            Poles
26.3-6            Connecting Devices

26.4        DESIGN AND FABRICATION
26.4-1            Sizes
26.4-2            General Design, sawn and Glued Laminated Lumber
26.4-3            Plywood
26.4.4            Plywood Components and Glued Construction
26.4-5            Wood Diaphragms

26.5        CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
26.5-1            Minimum Grades
26.5-2            Glued Types
26.5-3            Firestopping
26.5-4            Maintenance of Structural Assemblies

26.6        LIGHT WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION
26.6-1            Structural Design
26.2-2            Nailing
26.2-3            Fiberboard and Gypsum Sheathing for Light Wood Frame Construction


26.7        HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION

26.8        DECAY PREVENTION
26.8-1            General
26.8-2            Posts
26.8-3            Joists and Girders
26.8-4            Exterior Walls and Posts
26.8-5            Ends of Beams

26.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
26.1-1   Scope
Design, fabrication, and erection of wood as the structural frame or support for a building or structure shall conform to the requirements of this Article, to the specific standards of accepted engineering practice referred to in this Article, and in matters not otherwise covered, to accepted engineering practice as defined in Article III, RULES AND DEFINITIONS
26.1-2  Structural Design
All structures shall be designed to be rigid and to adequately resist the actual forces for which they are intended, but in no case less than those forces found in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS.  Such design in all its structural elements, including connections, shall not exceed the allowable stress values established in this Article.  Consideration shall be given to dimensional changes caused by seasoning before moisture equilibrium occurs.  Provision shall be made for the movement  of a structure as a whole and all differential movements of individual elements.  Allowance shall be made for dimensional change in all individual members due to the effects of cross-grain which may occur when timber is fabricated in the green condition.
26.1-3  Plan Requirements
a.  Plans shall show the size, allowable unit stress, species, and grade of structural lumber used.  If rough sizes or finished sizes greater or  smaller than American Lumber Standard dressed  sizes are to be used, the actual sizes shall be listed.
b.  Plans shall be appropriate scale, but in no case less than one-eighth (1/8) inch to the foot.  Design loads shall be clearly stated for all parts of the structure.  Floor levels, column centers, relative locations  of structural members and connection details of all primary and secondary structural members shall be shown or specified.
c.  The Building Commissioner may require such additional information in the form of drawings, reports, and tests as he deems necessary to determine structural adequacy.
d.  Light wood framing drawings shall not be required for  buildings less than 1,000 square feet in gross floor area.  Drawings for light wood framing need not show  wall studs, but shall indicate their size and spacing.
26.1-4  Application of Loads
Loads shall be applied in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
26.1-5  Items Not Included
a.  Timber Piles
Timber piles are regulated in Article XXV, EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS
b.  Exterior Wall Covering
Exterior wall covering, weatherboarding, flashing and veneering are covered in Article XXXII, EXTERIOR WALL AND  ROOF COVERINGS AND VENEERS

26.2  MATERIALS
26.2-1  Stress-Grade Lumber
a.  Description
(1)  Stress-grade lumber shall conform to the grade rules under which it is graded, as established in the National Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber and its Fastenings.
(2)  Stress-grade lumber consists of lumber classifications known as "Beams and Stingers", "Joists and Planks", and "Posts and Timbers", to each grade of which is assigned proper allowable unit stresses.
(a)  Beams and Stringers shall consist of lumber of rectangular cross-section, five (5) or more inches thick and eight (8) or more inches wide, graded with respect to its strength in bending when loaded on the narrow face.
(b)  Joists and Planks shall consist of lumber of rectangular cross-section, two (2) inches  to but not including five (5) inches thick and four (4) or more inches wide, graded with respect to its strength in bending when loaded either on the narrow face as the joist or on the wide face as a plank.
(c)  Posts and Timbers shall consist of lumber of square or approximately square cross-section five (5) by five (5) inches and larger, graded primarily for use as posts or columns carrying longitudinal load but adapted for miscellaneous uses in which strength in bending is not especially important.
b.  Identification
Stress grade lumber shall be identified by a grade mark on each piece, or a certificate of inspection issued by an approved lumber grading or inspection bureau or agency.
26.2-2  Non Stress-Grade Lumber
Non stress-grade lumber shall be graded and identified in the same manner as stress-grade lumber.  For the purpose of assigning the flexural  stresses of Tables 26.3-2A and 26.3-2B such lumber shall be divided into groups according to Table 26.2-2, hereunder.

TABLE 26.2-2
GROUP CLASSIFICATION - NONSTRESS  - GRADED LUMBER


26.2-3  Glued Laminated Structural Members
a.  Species
Glued laminated structural members may be of any species.  Glues used shall be capable of withstanding the temperature and humidity conditions to which the members will be subjected
b.  Fabrication
Fabrication shall be in accordance with the following specifications, as they may be appropriate to the species used:

  • Fabrication and Design of Glued-Laminated Wood Structural Members, Technical Bulletin 1069, Forrest  Products Laboratory.  U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  • Standard Specifications for Structural Glued -Laminated Douglas Fir (Coast  Region)
  • Standard Specifications for Structural Glued-Laminated Southern Pine
  • Standard Specifications and Design for Structural Glued Laminated Larch.
  • Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated West Coast Hemlock Lumber
  • Standard Specifications for the Design and Fabrication of Hardwood Glued Laminated Lumber for Structural Marine and Vehicular Uses
26.2-4  Plywood
a.  All plywood when used structurally (including among others, use as siding, roof and wall sheathing, subflooring, diaphragms  and structural components) shall conform to all requirements for its type, as listed in either U.S. Commercial Standard CS 45 or CS 122.  It shall bear the identification of an approved testing agency as to type and grade, species of veneer, and  conformance with the applicable U.S. Commercial Standard.
b.  All plywood, structural or otherwise, when used in applications where it will be exposed to the weather, or in any location where similar high moisture conditions prevail shall be of exterior type.
26.2-5  Poles
Poles shall meet the requirements of American Standard Specification and Dimensions for Wood Poles ASA 05.1.
26.2-6  Timber Connectors
Split ring connectors, tooted ring connectors, shear plate timber connectors of the pressed steel type, and malleable iron type shall meet the specifications of the National Design Specification For Stress-Grade Lumber and Its Fastenings.  Other timber connectors may be used as approved by the Building Commissioner.
26.2-7  Pressure Treatment for Lumber
Pressure treatment of lumber shall be in accordance with the following specifications as appropriate:
American Wood Preservers Association:  C1, C2, C3, C4, C9 and C12.
26.2-8  Plywood Component Structural Members
a.  Description
(1)  Plywood component structural members shall include all structural assemblies, other than diaphragms,  using plywood as a flange, web, or stressed skin load-carrying member.
(2)  Members shall be fabricated in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
b.  Certification
(1)  All plywood component structural members which depend for their strength on glued joints (other than between the plys of the plywood) and which are primary or secondary structural members, shall be inspected during lamination and finally certified by an independent inspection agency or by the licensed Illinois Structural Engineer or Architect responsible for the design.
(2)  If inspected by an approved independent inspection agency, each structural glue laminated member so inspected shall be stamped with an identifying mark and number matching that of an accompanying certificate of inspection.  The certificate shall state that the members  in question have been inspected and meet all the requirements of this ordinance..

26.3  BASIC WORKING STRESSES FOR WOOD
26.3-1  Stress Grade and Glued Laminated Lumber
The allowable stresses for stress grade and glued  laminated lumber shall be those established in the National Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber and its Fastenings.

TABLE 3.2A
ALLOWABLE STRESSES,
NON-STRESS GRADED LUMBER


TABLE 3.2B
ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR
NONSTRESS-GRADED PLANKING


26.3-3  Grades Not Covered
Species not covered by this ordinance shall be assigned stress grades by the Building Commissioner, in accordance with  principles set forth in American Lumber Standards Simplified Practice Recommendation R16, and Methods of Establishing Structural Grades of Lumber ASTM D245, adjusting columns 2, 3, 4, and 5 of Table VIII of the latter reference for normal loading conditions.
26.3-4  Plywood
a.  Dry Conditions of Use
Working stresses for Douglas fir plywood, western larch, and other western softwood plywoods shall be the values set forth in Tables 26.3-4A and 26.3-4B.
b.  Wet Conditions of Use
Where moisture content will exceed sixteen (16) percent, decrease by twenty (20) percent the values shown for dry location for the following properties:  Extreme fiber in bending, tension, and compression both parallel and perpendicular to the grain and at forty-five (45) degrees, and bearing.  (No change in values for rolling shear or modulus of elasticity.  Reduce shear in plant perpendicular to plies by thirteen (13) percent.
(1)  The allowable plywood stresses given in Table 26.3-4A and 26.3-4B are on a permanent loading basis.  If design is on normal loading basis, the stresses in those tables, except modulus of elasticity, may be increased ten (10) percent.  No reduction of stresses need be made for permanent loading conditions.  In addition to the ten (10) percent increase for normal loading, adjustments for duration of load may be applied for the following conditions:

15 percent for 2 months duration
25 percent for 7 days duration
33-1/3 percent for wind
100 percent for impact

(2)  Allowable unit stresses given in Tables 26.3-4A and 26.3-4B for long-time loading conditions may be used without regard to impact if the stress induced by impact does not exceed the allowable unit stress for long-time loading.
d.  Species Not Covered
Species not covered in this Article shall have their strength determined in accordance with accepted engineering practice.  Working stresses shall provide a safety factory equal to  that of plywood listed in Tables 26.3-4A and 26.3-4B, below.

TABLE 26.3-4A
ALLOWABLE  UNIT STRESSES FOR
STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD
(DOUGLAS FIR AND EASTERN LARCH)
PERMANENT LOADING BASIS -- DRY LOCATION


26.3-5  Poles
Induced stresses in pounds per square inch for normal loading of round poles or poles when used as structural members, except modulus of elasticity which shall be the same as for sawn lumber, shall not exceed sixty (60) percent of the basic unit working stresses for clear lumber.
26.3-6  Connecting Devices
Timber connectors, bolts, lag screws, nails, spikes, drift bolts, and wood screws shall be assigned working stress values in accordance with the National Design Specification for Stress-grade Lumber and its Fastenings.  Fastenings devices not so listed in that publication may be used when designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.


26.4  DESIGN AND FABRICATION
26.4.-1  Sizes
Strength computations shall be based on actual and not nominal sizes
26.4-2  General Design, sawn and Glued Laminated Lumber
a.  Engineering design of all sawn and glued laminated lumber structural members and their bracing, connections, and fastenings shall be in accordance with  accepted engineering practice.
b.  Except as otherwise specifically provided in this ordinance, the National Design Specification for Stress Grade Lumber and its Fastenings shall be considered accepted engineering practice.
c.  The method of design of bolts and connectors and their allowable loads when used with glued laminated lumber shall be the same as provided for their use with sawn lumber.
26.4-3  Plywood
Plywood members shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice, using the stress values specified in Section 26.3-4.
26.4-4  Plywood Components and Glued Construction
a.  Plywood components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with accepted engineering practice.  Appropriate publications of the Forest Products Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and/or the Douglas Fir Plywood Association shall be considered as accepted engineering practice.
b.  Glued built-up structural members of sawn lumber and plywood not provided for in Section 26.4-4a shall b designed by the same methods as for sawn lumber and plywood as otherwise provided individually.
26.4-5  Wood Diaphragms
a.  Usage
Wood and plywood diaphragms may be used to resist horizontal forces in horizontal and vertical distributing or resisting elements, provided the deflection in the plane of the diaphragm, as determined by calculations, tests, or analogies drawn therefrom, doe snot exceed the permissible deflection of attached distributing or resisting elements.
b.  Deflection
Permissible deflection shall be that deflection up to which the diaphragm and any attached distributing or resisting elements will main its structural integrity under assumed load  conditions, i.e. continue to support assumed loads without danger to occupants of the structure.
c.  Connections
Connections and anchorages capable of resisting the design forces shall be provided between the diaphragms and the resisting elements.  Openings in diaphragms which materially affect their strength shall be fully detailed on the plans, and shall have their edges adequately reinforced to transfer all shearing stresses.
e.  Size Ratios
Size and shape of diaphragms shall be limited as set forth in Table 26.4-5, below

TABLE 26.4-5
MAXIMUM WOOD DIAPHRAGM DIMENSION RATIOS

26.5  CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
26.5-1  Minimum Grades   
Studs, joists, rafters, foundation plates or sills, planking two (2) inches or more in depth, beams, stringers, posts, structural sheathing, and similar load bearing members shall be of at least the minimum grades set forth in Table No. 1 in the National Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber and its Fastenings and in groups I, II, and III set forth in Table 26.2-2.
26.5-2  Glued Type
Glued structural members exposed to the weather or continuously or repeatedly subject to conditions  which result in moisture content exceeding eighteen (18) percent, shall be glued with exterior type adhesives in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
26.5-3  Firestopping
Wooden structures shall be firestopped in accordance with Article XX, Section 20.14.
26.5-4  Maintenance of Structural Assemblies
All wooden structural members assembled with threaded metal devices or connectors shall have those devices or connectors periodically inspected and tightened or otherwise adjusted as appropriate to the design.

26.6  LIGHT WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION
26.6-1  Structural Design
a.  Light wood framing shall be in accordance with accepted good construction practice.  Beams, girders, rafters, joists, plants, decking, lintels, and similar horizontal spanning members, posts and columns, sub-flooring, and sheathing shall be designed structurally.  Stud walls and other structural elements of traditional balloon and  platform frame construction which are customarily not given an engineering analysis need not be designed structurally.  However, when any doubt exits in the opinion of the Building Commissioner as to the structural adequacy of any element or connection it shall prove capable by engineering analysis, of supporting the loads for which it is intended and/or the loads required by Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS, or it shall be made adequate to support those loads.
b.  The following publications shall be considered as illustrative of accepted good construction practice:
26.6-2  Nailing
The type, size and spacing of nails shall be in accordance with Table 26.6-1.


TABLE 26.6-2
RECOMMENDED NAILING SCHEDULE -
USING COMMON NAILS

26.6-3  Fiberboard and Gypsum Sheathing for Light Wood Frame Construction
a.   Fiberboard Sheathing
Fiberboard sheating board meeting F.S. LLL-I-535, nailed in accordance with Table 26.6-2, may be assigned the following shear value for wind loads when the panel height-to-width ratio does not exceed one to one and one-half (1-1/2).

Shear Value
Size                                            (pounds per lineal foot)
1/2" x 4' x 8 '                            125
25/32" x 4' x 8'                        175

b. Gypsum Sheathing
 Gypsum sheathing board meeting ASTM-C-79, nailed in accordance with Table 26.6-2 may be assigned the following shear value for wind loads when the panel height-to-width ratio does not exceed one to one and one-half (1-1/2).

                                                                                    Shear Value
                Size                                                                (Pounds per lineal foot)
                1/2" x 2' x 8' without blocking
                applied horizontally                                            75

                1/2" x 4' with block applied horizontally,
                or vertically studs not greater than
                16" oc staggered end joints,
                blocking required on all edges                            175


26.8  DECAY PREVENTION
26.8-1  General
No wood other than foundation grade redwood, foundation grade cedar, all heartwood cypress, or any species of wood pressure-treated with an approved preservative (all marked or branded by an approved agency) shall be closer than six (6) inches to any earth unless separated by concrete at least three (3) inches thick.  However, untreated  wood may be used where entirely below ground water level or continuously submerged in water or in fences and similar well ventilated and accessible non-load baring structures.
26.8-2  Posts
Wood posts in basements shall rest on concrete, masonry, or metal pedestals extending two (2) inches above concrete floors and six (6) inches above  earth floors.
26.8-3  Joists and Girders
Clearance between the bottom of wood joists, or structural planks, without joists and the ground shall be at least eighteen (18) inches.  Between the bottom of wood girders and the ground the clearance shall be at least twelve (12) inches.
26.8-4  Exterior Walls and Posts
Wood sills, wood weather boarding, and wood columns or posts shall have eight (8) inches clearance from the ground on those surfaces exposed to the weather.  Only story porches and exterior stairs shall not be required to have such clearances if they conform to Section 26.8-1.
26.8-5  Ends of Beams
Wood beams or girders, but not joists, framing into masonry walls shall  have a one-half (1/2) inch air space at the top ends and sides.


ARTICLE XXVII
PLASTIC -- DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Index
27.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
27.1-1            All Other Requirements to Apply
27.1-2            Exceptions
27.1-3            Identification of Approved Plastics

27.2        STRUCTURAL USAGE
27.2-1            Loads to be Supported
27.2-2            Strength
27.2-3            Design
27.2-4            Specific Approval required for Use in Main Structure
27.2-5            Exterior Wall Glazing

27.4        LUMINOUS CEILINGS AND LUMINAIRES
27.4-1            General
27.4-2            Drop-Out Ceilings
27.4-3            Drop-Out Ceilings -- Prohibited Locations

27.5        MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWABLE USES
27.5-1            Awnings and Canopies
27.5-2            Fences and Windbreaks
27.5-3            Fire Venting Systems
27.5-4             Counter Tops

27.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS   
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
27.1-1  All Other Requirements to Apply
The use of plastics, whether alone or as part of a construction assembly, shall conform to the strength, durability, sanitation and fire-resistive requirements of this ordinance.  See especially section 20.12-3 of Article XX, FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS, on flame spread ratings of interior finish.
27.1-2  Exceptions
Plastic materials may be used when specifically allowed by this Article for particular applications, even though they would be disallowed by other provisions of this ordinance.  Conversely, plastic materials shall not be used when specifically prohibited by this Article even though they would be allowed by other provisions of this ordinance.
27.1-3  Identification of Approved Plastics
All plastic materials approved for use shall be identified by the trade formula, number, or name, or other acceptable identification.  Each sheet, roll or film of approved plastic shall bear the approval number or other identification mark or label of the approving authority.


27.2  STRUCTURAL USAGE
27.2-1  Loads to be Supported
All plastic materials and their assemblies shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand the loads for which they are intended, but in no case loads less than those specified in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS.
27.2-2  Strength
a.  When deemed necessary by the Building Commissioner, sufficient and substantial technical data supplied by an approved testing agency shall b submitted to establish allowable stress values, maximum unsupported span lengths, and similar data for any plastic in question.
b.  A safety factor of not less than 1.5 (that is, ultimate strength or yield point, whichever is less, shall equal at least one and one-half (1-1/2) times the allowed working stress value) shall be used in determining allowable stresses.
27.2-3  Design
Design shall be in accordance with accepted engineering practice.  Adequate allowance shall b made in all fastenings and supports for differential expansion and contraction of connected materials.
27.2-4  Specific Approval Required for Use in Main Structure
Plastic shall be used for a primary or secondary member in a structural frame, for a floor or roof deck, for a bearing wall, pier, or column, or for a shell structural  or dome only with specific approval by the Building Commissioner in accordance with Section 5.2-5 of Article V, ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT.  The intent of this provision shall not be to hinder the use of new methods or materials, but to provide the public with a degree of fire and structural safety comparable to that provided for wood, masonry, concrete, and steel construction in this ordinance.

27.3  GLAZING
27.3-1  Roof Covering
Plastic materials not meeting the requirements for a Class A, B, or C roof covering as prescribed in Section 20.9 of Article XX, but meeting the requirements for interior room finish, may be used for roof glazing on Industrial and Storage Buildings as indicated in Sections 14.6-3 and 15.6-3 of Articles XIV and XV, respectively.
27.3-2  Skylights
a.  General
Plastic materials may be used as skylights within the limitations of this Section and in accordance with the provisions of Section 20.10-4e., Article XX.
b.  Protection From Flying Brands
The skylight assembly shall have a pitch of not less than thirty (30) degrees with the horizontal or shall be arched with a minimum rise-to-width ratio of 1:10, and a rise at the center of at least five (5) inches, or be otherwise protected against flying brands in an approved manner.
c.  Flamespread of 200 or Less
Skylights made of plastic having a flamespread rating of 200 or less shall not exceed thirty (30) percent of the roof area or one-hundred (100) square feet in area each.
d.  Flamespread of More Than 200
Skylights made of plastic having a flame spread rating of greater than 200 shall not exceed twenty (20) percent of the roof area or fifty (50) square feet in area each, and shall have a minimum separation of three (3) feet between adjacent skylights.
27.3-3  Exterior Wall Glazing
Plastic materials meeting the room finish requirements of Section 20.12-4 of Article XX may be used for glazing openings in exterior walls, within the area limits established in Table 20.5 of Article XX.  In addition, in all except exterior walls of construction type V, the total area of plastic glazing shall not exceed twenty (20) percent of the wall area (see increased allowances for Industrial and Storage Buildings in Sections 14.6 and 15.6 of Articles XIV and XV, respectively).  The size of panels and the distance between panels shall be limited as follows:     Plastics Having a Flamespread  Rating of 200 or Less - no limit      Plastics Having a Flamespread Rating of More than 200 -- 100 feet long by eight (8) feet wide with a twenty (20) foot wide break of incombustible material between panels; or when tiered 100 feet long by eight (8) feet wide with a twelve (121) foot vertical between tiers and a forty (40) foot wide break between panels, both breaks to be of incombustible material.


27.4  LUMINOUS CEILINGS AND LUMINAIRES
27.4-1  General
Plastic luminous ceilings panels and luminaires  shall meet the room finish requirements of Article XX.  Section 20.12-4, and in addition shall comply with the following requirements:
27.4-2  Drop-Out Ceilings
a.  Luminous ceiling panels which are designed to fall  from their mountings in the event of a fire shall be of a type tested and labeled by the nationally recognized testing laboratory and shall be installed in accordance with the installation method for which the label is authorized.
b.  Such ceilings, the plastic panels of which have been shown in appropriate tests to fall from their mounting before being ignited by application of heat, shall be exempt from the interior finish requirements of Article XX.  Section 20.12-5, providing the plastic panels are made up of individual lengths not exceeding ten (10) feet in any direction.  The ceiling above such panels shall meet the requirements for room finish of Article XX, Section 20.12-4.
c.  For use of drop-out luminous ceilings with sprinklers see Article XXI, Section 21.10-2 and the special occupancy requirements in Part B of this ordinance.
27.4-3  Drop-Out Ceilings -- Prohibited Locations
Drop-out ceilings shall not be used  in required exitways, or in any room used as a place of assembly for more than 75 persons or in any room frequented by the public which has an occupancy  content of more than 75 persons.


27.5  MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWABLE USES
27.5-1  Awnings and Canopies
Awnings and canopies with open sides, located outside of the Conflagration Hazard Distinct, may be constructed of plastic.
27.5-2  Fences and Windbreaks
Fences and windbreaks, subject to the size limitations of Article VII, CONFLAGRATION HAZARD DISTRICT , Section 7.2 for fences within the Conflagration Hazard District, may be constructed of plastic.
27.5-3  Fire Venting Systems
Plastics may be used in any type of construction or class of occupancy as a part of an approved smoke and heat venting installation, in accordance with Section 20.19 of Article XX.
27.5-4  Counter Tops
Plastics or plastic laminates  may be used as counter top finishes.



ARTICLE XXVIII
MASONRY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Index
28.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
28.1-1            Scope
28.1-2            Structural Design
28.1-3            Nominal Dimensions
28.1-4            Alternate Methods
28.1-5            Plan Requirements
28.1-6            Items Not Included
28.1-7            Used Masonry
28.1-8            Cross-Sectional Area of Masonry

28.2        TESTS
28.2-1            Application of Test Results
28.2-2            Preliminary Tests
28.2-3            Approved Testing Agencies

28.3        MATERIALS
28.3-1            Brick
28.3-2            Structural Clay Tile
28.3-3            Architectural Terra Cotta and Ceramic Veneer
28.3-4            Concrete Masonry Units
28.3-5            Stone
28.3-6            Gypsum Partition Tile or Block
28.3-7            Glass Block
28.3-8            Reinforced Steel
28.3-9            Joint Reinforcement
28.3-10            Wall Ties
28.3-11            Aggregate for Mortar
28.3-12            Water
28.3-13            Cementitious Material
28.3-14            Mortar Other Than Gypsum Mortar
28.3-15            Gypsum Mortar
28.3-16            Grout

28.4        ALLOWABLE USAGE OF MATERIALS
28.4-1            Unit Masonry
28.4-2            Mortar Shell
28.4-3            Grout
28.4-4            Glass Block

28.5        WORKING STRESSES
28.5-1            Compression
28.5-2            Composite Walls
28.5-3            Increased Stresses
28.5-4            Shear on Bolts

28.6        DESIGN METHODS
28.6-1            General
28.6-2            Bearing Walls
28.6-3            Roof Thrust

28.7        REINFORCED MASONRY
28.7-1            General
28.7-2            Allowable Reduction of Bending Stress by Vertical Load

28.8        LATERAL SUPPORT
28.8-1            Ratio of Height or Length to Thickness
28.8-2            Method of Support

28.9        MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS
28.9-1            General
28.9-2            Rubble Stone Walls
28.9-3            Exceptions
28.9-4            Change of Thickness

28.10            BONDING
28.10-1            General
28.10-2            Bonding With Headers
28.10-3            Bonding With Metal Ties
28.10-4            Bond with Ladder or Truss Type Metal Ties
28.10-5            Bonding with Hollow Units
28.10-6            Bonding Ashlar, Natural, or Cast Stone
28.10-7            Bonding Rubble Stone Masonry

28.11        ANCHORAGE
28.11-1            General
28.11-2            Intersecting Bearing Walls
28.11-3            Bearing Walls Carried Up separately
28.11-4            Walls Adjoining or Intersecting Structured Framing
28.11-5            Anchorage of Bearing Walls to Floors and Roofs
28.11-6            Anchorage of Non-Bearing Walls

28.12        CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS, BY TYPE OF WALL
28.12-1            Rubble and Stone Masonry
28.12-2            Solid Masonry
28.12-3            Hollow Masonry
28.12-4            Cavity and Hollow Walls
28.12-5            Gypsum Masonry
28.12-6            Grouted Masonry
28.12-7            Glass Block Masonry

28.13        MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
28.13-1            Protection Against Freezing
28.13-2            Rate of Absorption
28.13-3            Pipes and Conduit Embedded in Masonry
28.13-4            Wood Support
28.13-5            Use of Existing Walls
28.13-6            Lintels and Arches
28.13-7            Chases
28.13-8            Corbeled and Projected Masonry
28.13-9            Parapet Walls
28.13-10            Precautions During Erection
28.13-11            Joint Reinforcement and Control Joints
          


28.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
28.1-1  Scope
Design, fabrication, and erection of masonry construction shall conform to the requirements of this Article, to the specific standards of accepted engineering practice referred to in this Article and in matters not otherwise covered, to accepted engineering practice as defined in Article III, RULES AND DEFINITIONS.
28.1-2  Structural Design
All structures shall be designed to be rigid and to adequately resist the actual forces of which they are intended, but in no case forces less than those found in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS.   Such design in all its structural elements, including connections, shall not exceed the allowable stress values established in this Article.     Stresses shall be calculated on actual rather than nominal dimensions.
28.1-3  Nominal Dimensions
Unless the word "actual" is used, the dimensional requirements for masonry given in this Article are nominal and apply to such dimensions as minimum thicknesses and heights of walls.  The measured dimensions of the masonry may be less than the required nominal dimensions by the thickness of one mortar joint (but not more than one-half (1/2 ) inch and by the amount of the dimensional tolerance permitted by specifications applying to units used in the construction.
28.1-4  Alternate Methods
Masonry materials and methods of construction not specifically authorized in this Article may be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Article IV, Section 4.6.
28.1-5  Plan Requirements
Masonry structural drawings shall include plans drawn to appropriate  scale, but in no case less than one-eighth (1/8) inch to the foot, showing materials, types of masonry, sizes, sections, and relative locations of all structural members whether bearing or otherwise.  Floor levels shall be indicated and column centers and offsets shall be fully dimensioned.  Design loads shall be clearly  stated for all parts of the structure.  Connections, bearing plates, etc., shall be shown or specified in sufficient detail to determine their structural adequacy.   Grades of masonry to be used in all locations shall be made apparent.
28.1-6  Items Not Included
Plain concrete is covered in Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.  Footing and foundation walls are covered in Article XXV, EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS.
28.1-7  Used Masonry
Masonry units may be reused when clean, whole and conforming to the other requirements of this Article except that the allowable working stresses shall be fifty (50) percent of that permitted for new masonry units.
28.1-8  Cross-Sectional Area of Masonry
Net cross-sectional area of a masonry unit, shall be taken as the gross cross-sectional area minus the area of cores or cellular space.  Gross cross-sectional area of scored units shall be determined to the outside of the scoring, and the cross-sectional area of the grooves shall not be deducted from the gross cross-sectional area to obtain the net cross-sectional area.

28.2  TESTS
28.2-1  When tests are used to substantiate the strength of questionable or new methods of construction, the working stresses based on such tests shall not exceed twenty (20) percent of the average compressive  strength of the representative specimens tested in accordance with Section 28.2-2
28.2.2  Preliminary Tests
When the strength of masonry is to be established by preliminary tests, the tests shall be made in advance of the beginning of operations, using prisms build of the same materials under the same conditions and insofar as possible, with the same bonding arrangement as for the structure.  In building the prisms, the moisture content of the units at the time of laying, the consistency of the mortar, and the workmanship shall be the same as will be used in the structure.
a.   Solid Masonry
In solid masonry, test prisms for beams and slabs of reinforced masonry shall be approximately eight (8) inches by eight (8) inches by twenty-five (25) inches, built in a horizontal position with unselected units laid as stretchers in running bond, two (2) bricks  wide and three (3) courses high, with one-half (1/2) inch joints.  Prisms representing walls shall be approximately eight (8) inches by sixteen (16) inches in  plan, and sixteen (16) inches high.  Those representing columns or pedestals shall be approximately eight (8) inches by eight (8) inches in plan, and sixteen (16) inches high.
b.  Hollow-Unit Masonry
In hollow-unit masonry, test prisms shall be built in the form of hollow squares eight (8) inches by eight (8) inches in plan, and sixteen (16) inches high, or in the form of rectangles eight (8) inches by eight (8) inches in plan, and sixteen (16) inches high.  The hollow core  shall not be filled with grout.
c.  Storage of Test Prisms
Test prisms shall be stored for seven (7) days in air at a temperature of 70 deg. +/_ 5 deg F and a relative humidity exceeding ninety (90) percent, and then in air at a temperature of 70 deg. +/_ 5 deg F and relative humidity  humidity of thirty (30) percent  to fifty (50) percent until tested.  Prisms shall be capped and tested in compression similar to tests for molded concrete cylinders..  Not less than five (5) specimens shall be made for each test.  The standard age of test specimens shall be twenty-eight (28) days, but seven (7) day tests may be used, provided the relation between the seven (7) day and twenty-eight (28) day strengths of the masonry is established by test for the materials used.
28.2-3  Approved Testing Agencies
Tests shall be conducted by an approved testing agency and be certified by that agency.


28.3  MATERIALS
28.3-1  Brick

28.3-5  Stone
a.  Cast Stone
Cast stone shall conform to ACI 704.
b.  Natural Stone
Natural stone shall be sound and free from inclusions, with sufficient strength, durability, and resistance to impact and abrasion for the proposed use.
28.3-06  Gypsum Partition Tile or Block
Gypsum partition tile or block shall conform to ASTM C 52.
28.3-07  Glass Block
Glass block may be solid or hollow.  Mortar bearing surfaces of the blocks shall afford good adhesion between mortar and the block.
28.3-8  Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcing steel shall meet the standards listed in Section 29.2-6 of Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
28.3-9  Joint Reinforcement
Joint reinforcement for concrete masonry shall be equivalent to two (2) longitudinal No. 9 U.S. gauge or two (2) three-sixteenths (3/16) inch diameter cold drawn wires with No. 9 U.S. gauge cross wires.  Wire shall conform to ASTM A 82.  See Section 28.10-4 for usage.
28.3-10  Wall Ties
Wall ties for cavity and other walls shall be made from corrosion-resistant steel rods three-sixteenths (3/16) inch thick, or metal or equivalent stiffness.  Rods bent to rectangular shape shall be used with hollow masonry units laid with the cells vertical.  In other walls, the ends of ties shall be bent to ninety (90) degree angles to provide hooks not less than two (2) inches long.
28.3-11  Aggregate for Mortar
Aggregate for mortar shall comply with ASTM C 144.
28.3-12  Water
Water used in mortar, grout, or masonry work shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of  oil, alkali, organic matter, or other harmful substances.
28.3-13  Cementitious Material
a.  General
Cementitious materials shall conform to the following specifications:
Natural Cement                                                    ASTM C 10
Portland Cement                                                    ASTM C 150
Air-Entraining  Portland Cement                            ASTM C 175
Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement                        ASTM C 205
Masonry Cement                                                    ASTM C 91
Gypsum                                                                    ASTM C 22
Quicklime                                                                ASTM C 5
Hydrated Lime                                                            ASTM C 141
Slag Cement                                                            ASTM C 358

b.  Lime Putty
Lime putty shall be made from quicklime or hydrated lime.  If made from other than processed pulverized quicklime, the lime shall be slaked and then screened through a Number 16 mesh sieve.  After slaking and screening and before using, it shall be stored and protected for not less than ten (10) days.  The resulting lime putty shall weigh not less than eighty-three (83) pounds per cubic foot.  Processed pulverized quicklime conforming to ASTM C 51 shall be slaked for not less than forty-eight (48) hours and shall be cool when used.
28.3-14  Mortar Other Than Gypsum Mortar
a.  Strength and proportions
Mortar other than gypsum mortar shall be classified according to Table 28.3-14.  Mortar meeting the material standards and proportions shown will be assumed to possess the strength for their type shown.  The Building Commissioner may require tests to classify mortar by strength or accept the certified test of an approved testing laboratory.

TABLE 28.3-14
MORTAR PROPORTIONS*

28.3-15  Gypsum Mortar
Gypsum mortar shall consist of one part unfibered calcined gypsum to not more than thee (3) parts of sand by weight.
28.3-16  Grout
Grout shall consist of mortar to which is added sufficient water to produce consistency for pouring without segregation of constituents.

TABLE 28.4-1
   MATERIAL USAGE
28.4  ALLOWABLE USAGE OF MATERIALS
28.4-1  Unit Masonry
Unit masonry shall b used within the limitations of Table 28.4-1.
28.4-2  Mortar shall meet the requirements of Table 28.4-2

TABLE 28.4-2 TYPES OF MORTAR REQUIRED*

28.4-3  Grout
Grout may be made from type M, S, or N mortar.  However, grout shall be made from a mortar equal to or exceeding the strength of the mortar joints in the brickwork to be grouted.
28.4-4  Glass Block
Glass block shall not be used in fire walls, party walls, or for load-bearing construction


28.5  WORKING STRESSES
28.5-1  Compression
Except as permitted in other Sections of this Article, the compressive  stresses in masonry shall not exceed the values given in Table 28.5-1.


TABLE 28.5-1
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES
IN PLAIN UNIT  MASONRY

28.5-2  Composite Walls
In composite walls or other structural members composed of different kings or grades of units or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed the allowable stress for the weakest of the combinations of units and mortar of which the member is composed.
28.5-3  Increased Stresses
Higher stresses than herein specified may be used, but only if it is clearly established to the satisfaction of the Building Commissioner by approved test, or other approved evidence, that material of a higher grade or a superior workmanship than is generally provided in accepted practice will be employed under approved inspection.  The use of higher stresses, however, shall not be allowed until a statement giving the reasons for such permission, together with the facts and circumstances on which it is based, has been placed on file and made a part of the official record of the permit
28.5-4  Shear on Bolts
The allowable shear on bolts for all masonry except gypsum units shall not exceed the values given in Table 28.5-4


TABLE 28.5-4
ALLOWABLE SHEAR ON BOLTS FOR
ALL MASONRY EXCEPT GYPSUM UNITS

28.6  DESIGN METHODS
28.6-1  General
Design of structural unreinforced unit masonry shall be in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
28.6-2  Bearing Design
a.  End Support
(1)  Beams, girders, or other concentrated loads supported by a wall or pier shall have bearing at least four (4) inches in length upon solid masonry not less than four (4) inches in depth, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design and dimensions to distribute the loads safely on the wall or pier by other approved methods.
(2)  Joists shall have bearing at least thee (3) inches in length upon solid masonry at least two and one-fourth (2-1/4) inches in depth; or other provisions shall be made to distribute safely the loads on the wall or pier.
b.  Distribution of Concentrated Loads
(1)  The allowable working stresses in baring directly under concentrated loads may be fifty (540) percent greater than those given for axial compression in Table 28.5-1.
(2)  In calculating wall stresses, concentrated loads which are not distributed through a structural element may be distributed over a maximum length of wall not exceeding the  center-to-center distance between loads, or the width of bearing plus four (4) times the wall thickness, whichever is the lesser.
(3)  Concentrated loads shall not be considered as distributed by metal ties.
(4)  Concentrated loads shall not be considered as distributed in masonry laid in stacked bond unless one (1) continuous one-quarter (1/4) inch round bar, or its equivalent, is placed in the horizontal bed joints for each four (4) inches of thickness on not less than sixteen (16) inches on center vertically, or is reinforced as more exact structural analysis by a Registered Illinois Architect or Engineer would require.
28.6-3  Roof Thrust
Any thrust transmitted to masonry walls by roof members shall be provided for in the design of such walls.


28.7  REINFORCED MASONRY
28.7-1  General
Design, construction and material standards for reinforced masonry shall be in accordance with ASA A 41.2, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Masonry.
28.7-2  Allowable Reduction of Bending Stress by Vertical Load
In calculating maximum tensile fiber stress due to lateral forces, the maximum tensile  fiber stress may be reduced by the direct stress due to vertical dead loads.



28.8  LATERAL SUPPORT
28.8-1  Ratio of Height or Length to Thickness
Masonry walls, whether load-bearing or non-load baring, shall be provided with lateral support either horizontally or vertically at right angles to the face of the wall at intervals  not to exceed the ratios shown in Table 28.8.  In walls composed of different kinds or classes of masonry units or mortar, the  ratio of height or length to thickness shall not exceed that allowed for the weakest of the combination of masonry units and mortar of which the wall is  composed.

TABLE 28.8
LATERAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS AND MINIMUM
THICKNESS FOR MASONRY WALLS

28.8-2  Method of Support
a.  Lateral support may be obtained by cross walls, columns, pilasters, or buttresses, when the limiting distance is measured horizontally, for by floors and roofs when the limiting distance is measured vertically.  Sufficient bonding or anchorage shall be provided between the walls and the supports to resist the sumed  wind or other horizontal force, acting either inward or outward.  Columns, pilasters, buttresses, and cross walls relied upon for lateral support shall have sufficient strength and stability to transfer the  horizontal force, acting in either direction, to adjacent structural members or to the ground.  When walls are dependent upon floors for their lateral support, provision shall be made in the building to transfer the lateral forces to the ground.
b.  See Section 28.11 for requirements for anchorage of walls to their lateral support


28.9  MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS
28.9.1  General
The minimum thickness of bearing walls of plain masonry shall be twelve (12) inches for the uppermost thirty-five (35) feet of their height, and shall be increased four (4) inches in thickness for each successive thirty-five (35) feet or fraction thereof measured downward from the top of the wall, except as permitted in Section 28.9-3.
28.9-2  Rubble Stone Walls
Rough, random or course rubble stone walls shall be four (4) inches thicker than is required by Section 28.9-1 but in no case less than sixteen (16) inches thick.  The exceptions of Section 28.9-3 shall not apply to rubble stone walls.
28.9-3  Exceptions
a.  Stiffened Walls
Where solid masonry bearing walls are stiffened at distances not greater than twelve (12) feet apart by masonry cross walls or by reinforced concrete floors, they may be of twelve (12) inches thickness. for the uppermost seventy (70) feet, measured downward from the top of the wall, and shall be increased four (4) inches in thickness for each successive seventy (70) feet or fraction thereof.
b.  Top Story Walls
The top story bearing wall of a building not exceeding thirty-five (35) feet in height may be of eight (8) inch thickness provided it is not over twelve (12) feet in height and the roof construction imparts no lateral thrust to the walls.
c.  Walls of Residential Buildings
In Residential Buildings not more than three (3) stories in height; walls may be of eight (8) inch thickness when not over thirty-five (35) feet in height and the roof is designed to  impart no horizontal thrust.  Such walls in one story Residential Buildings, and one story private garages, may be of six (6) inch thickness when not over nine (9) feet in height, except that the height to the peak of the gable may be fifteen (15) feet.
d.  Penthouses and Roof Structures
Masonry walls above roof level, twelve (12) feet or less in height, enclosing stairways, machinery  rooms, shafts or penthouses may be of eight (8) inch thickness and may be considered  neither increasing the height nor requiring any increase in the thickness of the wall below.
28.9.4  Change of Thickness
a.  Variation in Thickness
Except for window-paneled backs, and permissible chases and recesses, walls shall not vary in thickness between their lateral supports.  When a change in thickness, due to minimum thickness requirements, occurs between floor levels, the greater thickness shall be carried up to the higher floor level.
b.  Decrease in Thickness
Where a masonry wall of hollow units is decreased in thickness, a course or courses of solid masonry shall be interposed  between the wall below and the thinner wall above, or special units of construction shall be used that will adequately transmit the loads from the shells above to those below.

28.10  BONDING
28.10-1  General
The facing and backing of masonry walls and partitions shall be bonded in such a manner as to provide for common action of the wythes of the materials used.  Bonding may be accomplished as outlined in Sections 28.10-2, 28.10-3, 28.10-4 or 28.10-5.
28.10-2  Bonding with Headers
When the facing and backing are bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than four (4) percent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of headers extending not less than four (4) inches into the backing.  The distance between adjacent  full-length headers shall not exceed twenty-four (24 inches either vertically or horizontally.  In walls in which a single header course does not extend through the wall bonders from the opposite sides shall lap at least four (4) inches or bonders from opposite sides shall be covered with another bonder course over-lapping the bonder below at least four (4) inches.
28.10-3  Bonding with Metal Ties
The facing and backing of cavity walls shall be bonded with corrosion-resistant three-sixteenths (3/16) inch diameter steel rods, or metal ties or equivalent stiffness, embedded in the horizontal joints.  There shall be one metal tie for not more than each four (4) square feet of wall area.  Ties in alternate courses shall be staggered; the the maximum vertical distance between ties shall not exceed eighteen (18) inches, and the maximum  used with hollow masonry units laid with the cells vertical; in other walls the ends of ties shall be bent to ninety (90) degree angles to provide hooks not less than two  (2) inches long.  Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all openings, spaced not more than three (3) feet apart around the perimeter and within twelve (12) inches of the opening.  The facing and backing of masonry walls other than cavity walls may be bonded with corrosion-resistant metal ties conforming to the requirements for cavity walls.
28.10-4  Bond with Ladder or Truss Type Metal Ties
The facing and backing of cavity walls, and bearing or non-bearing masonry walls, may be bonded together with approved ladder or truss types non-corrosive steel mesh consisting of two (2) stretcher rods of at least three-sixteenths (3/16) inch diameter for walls of eight (8) inches and over in thickness, and No. 9 U.S. gauge wire for walls six (6) inches or less in thickness, both having cross ties of N. 9 U.S. gauge wire at not over sixteen (16) inches on center, welded firmly to the stretcher rods.  The stretcher rods shall be thoroughly embedded in the mortar joints with at least one (1) inch covering from the exposed surface of the masonry.  The vertical spacing of such mesh shall not exceed sixteen (16) inches.
28.10-5  Bonding with Hollow Units
When two (2) or more hollow masonry units are used to make up a thickness of a wall, the inner and outer courses may be bonded at vertical intervals not exceeding thirty-four (34) inches by lapping at least four  (4) inches over the unites below, or by lapping with units at least 50% greater in width than the unit below at vertical intervals not exceeding seventeen (17) inches.
28.10-6  Bonding Ashlar, Natural, or Cast Stone
In ashlar masonry, bond stones uniformly distribute shall be provided to the extent of not less than 10 percent of the area of the exposed faces.
28.10-7  Bonding Rubble Stone Masonry
Rubble stone masonry twenty-four ( 24) inches or less in thickness, shall have bond stones with a maximum spacing of three (3) feet vertically and three (3) feet horizontally and, if the masonry is of greater thickness than twenty-four (24) inches, shall have one bond stone for each six (6) square feet of wall surface on both sides.


28.11  ANCHORAGE
28.11-1  General
Whenever a masonry element supports, or is supported by, another structural element, the two shall be securely anchored to each other in such a manner as to resist all forces which tend to separate them.
28.11-2 Intersecting Bearing Walls
 Intersecting walls shall be bonded either by laying at least 50 percent of the units at the intersection in a true bond, or by anchoring with corrosion-resistant three-sixteenths (3/16) inch diameter, or the equivalent, wall ties sixteen (16) inches on center vertically one (1) for each four (4) inches of wall thickness.
28.11-3  Bearing Walls Carried Up Separately
When the courses of meeting or intersecting bearing walls are carried up separately, the intersecting walls shall be regularly toothed or blocked with eight (8) inches maximum offsets and the joints provided with metal anchors having a minimum section of one-quarter (1/4) inch by one and one-half (1-1/2) inches with ends bent up at least two (2) inches, or with cross pins to form anchorage.  Such anchors shall be  at least two (2) feet long and the maximum spacing shall be four (4) feet.
28.11-4  Walls Adjoining or Intersecting Structural Framing
Masonry walls shall be anchored where they adjoin or intersect the frame of a skeleton frame building in such a way as to resist all forces or stresses to which the wall may be subjected.
28.11-5  Anchorage of Bearing Walls to Floors and Roofs
a.  Wood floor and roof joists or beams bearing on masonry walls shall be securely anchored to the walls at intervals not exceeding six (6) feet by metal anchors having a minimum cross-section of 0.25 square inch and at least sixteen (16) inches long, securely fastened to the joists or beams at one end of the anchor by means of a single bolt or other approved method, and the other end of the anchor securely built not less than three and one-half (3-1/2) inches into the masonry.
b.  When lateral support for walls is to be provided by anchorage to the floor or roof joists which are parallel to the walls, the anchors shall be paced at intervals not exceeding six (6) feet and shall engage not less than three (3) joists; these joists shall be bridged solidly at the anchors.
c.  Steel joists shall be anchored to masonry walls by three-eighths (3/8) inch round bars  or their equivalent, spaced not more than six (6) feet on centers.
d.  Concrete slabs bearing on masonry walls shall require no additional anchorage.
e.  Alternate methods of anchoring floors and roofs to masonry walls which are dependent upon such floors and roofs for support, shall be allowed, provided they are capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS or a minimum force of two hundred (200) pounds per lineal foot of wall, whichever is the larger.
28.11-6  Anchorage of Non-Bearing Walls
All non-bearing partitions shall be anchored along the top edge to a structural member or a suspended ceiling, or shall be provided with equivalent anchorage along the sides.  All exterior non-bearing walls shall be anchored along all edges to structural members.


28.12  CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS, BY TYPE OF WALL
28.12-1  Rubble and Stone Masonry
All stones showing pronounced cleavage shall be laid on their natural bed, except for cornices and other projecting members which shall have a grain or bedding planes vertical and at right angles to the face of the masonry.
28.12-2  Solid Masonry
All units shall be laid with full shoved mortar joints, and all  head, bed, and wall joints shall be solidly filled with mortar.
28.12-3  Hollow Masonry
a.  All units shall be laid with full face shell mortar beds.  All head and end joints shall be filled solidly with mortar for a distance in from the face of the unit or wall not less than the thickness of the longitudinal face shells.
b.  In stack bond coursing, all units shall be laid with full face mortar bedding
c.  In walls and piers of hollow masonry units, suitable provision shall be made for bearing of beams and concentrated loads.
28.12-4  Cavity and Hollow Walls
a.  In cavity walls, neither the facing nor the backing shall be less than three and one-half (3-1/2) inches in net thickness and the cavity shall be not less than two (2) inches net in width nor more than three and one-half (3-1/2) inches in width.
b.  In cavity walls, the cavity shall be kept clear of mortar droppings.  Flashing and weep holes shall be provided sufficient to keep the backing dry.
28.12-5  Gypsum Masonry
a.  The bond in gypsum masonry shall conform to the requirements for bond in masonry or hollow units specified in Section 28.10.
b.  All units in gypsum masonry shall be placed in side construction with cells horizontal.  The entire bearing surface of every unit shall be covered with mortar spread in an even layer, and all joints shall be filled with mortar.
28.12-6  Grouted Masonry
a.  At the time of laying all masonry units shall be free of excessive dust and dirt.  For moisture content, see Section 28.13-2.  Only Type M or S mortar shall be used.
b.  Requirements for construction shall be as follows:
(1)  All  units in the two (2) outer tiers shall be laid with full shoved head and bed mortar joints.
(2)  All longitudinal vertical joints shall be grouted and shall be not less than three-fourths (3/4) inch in thickness.  In members of three (3) or more tiers in thickness, interior bricks shall be embedded into the grout so that at least three-fourths (3/4) inch of grout surrounds the sides and ends of each unit.
(3)  One (1) exterior tier may be carried up twelve (12) inches before grouting, but the other exterior tier shall be grouted in lifts not to exceed four (4) inches or one (1) unit, whichever is greater.
(4)  If the work is stopped for one (1) hour or longer, the horizontal construction joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at the same elevation and with the grout one (1) inch below the top.
28.12-7  Glass Block Masonry
a.  Where Permitted
Masonry of  glass blocks may be used in non-load-bearing exterior or interior walls and in openings which might otherwise be  filled  with windows, either isolated or in continuous bands, provided the glass block panels have a thickness of not less than three and one-half (3-1/2) inches at the mortar joint.
b.  Area Limits
 Glass blocks for exterior walls shall not exceed one hundred forty-four (144) square feet of unsupported wall surface, nor twenty-five (25) feet in length, nor twenty (20) feet in height between supports.  For interior walls, glass block panels shall not exceed two hundred fifty (250) square  feet of  unsupported area, now twenty-five (25) in one (1) direction between supports.
c.  Anchorage of Exterior Panels
Exterior glass block panels shall be held in place in the wall opening to resist both external and internal pressures due to wind.  Panels shall be set in recesses at the jambs and, for panels exceeding ten (10) feet in horizontal dimension between supports, at the head as well, so as to provide a bearing surface at least one (1) inch wide along the panel edges; except that  when approved by the Building Commissioner for panels exceeding neither one hundred (100) square feet in area nor ten (10) feet in either horizontal or vertical dimension, and situated four (4) stories or less and less than fifty-two (52) feet above grade level, anchorage may be provided by means of noncorrodible perforated metal strips.
d.  Joint Reinforcement
Glass block panels shall have reinforcement in the horizontal mortar joints, extending from end to end of mortar joints but not across expansion joints, with any unavoidable joints spliced by lapping the reinforcement not less than six (6) inches.  The reinforcement shall be spaced not more than two (2) feet apart vertically.  In addition, reinforcements  shall be placed in the joint immediately below and above any openings within a panel.  The reinforcement shall consist of two (2) parallel longitudinal galvanized steel wires.  No. 9 U.S. gauge or larger, spaced two (2) inches apart, and having welded there to No. 14  or heavier U.S. gauge cross wires at intervals not exceeding eight (8) inches, or the equivalent approved by the Building Commissioner.
e.  Expansion Joints
Exterior glass block panels in excess of fifty (50) square feet total wall area shall  be provided with expansion joints at the sides and top.  Expansion joints shall be entirely  free of mortar, and shall be filled with resilient material.
f.  Glass Block Panels as Opening Protectives
Requirements for glass block panels used as fire protective openings are located in Article XX, Section 20.18


28.13  MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
28.13-1  Protection against Freezing
Masonry shall be protected against freezing for at least forty-eight (48) hours after being laid.  Unless adequate precautions against freezing are taken, no masonry shall be built when the temperature is below thirty-two (32) deg. F. on a rising temperature or below forty (40) deg. F., on a falling temperature, at the point where the work is in progress.  No  frozen materials shall be built upon.
28.13-2  Rate of Absorption
At the time of laying, burned clay units shall have a rate  of absorption not exceeding 0.025 ounces per square inch during a period of one (1) minutes.  In the absorption test the surface of the unit shall be held one-eighth (1/8) inch below the surface of the water.
28.13-3  Pipes and Conduit Embedded in Masonry
No pipe or conduit shall be embedded in any structural masonry in such a way as to vitiate the required strength or fire resistance of such masonry.  Placement of pipes or conduit in the cores of hollow unit masonry or in the voids of cavity and hollow walls shall be allowed.
28.13-4  Wood Support
No structural masonry shall be supported by wood members, except that wood piles may support masonry and wood floors, and roof members may provide lateral support for walls.
28.13-5  Use of Existing Walls
a.  Permission Required
An existing masonry wall may be used in the alteration or extension of a building provided that under the new conditions it meets the requirements of this Article and is structurally sound or can be made so by reasonable repairs.  No existing wall shall be used for  the alteration or extension of a building, or increased in height without specific written permission from the Building Commissioner.
b.  Walls of Insufficient Thickness
Existing masonry walls which are structurally sound but which are of insufficient thickness when increased in height shall be strengthened by an addition of the same material not less than eight (8) inches in thickness laid in Type M mortar.  The foundations and lateral support shall be equivalent to those elsewhere required for newly constructed walls under similar conditions.  All reinforcing linings shall be thoroughly bonded into existing masonry by two things to assure combined action of wall and lining.  Such two things shall be distributed uniformly throughout the wall and shall aggregate in vertical cross-sectional area not less than fifteen (15) percent of the total vertical area of the lining.  Stresses in the masonry under the new conditions shall not exceed the allowable stresses prescribed in Section 28.5.
28.13-6  Lintels and Arches
The masonry above openings shall be supported by well-buttressed arches or lintels of metal or reinforced masonry which shall bear on the wall at each end for not less than four (4) inches.
28.13-7  Chases
a.  General
Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall be designed and constructed so as not to reduce the required strength or required fire resistance of the wall.
b.  Specific Limitations
Except as provided in Paragraph c., below,  chases and recesses within the required width  of masonry walls shall not be deeper than one-third (1/3) the wall thickness nor longer  than four (4) feet horizontally or in horizontal projection, and shall have at least eight (8)  inches of masonry in back of the chases and recesses and between adjacent chases or recesses and the jambs of openings.  Chases and recesses shall not be cut in walls of hollow masonry units or in hollow walls, but when permitted may be build in.  There shall be no chases or recesses within the required area of a pier.  The aggregate area of recesses and chases in any wall shall not exceed one-fourth (1/4) of the whole area of the face of the wall in any story.
c.  Exceptions for Eight Inch Walls
In Residential Buildings not over two (2) stories in height, vertical chases not more than four (4) inches deep and not more than four (4) square feet of wall area may be built in eight (8) inch walls, except that recesses below windows may extend from floor to sill and b the width of the opening above.  Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider than twelve (12) inches shall be supported on lintels.
28.13-8   Corbeled and Projected Masonry
a.  Solid Masonry
(1)  Corbels may be built only into solid masonry walls twelve (12) inches more in thickness.  The maximum projection shall not exceed one-third (1/3) the total thickness of the wall nor four (4) inches, and shall not exceed one (1) inch for each course, when used to support structural members; and such projection shall not exceed six (6) inches, with a maximum of one (1)  inch for each course, when used to support a chimney built into the wall.
(2)  The maximum projection of one  (1) unit shall neither exceed one-half (1/2) the depth of the unit nor one-third (1/3) its width at right angles to the offset face.
b.  Cornices
Unless structural support and anchorage is provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of gravity of all projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle third of the supporting wall.  Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided with a structural frame of approved incombustible material anchored in an approved manner.
28.13-9  Parapet Walls
Parapet walls shall be built of solid masonry units.  They shall be coped with an approved material of a width not less than that of the parapet wall.  Plain masonry parapet walls shall be not less than eight (8) inches in thickness and their height shall not exceed three (3) times their thickness.
28.13-10  Precautions During Erection
 Masonry walls, during erection, shall not be built higher than ten (10) times their thickness unless adequately braced or until provision is made for the prompt installation of permanent bracing at the floor or roof level immediately above the story under construction.
28.13-11  Joint Reinforcement and Control Joints
a.  Exterior walls of concrete masonry units or concrete brick shall not exceed twenty (20) feet in length unless horizontal joint reinforcement or control joints are provided.  If horizontal joint reinforcement sixteen (16) inches on center or a continuous bond beam is  used, the maximum length of wall without control joints may be fifty (50) feet.  The maximum  length of  walls may be increased thirty (30)  percent when the concrete masonry units or concrete bricks are high pressure steam cured units.
b.  All exterior walls of concrete masonry shall have joint reinforcement in first and second bed joints immediately above and below all openings.  This reinforcement shall extend at least twenty (24) inches beyond the opening.



ARTICLE XXIX
CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Index
29.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
29.1-1            Scope
29.1-2            Structural Design
29.1-3            Plan Requirements
29.1-4            Supervision of Reinforced Concrete Work
29.1-5            Items Not Included

29.2        MATERIALS
29.2-1            Portland Cement
29.2-2            Aggregates
29.2-3            Water
29.2-4            Admixtures
29.2-5            Ready-Mixed Concrete
29.2-6            Steel Reinforcement
29.2-7            Pre-Stressing Steel
22.2-8            Structural Steel
22.2-9            Steel Pipe for Concrete Filled Pipe Columns
22.2-10            Cast Iron Pipe for Composite Columns
29.2-11            Gypsum Products

29.3        WORKING STRESSES
29.3-1            Plain and Reinforced Concrete
29.3-2            Gypsum Concrete
29.3-3            Steel for Gypsum Concrete
29.3-4            Shear on Bolts

29.4        PLAIN CONCRETE
29.4-1            Design, Construction and Workmanship
29.4-2            Minimum Strength
29.4-3            Minimum Water-Cement Ratio for Exposed Concrete
29.4-4            Admixtures
29.4-5            Minimum Thickness
29.4-6            Openings in Walls of Plain Concrete



29.5        REINFORCED CONCRETE (INCLUDING PRESTRESSED CONCRETE)

29.6        PNEUMATICALLY PLACED CONCRETE

29.1      INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
29.1-1  Scope
Design, fabrication, and erection of concrete construction shall conform to the requirements of this Article, to the specific standards of accepted engineering practice referred to in this Article, and, in matters not otherwise covered, to accepted engineering practice.
29.1-2  Structural Design
All structures and parts thereof, shall be designed to adequately resist the actual forces for which they are intended, but in no case forces less than those found in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN  LOADS.  Such structures in all their structural elements, including connections, shall not exceed the allowable stress values established in this Article.  Provision shall be made for expansion and contraction due to temperature variation and the effect of shrinkage and creep.
29.1-3  Plan Requirements
a.  Reinforced Concrete
Copies of structural drawings, typical details and specifications for all reinforced concrete construction shall bear the seal of a licensed Illinois structural engineer or architect and shall be filed with the Building Department as a permanent record, before a permit to construct such work will be issued.  These drawings, details, and specifications shall show the size and position of all structural elements and reinforcing steel, the specified strength of the concrete at stated ages, the specified strength of the reinforcing steel, the magnitude and location of prestressing forces, and the live load used in the design.  Calculations bearing the seal of a licensed Illinois architect or structural engineer pertaining to the design shall be filed with the drawings when required by the Building Commissioner.
b.  Plain Concrete
Plain concrete, not required to be designed by a licensed Illinois architect or structural engineer by the provisions of Article V, Section 5.3-2b., shall not be required to be so  designed by the provisions of this Section.  However, such plans for such plain concrete shall show the size and position of all structural elements, and the specified twenty-eight (28) day  concrete strength.
c.  Scale
Plans shall be drawn to a scale of not less than one-eighth (1/8) inch to the foot, with all details at larger scale, in accordance with accepted engineering practice, unless otherwise specifically approved.
29.1-4  Supervision of Reinforced Concrete Work
a.  Inspection Required
Reinforced concrete work on the site shall be supervised by a licensed Illinois architect or structural engineer, preferably the one responsible for its design, or by a competent representative responsible to him, who shall ascertain that the quality and quantity of concrete materials, the mixing, placing, and curing of concrete, the placing of reinforcing steel, and the sequence of erection and connection of precast members, and the general progress of work is in accordance with the approved plans and specifications.  Appropriate records of the above operation shall be kept.
b.  Temperature Records
When the temperature falls below 40 deg. F., or rises above 100 deg. F., a complete record shall be kept of the temperatures and of the protection given to the concrete while curing.
c.  Time of Retention
The records of inspection kept by the job supervisor and required in paragraphs a. and b. above, shall be kept available to the Building Commissioner during the progress of the work and for one (1) year thereafter, and shall be preserved by the engineer or architect for that purpose.
c.  Supervision Waiver
The Building Commissioner may waive the requirement for inspection, by a licensed Illinois architect or structural engineer, of concrete work on single-family and two-family dwellings.

29.1-5  Items Not Included
a.  Fire Resistance of Reinforced and Pre-stressed Concrete
The fire resistance of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete is covered in Article XX, FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS, Sections 20.21-5 and 20.21-6.
b.  Concrete Foundation Walls, Foundations Piers, Footings, Piles and Pile Caps
Concrete foundation walls, foundation piers, footings, piles and pile caps are regulated in Article XXV, EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS.


29.2  MATERIALS
29.2-1  Portland Cement
Portland cement shall conform to the following specifications:

Portland Cement                                                                ASTM C150
Air Entraining Portland Cement                                            ASTM C175
Portland Blast  Furnace Slag Cement                                   ASTM C205
Portland Pozzolan Cement                                                   ASTM C340

29.2-2  Aggregates
Aggregates shall conform to the following specifications

Concrete Aggregates                                                            ASTM C33
Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete                    ASTM C330
29.2-3  Water
Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or steel.  Potable  natural water having no pronounced taste or odor may be used without test.

Air Entraining Admixtures                                                    ASTM C260
Fly Ash                                                                                ASTM C350
Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolans                                    ASTM C402
29.2-5  Ready-Mixed Concrete
Ready-mixed concrete shall conform to ASTM C94
29.2-6  Steel Reinforcement
Steel reinforcement shall conform to the following specifications:
Billet-Steel Bars                                                                    ASTM A15
Rail-Steel Bars                                                                        ASTM A16
Axle-Steel Bars                                                                    ASTM A160
Special Large Size Deformed Billet-Steel Bars                        ASTM A408
High Strength Billet-Steel Bars                                                ASTM A431
Deformed Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete
    Reinforcement with 60,000 psi
    Minimum Yield Point                                                            ASTM A432
Cold-Drawn Steel Wire                                                            ASTM A82
Bar or Rod Mats                                                                        ASTM A184
Welded Wire Fabric                                                                ASTM A185

29.2-7  Pre-Stressing Steel
a.  Pre-stressing steel for concrete shall conform to the following specifications:

Uncoated Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved Strand                        ASTM A416
Wire, Uncoated Stress-Relieved                                            ASTM A421
b.  High strength alloy steel bars for post-tensioning such bars shall be proofstressed to ninety (90) percent of the guaranteed tensile strength.  After proofstressing, the bars shall conform to the following minimum properties:

Ultimate strength f's                                                            145,000 psi
Yield strength (0.2 percent offset)                                            0.90 of ultimate strength
Elongation of rupture in 20 diameters                                    4 percent
Reduction of area at rupture                                                15 percent

29.2-8  Structural Steel
Structural steel shall conform to the following specifications:

Steel for Bridges and Buildings                                            ASTM A7
Structural Steel                                                                    ASTM A36
Structural Steel for Welding                                                ASTM A373

29.2-9  Steel Pipe for Concrete Filled Pipe Columns
Steel pipe for concrete filled pipe columns shall conform to ASTM A53
29.2-10  Cast Iron Pipe for Composite Columns
Cast iron pipe for composite columns shall conform to ASTM A377.
29.2-11  Gypsum Products
Gypsum produces shall conform to the following specifications:
Gypsum Concrete                                                                                    ASTM C317
Gypsum, Slabs, Precast (Except that
precast slabs designed in accordance with the
requirements for poured-in-place reinforced
gypsum concrete, and designed for heavier
loads than those of ASTM C377, may be used)                                        ASTM C377


29.3  WORKING STRESSES
29.3-1  Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Working stresses for plain and reinforced concrete and reinforcing steel shall be those established in ACI 318.
29.3-2  Gypsum Concrete
Allowable working stresses for gypsum concrete shall be as indicated in Table 29.3-2.

TABLE 29.3-2
ALLOWABLE UNIT WORKING STRESS
REINFORCED GYPSUM
29.3-3  Steel for Gypsum Concrete
Allowable working stresses for steel used with gypsum concrete shall be as indicated below:


29.3-4  Shear on Bolts
Allowable shear on bolts in portland cement and gypsum concrete shall be as indicated in Table 29.3-4.

TABLE 29.3-4
ALLOWABLE SHEAR ON ANCHOR
BOLTS OR DOWELS IN CONCRETE

          
29.4  PLAIN CONCRETE
29.4-1  Design, Construction and Workmanship
In all matters not covered in this Section 29.4, plain concrete shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of ACI 318.
29.4-2  Minimum Strength
Plain concrete, other than fill, shall have a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 2,500 psi.  Concrete used for floor or roof fill shall have a 228-day compressive strength of at least 600 psi.
29.4-3  Minimum Water-Cement Ratio for Exposed Concrete
Concrete which will be exposed to the action of freezing weather shall have a water content not exceeding six (6) gallons per bag of cement and shall contain entrained air in  accordance with ACI 613.
29.4-4  Admixtures
Admixtures may be used only with the approval of the registered Illinois structural engineer or architect responsible for the job, and the usage shall be in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturer.
29.4-5  Minimum Thickness
The thickness of plain concrete walls may be two (2) inches less than that required for solid masonry walls, but in no case less than eight (8) inches.  The ratio of unsupported height or length to thickness shall not exceed twenty-two (22).  Limits on thickness, or on height or length to thickness ratios, may be waived when supporting structural calculations are submitted by a licensed Illinois architect or structural engineer showing that the walls will withstand all loads to which they will be subjected.
29.4-6  Openings in Walls of Plain Concrete
Openings larger than two (2) square feet in plain concrete walls shall be reinforced.  Such reinforcement symmetrically disposed in the thickness of the wall shall be placed not less than one (1) inch above and two (2) inches below openings, and extend not less than two (2) feet each side of such openings, or be equivalent developed length with hooks.  The minimum reinforcement both above and below openings shall consist of the equivalent of one 5/8-inch round bar for each six 6) inches in wall thickness.


29.5  REINFORCED CONCRETE   (INCLUDING PRESTRESSED CONCRETE)
Design, workmanship, construction and all matters not otherwise covered in this Section 29.5 with regard to reinforced concrete construction shall be in accordance with ACI 318.  Until such time as requirements for prestressed concrete are covered in ACI 318, prestressed concrete shall be in accordance with the Prestressed Concrete Building Code Requirements (a publication ) of the Prestressed Concrete Institute.

29.6  PNEUMATICALLY PLACED CONCRETE
29.6-1  General
For the purpose of this Section 29.6, pneumatically placed concrete is a mixture of fine aggregate and cement pneumatically applied by suitable mechanism and to which water is added immediately prior to discharge from the applicator.  Except as specified in Section 29.6-2 through 29.6-7, all pneumatically placed concrete shall conform to the  regulations of this Article for concrete.
29.6-2  Proportions
The proportion of cement to aggregate, in loose dry volumes, shall be not less than one to four and one-half (4-1/2).
29.6-4  Mixing
The cement and aggregate shall be thoroughly mixed prior to the addition of water.  At the time of mixing, the fine aggregate shall contain not less than three (3) percent moisture.
29.6-5  Rebound
Any rebound or accumulated loose, aggregate shall be removed from the surface to be covered prior to placing the initial or any succeeding layers of pneumatically placed concrete.  Rebound may be re-used if it conforms to the requirements for aggregate, but not in excess of twenty-five (25) percent of the total aggregate in any batch.
29.6-6  Joints
Unfinished work shall not be allowed to stand for more than thirty (30) minutes unless all abrupt edges are sloped to a thin edge.  Before  resuming work, this sloped portion shall be cleaned and wetted.
29.6-7  Damage
Any pneumatically placed concrete which subsides after placement shall be removed.


29.7  REINFORCED GYPSUM CONCRETE
29.7-1  General
In all matters not otherwise covered in this Section, cast-in-place gypsum concrete and precast gypsum units shall be in accordance with ASA A59-1.
29.7-2  Usage
a.  Gypsum concrete shall not be used where exposed directly to the weather or where subject to frequent or continuous wetting, or where exposed to detrimental moisture accumulation within the gypsum concrete, or where for prolonged periods the temperature on the surface of the gypsum concrete is 250 deg. F., or more.
b.  Precautions are to be taken against saturation and freezing of gypsum concrete members during construction.
29.7-3  Design
a.  Precast Slabs
For precast slabs which cannot be analyzed in accordance with established  principles of mechanics, the safe load, uniformly distributed, shall be taken as one-fifth (1/5 of the total load causing failure in a full-size test panel with the load applied along two (2) lines, each distant one-fourth (1/4) of the clear span from the support.
b.  Suspension-Type Slabs
In slabs of the suspension type, the reinforcement shall consist of wires with continuity through multiple spans and anchored at the ends.  The wires shall be supported in the top of the slab by the roof  or floor beams and shall be tightly drawn down as near to the bottom  of the slab at mid-span as  fire protection requirements will allow, but not closer than one-half (1/2) inch.  Provision shall b made in the framing of the end bays of this system   for resisting the forces due to end anchorage of the wires.  The wires shall be designed for a tension in pounds per foot-width of slab equal to:

                                                            wL (squared)
                                                             ------------
                                                            8d
where:
            w = The total load in pounds per square foot
L = The clear span in feet
 d = The sag of the wires in feet
29.7-4  Minimum Thickness
The minimum thickness of reinforced gypsum concrete shall be two (2) inches, except in the suspension system, which shall be not less than three (3) inches.  Hollow precast reinforced gypsum concrete units for roof construction shall be not less than three (3) inches thick and the shell not less than one-half (1/2) inch thick.
29.7-5  Mixing
The amount of mixing water added to gypsum concrete shall not exceed the following amounts:
                Class A, mill mixed                            11 gallons per 100 pounds
                Class B, mill mixed                              9 gallons per 100 pounds


ARTICLE XXX
STEEL AND METAL
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


Index
30.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
30.1-1            Scope
30.1-2            Structure Design
3.1-3            Permit Application Requirements
3.1-4             Design Theory Basis

30.2        MATERIALS
30.2-1            Structural Steel
30.2-2            Open Web Steel Joists
30.2.3            Light Gauge Formed Steel
30.2-4            Cast Steel
30.2-5            Forged Steel
30.2-6            Rivets
30.2-7            Bolts
30.2-8            Filler Metal for Welding

30.3        BASIC WORKING STRESSES FOR STEEL
30.3-2            Light Gauge Formed Steel

30.4        COMBINED STRESSES

30.5        MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS SUBJECT TO REPEATED VARIATIONS OF STRESS

 30.6        SLENDERNESS RATIOS

30.7        WIDTH - THICKNESS RATIOS

30.8        PLATE GIRDERS AND ROLLED BEAMS

30.9        BUILT-UP MEMBERS

30.10        DESIGN, DETAILING FABRICATION, ERECTION, AND WORKMANSHIP OF STRUCTURAL STEEL


30.11        ANCHORAGE AND BEARING

30.12        PLASTIC DESIGN

30.13        LIGHT GAUGE FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION
30.13-1            Description and Distinction
30.13-2            Minimum Material Thickness
30.13-3            Design Method
30.13-4            Construction and Erection

30.14        OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
30.14-1            Design and Manufacture
30.14-2            Construction Detail
30.14-3            Erection
30.14-4            Allowable Usage

30.15        DAMAGED, USED AND IDENTIFIED STEEL

30.16        SPECIAL STEELS

30.17        CAST IRON
30.17-1            Working Stresses
30.17-2            Columns
30.17-3            Bases
30.17-4            Lintels
30.17-5            Allowable Usage

30.18        CONNECTIONS
30.18-1            General
30.18-2            Turned Bolts
30.18-3            High Strength Bolts
30.18-4            Unfinished Bolts
30.18-5            Rivets
30.18-6            Welding

30.19        CORROSION AND RUST PROTECTION
30.19-1        General
30.19-2            Structural Steel and Iron
30.19-3            Light Gauge Formed Steel
30.19-4            Open Web Steel Joists
30.19-5            Flashing
30.19-6            Highly Corrosive Atmospheres
30.19-7            Underground and Underwater Steel

30.20        GAS CUTTING

30.21        LIGHTWEIGHT METAL ALLOYS

30.22        LIGHTWEIGHT METAL ALLOYS
30.22-1            Beams
30.22-2            Columns

Index

30.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article
30.1-1    Scope
Design, fabrication and erection of steel and metal construction shall conform to the requirements of this Article to the specific standards of accepted engineering practice referred to in this Article and listed in Appendix 2, and in matters not otherwise covered, to accepted engineering practice as defined in Article III, RULES AND DEFINITIONS
30.1-2   Structure Design
All structures shall be designed to be rigid and to adequately resist the actual forces for which they are intended, but  in no case forces less than those found in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS.  Such design in all its structural elements including connections shall not exceed the allowable stress values established in this Article.  Provision shall be mad for expansion and contraction due to temperature variation.
30.1-3  Permit Application Requirements
a.  Steel and metal structural drawings shall include plans drawn to appropriate scale, but in no case less than one-eighth (1/8) inch to the foot (unless otherwise  specifically approved), showing materials, sizes, sections, and relative locations of all structural members.  Floor levels shall be indicated and column centers and offsets shall be fully dimensioned.  Design loads shall be stated clearly for all parts of the structure.  Connections of all primary and secondary structural members shall be shown on the  drawings with scale figures or by reference to AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) standard beam connections.  Such additional information shall be provided as  is necessary to fully explain the structural design, shapes and sizes of members and details of connections, especially in the case of unconventional designs.  The Building Commissioner may require such additional information in the form of drawings, reports, and tests as he deems necessary to determine the structural adequacy.
30.1-4  Design Theory Basis
Application of loads to members shall be in accordance with accepted engineering practice.  Structures capable of rational analysis shall be designed in accordance with elastic theory using the working stresses of section 30.2-1 herein, or in accordance with ultimate strength design (see Section 30.12, Plastic Design) using a load safety factor.
30.2-1  Structural Steel
Structural steel shall conform to one of the following specifications.  Certified mill test reports shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the specifications.

Steel  for Bridges and Buildings                    ASTM A7
Structural Steel  for Welding                            ASTM A373
Structural Steel                                            ASTM A36
High-Strength Structural Steel                        ASTM A440
High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural               
     Manganese Vanadium Steel                    ASTM A441
High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel      ASTM A242
30.2-2  Open Web Steel Joists
Open web steel joists shall conform to one of the following specifications.  Manufacturer's certification shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the Specifications.
Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel Joists, J-Series
Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel Joists, H-Series
Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel Joists, LA-Series
Standard Specifications for Open Web Steel Joists, LH-Series
30.2-3  Light Gauge Formed Steel
Structural steel for light gauge formed steel members shall conform to one of the following specifications.  However, this listing does not preclude the use of material ordered or produced to other than the listed specifications, provided such material conforms to the chemical and mechanical requirements of one of the listed specifications or  other published  specifications which establishes its properties and suitability, and further provided it is subjected by either  the producer or the purchaser to analysis, tests, and other controls to the extent and in the manner prescribed by one of the listed specifications.  Certified mill test reports shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the specifications.

Flat-Rolled Carbon Steel Sheets of Structural Quality                        ASTM A245
Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Strip of Structural Quality                        ASTM A303
High Strength Low Alloy Cold-Rolled Steel Sheets and Strip            ASTM A374
High Strength Low Alloy Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets and Strip                ASTM A375

30.2-4  Cast Steel
Cast steel shall conform to one of the following specifications.  Certified test reports shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the specifications

Mild-to-Medium Strength Carbon Steel Castings                               
  for General Application, grade 65-35                                                ASTM A27
High-Strength Steel Castings for Structural
   Purposes, Grade 80-50                                                                     ASTM A148

30.2-5   Forged Steel
Steel forgings shall conform to one of the following specifications.  Certified test reports shall constitute evidence of conformity with the specifications.

Carbon Steel Forgings for General Industrial Use, Class C1, F and G
(Class C1 forgings that are to be welded shall be ordered in accordance
with  Supplemental Requirements S5 for A235)                                    ASTM A235
Alloy Steel Forgings for Industrial Use, Class A                                    ASTM A237

30.2-6  Rivets
Rivet steel shall conform to one of the following specifications.  Certified mill test reports shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the specifications.

High-Strength Structural Rivet Steel                                                ASTM A141
High-Strength Structural Rivet Steel                                                ASTM A195
High-Strength Structural Alloy Rivet Steel                                        ASTM A406

30.2-7  Bolts
Bolts, shall conform to one of the following specifications.  Manufacturer's certifications, shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the specifications.

High Strength Steel Bolts for Structural Joints                                ASTM A325
Quenches and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts and Studs with
Suitable Nuts, Grade BC                                                                ASTM A354
Specification for Low Carbon Steel Externally and Internally
Threaded Fasteners                                                                        ASTM A307

30.2-8  Filler Metal for Welding
a.  Shielded Metal Arc
Welding electrodes for manual shielded metal arc welding shall conform to the following specification.  Manufacture's certification shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the specifications.

Specification for Mild Steel Arc Welding Electrodes            ASTM A233

b.  Submerged Arc Process
The bare electrodes and granular fusible flux used in combinations for submerged arc weld shall be capable of producing weld metal having the following tensile properties when deposited in a multiple pass weld:

Grade  SAW-1
Tensile strength                                        62,000 to 80,000 psi
Yield point, minimum                                45,000 psi
Elongation in 2 inches, minimum                   25%
Reduction in area, minimum                        40%
Grade SAW-2
Tensile strength                                        70,000 to 90,000 psi
Yield point, minimum                                50,000 psi
Elongation in 2 inches, minimum                22%
Reduction in area, minimum                        40%

30.3  BASIC WORKING STRESSES FOR STEEL
The basic working stresses for steel shall be as established in AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings, and the following:
30.3-2  Light Gauge Formed Steel
The terms C, B and A when used herein to designate grades of steel refer to grades provided by ASTM Specifications A245 and A303.  Tension on the net section of tension members and tension and compression, of the extreme fibers of flexural members shall not exceed the values in pounds per square inch specified below.

Grade of Steel                                                            P.S.I.
A                                                                                15,000
B                                                                                 18,000
C                                                                                 20,000

                                                                Minimum Specified Yield Point in
                                                                Pounds Per Square Inch
Other                                                                            1.65

30.4  COMBINED STRESSES
The requirements for combined stresses shall be as specified in AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.5  MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS SUBJECT TO REPEATED VARIATIONS OF STRESS

The slenderness ratios of compression members and tension members shall comply with AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.6  SLENDERNESS RATIOS
The slenderness ratios of compression members and tension members shall comply with AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.7  WIDTH - THICKNESS RATIOS
The width-thickness ratios of steel members or elements shall be as established in AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection  of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.8  PLATE GIRDERS AND ROLLED BEAMS
Plate girders and rolled beams shall meet the requirements of AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.9  BUILT-UP MEMBERS
Built-up steel members shall be governed by the regulations of AISC Specification  for the Design,  Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.10  DESIGN, DETAILING, FABRICATION, ERECTION AND WORKMANSHIP OF STRUCTURAL STEEL
The design, detailing, fabrication, erection and workmanship of structural steel in matters not covered in this ordinance shall be in accordance with AISC Specifications for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.11  ANCHORAGE AND BEARING
 Lintels, joists, beams, girders, or trusses supported at either end by a wall or pier shall be anchored thereto and shall rest on bearing plates or shoes of cast iron, steel, or stone of such design and dimensions as to distribute safely the loads on the masonry unless the bearing surface of the lintels, steel joists, or beams is sufficient to distribute the load.  On spans of fifty (50) feet or more end conditions of spanning members shall be such as to prevent overturning of the walls upon which they bear due to the effect of expansion and contraction caused by temperature or stress variation.

30.12  PLASTIC DESIGN
Plastic design methods and fabrication shall be as established in AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.

30.13  LIGHT GAUGE FORMED STEEL, CONSTRUCTION
30.13-1  Description and Distinction
The term light gauge steel structural members as used in this ordnance refers to structural members cold formed to shape from sheet or strip steel.  Nothing contained herein is intended to conflict with provisions covering structural steel or open web steel joists.
30.13-2  Minimum Material Thickness
The minimum permissible  permissible thickness of metal for formed steel structural members shall be base don the use of the member as follows:

                                                                                                                                    U.S. GAUGE
Steel siding and roofing sheets (corrugated, ribbed  etc.                                                 No. 28
Steel roof decking                                                                                                        No. 22
Steel floor plates                                                                                                            No. 18
Studs, joists, purlins, structural ribs, horizontal                                                               
    girts and furring members                                                                                        No. 18

30.13-3  Design Method
Design of light gauge steel construction shall be in accordance with AISI Specification for the Design of Light Gauge Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.
30.13-4  Construction and Erection
a.  Floor and Roof Systems
Light Gauge formed steel roof and floor systems shall be securely anchored or welded to the members upon which such systems are as supported.  Members supported on masonry and reinforced concrete shall have end bearings at least four (4) inches in length and shall be provided with joist anchors thoroughly embedded  therein.
b.  Wall Systems
Bearing studs or  other vertical bearing members shall rest on a sole plate having a width equal to the depth of the member and sufficient strength to safely distribute the load, unless the vertical member is embedded in a concrete foundation.  Sole plates shall be securely attached to the foundation.  Splices on vertical members shall develop the full strength of the member.  Members  cut out for passage of pipes and conduits shall be reinforced to compensate for the material cut away.

30.14  OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
30.14-1  Design and Manufacture
Open web steel joists shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with the specifications and load tables for various series of open web steel joists included  in Standard Specifications  and Load Tables, Open Web Steel Joists.  The clear span of any joist series shall not exceed twenty-four (24) times its depth.  Span shall not exceed twenty (20) times the depth for all H series joists, all LA series joists over thirty-two (32) feet long, and all LH series joists used for floor construction.
30.14-2  Construction Detail
a.  End Support
The ends of H, J, and LA series steel joists shall extend a distance of not less than four (4) inches over masonry or poured concrete supports.  The ends of LH series joists shall extend a distance of not less than six (6) inches over masonry or poured concrete supports.  The ends of steel joists shall extend not less than two and one-half (2-1/2) inches for H, J, and LA series and four (4) inches for LH series joists, over steel supports, except where opposite joists butt over a narrow steel support and positive attachment to the support is made by welding or bolting.  In such  cases a shorter end bearing length may be used when proper design provisions are made.
b.  End Anchorage
Joists resting on masonry supports shall be bedded in mortar and have anchors equivalent to those in Table 30.14-2A, which follows:

TABLE 30.14-2A

c.  Bridging
(1)  Requirement
Horizontal or diagonal bridging or sag rods must be provided for J, H, and LA series joists.  LH series joists must be provided with diagonal bridging. 
(2)  Horizontal Bridging
Horizontal bridging shall consist of two (2) continuous horizontal steel members, one attached to the top chord and the other attached to the  bottom chord.  Attachment to the joists shall be made by welding or mechanical means and shall be capable of resisting a horizontal force of not less than five hundred (500) pounds.  The ratio of unbraced length to least radius of gyration (1/r) of the bridging member shall not exceed three hundred (300) where "l" is the distance in inches between attachments and "r" is the least radius of gyration of the bridging member.  If the bridging member is a round bar the diameter shall be at least one-half (1/2) inch.
(3)  Diagonal Bridging
When diagonal bridging is used, it shall consist of cross-bracing with (l/r) ratio of not more than two hundred (200) where "l" is the distance in inches between connections and "r" is the least radius of gyration of the bracing member.  Where cross-bracing members are connected at  their point of intersection, the "l" distance shall be taken as the distance in inches between connections at the point of  intersection of the bracing members and the connections to the chords of the joists.  Connections of chords of steel joists shall be made by positive mechanical means or by welding.
(4)  Sag Rods
In roof construction where the slope is normal to the longitudinal axis of the joist, sag rods may be used in lieu of bridging.   They shall consist of steel rods not less than one-half (1/2) inch in diameter and the number of lines shall be the same as that specified for bridging.
(5)  Spacing
In no case shall the spacing of bridging or sag rods be greater than that given in Table 30.1402B, which follows:

TABLE 30.14-2B

30.14-3  Erection
As soon as joists are erected, all bridging shall be completely installed and the joists permanently fastened in place before the application of any loads.  On LA Series joists, hoisting cables shall not be released until one (1) bridging line nearest mid-span for spans of up to sixty (60) feet, and two (2) ridging lines nearest the third points of the span for spans for over sixty (60) feet, are installed.  Where joists are bottom bearing, their ends shall be restrained laterally.
30.14-4  Allowable Usage
Open web steel joists may be used for any type of floor or roof construction as simple beams.  Where they are used other than as simple spans under uniformly distributed loadings, they shall be investigated and modified to limit the unit stress to those for which they were designed.  Examples of the preceding case would include but not be limited to cantilever construction, support of concentrated loads, and transmission of stresses axially, as when used for wind bracing.  Steel joists shall not be used in an unvented crawl space, and shall have one (1) foot clearance from the ground surface in a vented crawl space.

30.15  DAMAGED, USED AND UNIDENTIFIED STEEL
All steel when erected shall be free from damage or defects that would vitiate the strength or stability of the structure.  Structural steel which has been previously used in a building or other structure, or fabricated for such use, shall not be used in a building or structure unless its strength can e verified to the satisfaction of the Building Commissioner.  Unidentified stock material or used steel, if free from surface imperfections, may be used for short sections of minor importance, or for small unimportant details where the precise physical properties of the material would not affect the safety of the structure.  Unidentified in this regard, shall mean lacking identification for fabricated items and lacking the name or brand of the manufacturer and the melt number for non-fabricated steel.

30.16  SPECIAL STEELS
The design, construction and use of structural members of silicon nickel, and other corrosion-resistive alloys or high strength steels not listed in Section 30.2-2, shall be in  accordance with accepted engineering practice.  Steels used for plastic design shall, however, be limited to those listed in Section 30.12-1.  Steel which is used for main components and which is required to have a yield point greater than 36,000 psi shall, at all times in the  fabricator's plant, be marked to identify  its ASTM or other specification.  Identification of  such steel in completed members or assemblies shall be markedly by painting the ASTM or  other specification designation on the piece, over any shop coat of paint, prior to shipment from the fabricator's plant.  The maximum allowable working stress in tension for special steels shall not exceed 0.6 of the low value o the yield point strength.  All other stresses  may be increased proportionately to the corresponding working stresses for structural steel given in Sections 30.3, 30.4 and 30.5.

30.17  CAST IRON
30.17-1  Working Stresses
 
30.17-2  Columns
Cast iron columns shall not be subject to tensile stresses.  The smallest outside diameter or side of cast iron columns shall be five (5) inches.  Minimum thickness of metal shall be not less than one-twelfth (1/12) the diameter or least dimension of cross section; but, in any event, not less than three-fourths (3/4) inch.  Cast iron columns not cast with one (1) open side or back shall  have three-eights (3/8) inch holes drilled in the shaft to permit measurement of thickness.
30.17-3  Bases
Cast iron bases or shoes shall be not less than one (1) inch thick on any part, and shall be reinforced with fillets and brackets.  They shall be planned on top and, when resting on steel girders, on both bottom and top.
30.17-4  Lintels
Cast iron lintels shall not be used for spans exceeding six (6) feet.  They shall be not less than three-fourths (3/4) inch thick at any point.
30.17-5  Allowable Usage

30.18  CONNECTIONS
30.18-1  General
a.  Combined Stress
Rivets, bolts, and welds subject to shearing and externally applied tensile or compressive forces shall be so proportioned that the combined unit stress will not exceed the unit stress allowed for shear.
b.  Reversal of Stress
See Section 30.5 and section 30.18-1
c.  Combination Methods of Connection
(1)  In new work, A 307 bolts or high strength bolts sued in bearing-type connections shall not be considered as sharing the stress in combination with welds.  Welds, if used, shall be provided to carry the entire stress in the connection.  High strength bolts installed as  a friction-type connection prior to welding may be considered as sharing the stress with the welds.
(2  In making weld alterations to structures, existing rivets and high strength bolts, properly tightened, may be utilized for carrying stresses resulting from existing dead loads, and the welding need be adequate only to carry  all additional stress.
(3)  In new work and in making alterations, rivets and high strength bolts installed as friction type connections, may be considered as sharing the stresses resulting from  dead and live loads.
d.  Minimum Connections
Connections carrying calculated stresses, except for lacing, sag bars, and girts shall be designed to support not less than 6,000 pounds.
e.  Eccentric Connections
(1)  Axially stressed members meeting at a point shall have their gravity axes intersect at a point, if practicable; if not, provisions shall be made for bending stresses  due to eccentricity.
(2)  Except as hereinafter provided, the rivets, bolts, or welds at the ends of any member transmitting axial stress into that member shall have their centers of gravity on the gravity axis of the member unless provision is made for the effect of the resulting eccentricity.
(3)  Except in members subject to stress reversals in excess of 10,000 in the expected life of the building, disposition of fillet welds to balance the forces about the neutral axis or axes for end connections of single angle, double angle and similar type members is not required.  Eccentricity between the gravity axes of such members and the gauge lines for their riveted or bolted end connections may be neglected.
f.  Truss Connections
The connections at ends of tension or compression members in trusses shall develop the strength required by the stress, but not less than five hundred-fifty (550) percent of the effective strength of the member.
g.  Compression Members with Bearing Joints
(1)  Where compression members bear on bearing  plates, and where tier building columns are finished to bear, there shall be sufficient rivets, bolts or welds to hold all parts securely in place.
(2)  Where other compression members are finished to bear, the splice material and its riveting, bolting, or welding shall be arranged to hold all parts in line and shall be proportioned for no less than fifty (50) percent of the computed stress.
30.18-2  Turned Bolts
Turned bolts in close fitting holes may be used in shop or field work where it is impracticable to drive satisfactory rivets.  The  finished shank shall be long enough to  provide full bearing and washers shall be used under the nuts to give  full grip when the nuts are turned tight.
30.18-3  High Strength Bolts
Use of high strength bolts shall conform to the provisions of the Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 Bolts, except that ASTM A354, Grade BC bolts tightened to their proof load, may be  substituted for A325 bolts at the working stresses permitted in Section 30.2.
30.18-4  Unfinished Bolts
a.  All field connections may be made with unfinished bolts, except as follows, where rivets, turned bolts, high strength bolts, or welds are to be used:

b.  For the purpose of this Section, penthouses and roof structures may be excluded in computing the height of a building.
c.  Unfinished bolts shall not be used in connections which support running machinery or other live loads which produce impact or reversal.
30.18-5  Rivets
a.  Hot Driven Rivets
Workmanship for hot driven rivets shall be in accordance with AISC Specification  for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.
b.  Cold Driven Rivets
The requirements for hot driven rivets shall apply to cold driven rivets, as modified in the Tentative Specifications for Cold Driven Rivets
30.18-6  Welding
a.  Working Stresses
Fiber stresses in tension, compression, and shear shall be those given in Section 30.2.  Stress in a fillet weld shall be considered as shear on the throat for any direction of applied stress.  Plug or slot welds shall not be ascribed any value in resistance to stress other than shear.
b.  Combined Stress
In the case of fillet welds subject to both shear and bending stresses, the maximum unit stress resulting from the combination shall not exceed that allowed for shear.
c.  Effective Areas of Weld Metal
(1)  The effective area of butt and fillet welds shall be considered as the effective length of the weld times the effective throat thickness.
(2)  The effective shearing area of plug and slot welds shall be considered as the nominal cross-sectional area of the hole or slot, in the plane of the faying surface.
(3)  The effective area of fillet welds in holes and slots shall be computed as above specified for fillet welds, using  using for effective length, the length of center-line of the weld through the center of the plane through the throat.  However, in the case of overlapping fillets, the effective area shall not exceed the  nominal cross-sectional area of the hole or slot, in the plane of the faying surface.
(4  The effective length of the fillet weld shall be the overall length of  full-size fillet including returns.
(5)  The effective length of a butt weld shall be the width of the part joined.
(6)  The effective throat thickness of a fillet weld  shall be the shortest distance from the root to the face of the diagrammatic weld.
(7)  The effective throat thickness of a complete penetration butt weld shall be the thickness of the thinner part joined.
(8)  The effective throat thickness of single-V or single-bevel groove welds having no root opening and having  partial penetration into their joints shall be one-fourth (1/4) inch less than the depth of the V or bevel groove.  The effective throat thickness of  single-J or  single-U groove welds having no root opening and having  partial penetration into their joints shall be the depth of the J or U groove.  The effective throat thickness of any of these partial penetration groove welds shall  not be less than t(1)/6 where t(1) is the thickest of the thinner part connected by the weld.
d.  Design Method
Design detailing shall be in accordance with AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection  of Structural Steel for Buildings.
e.  Qualified Joints and Details
The details of all joints (including those for butt welds, the groove form, foot face, foot spacing etc.)  to be employed without welding procedure qualification shall comply with  all the requirements for joints which are accepted  without procedure qualification under the Standard Code for Arc and Gas Welding in  Building Construction or the Standard  Specifications for Welded Highway and Railway Bridges.  Additionally,  single-V, single-bevel, single-J and single-U partial penetration groove welds, having no root opening and no effective throat thickness as defined in Section 30.18-6c are accepted without procedure  qualification.  Joint forms or procedures other than those included in the foregoing, may  be employed provided they shall have been qualified in accordance with the above listed standards.
f.  Electrode Usage
ASTM-A233 class E60 and low-hydrogen E70 series electrodes for manual arc welding and Grade SAW-1 or Grade SAW-2 submerged arc process may be used for welding A7, A373, and A36 steel.  Only E70 low-hydrogen electrodes for manual arc welding or Grade SAW-2 for submerged arc welding shall be used with A441 or weldable A242 steel, except that fillet welds or partial penetration groove welds may be made with E60 series low-hydrogen electrodes and Grade SAW-1 submerged arc process.
g.  Qualification of Welders
Welds shall be made only by operators who have been previously qualified by test within the last six (6) months, as prescribed in the Standard Qualification Procedure of the American Welding Society to perform the type of work required, except that this provision need not apply to tack welds not later incorporated into finished welds carrying calculated stress.
h.  Workmanship
The technique of welding  employed, the appearance and quality of welds made, and the methods used in correcting defective work shall conform to Section 4 -- Workmanship of the Standard Code for Arc and Gas Welding  in Building Construction.
i.  Tests and Inspection
(See Article IV, Section 4.6-7)

30.19-1  CORROSION AND RUST PROTECTION
30.19-1  General
The methods of providing for corrosion and rust protection of iron and steel, as herein listed, shall not preclude the use of other methods which would provide equal or greater protection.
20.19-2  Structural Steel and Iron
a.  Painting
(1)   Shop Coat
All structural steel and iron, except work which will be concealed by interior building finish, encased in concrete, fabricated from corrosion-resistive alloy  steel, or left unpainted for architectural effect (see section 30.19-2), shall be cleaned of  loose scale and rust dirt, and grease; and shall be given one (1) shop coat of metal protective paint well worked into joints.  Parts requiring a shop coat but inaccessible after assembly shall have a second coat, differing in color from the first, applies in the shop.
(2)  Excluded Areas
Contact surfaces for friction and bearing connections, and surfaces adjacent to field welds, shall be left unpainted.
(3)  Field Coat
After erection, all steel work given a single shop coat shall be given a field coat of a differing color.  Welded, riveted and bolted part not previously painted, and all serious abrasions to the shop coat shall be cleaned and spot painted with a color differing from the field coat is applied.
(4)  Omission of Painting
When, for aesthetic reasons, it is desired to leave steel which would otherwise require painting unpainted, the thickness of members shall be increased above that required by strength, or that required as corrosion protection for steel which has been given shop and field coats, whichever is greater.  The amount of increase will be  determined in accordance with accepted engineering practice for the atmospheric conditions in which the steel will be used.
b.  Minimum Metal Thickness
(1)  If the minimum thickness determined for strength is less than that required for corrosion protection, the latter shall apply.  No stipulations as to minimum thickness shall apply to steelwork exposed to conditions no more seriously corroding than an indoor atmosphere controlled for human comfort.
(2)  The following stipulations (a) and (b), as to minimum thickness, shall apply to exterior steelwork enclosed in a non-impervious envelope or exposed to frequent rain or snow, and to interior steelwork subject to atmospheric exposure more corrosive than that mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
(a)  Columns, studs, lintels, girders, and beams, exterior trusses, exterior bracing members:  one-quarter (1/4) inch minimum
(b)  Purlins, girts, trusses, and bracing members sheltered from direct exposure to rain and snow:  three-sixteenth (3/16) inch minimum.
(3)  The controlling thickness of rolled shapes, for the purposes of stipulations (a) and (b) shall be taken as the mean thickness of their flanges, regardless of their web thickness.
30.19-3  Light Gauge Formed Steel
All individual structural members and  assembled panels of light gauge formed steel construction, except where fabricated and corrosion-resistive metallic steel or of steel having a corrosion-resistive coating, plating, galvanizing or porcelain enameling, shall be protected against corrosion with  a shop coat of paint.  When in the course of construction this shop paint has deteriorated or the steel industry, it shall be repainted.  spot touch-up will not be required.
30.19-4  Open Web Steel Joists
All steel joists shall be given one coat of corrosion resistant protective coating of an approved standard type.  When in the course of construction this shop paint has deteriorated, or the steel has rusted, the joist shall be repainted or touched up, according to the degree of deterioration.
30.19-5  Flashing
Steel and iron floor and roof construction and all primary and secondary members in exterior walls  shall have adequate flashing to protect them from corrosion.
30.19-6  Highly Corrosive Atmospheres
When exposed to highly corrosive fumes or vapors or subject to destruction from other highly hazardous industrial, processes, all structural steelwork shall be protected, or the allowable working stresses shall be reduced in accordance with accepted engineering practice; or the steel shall be of a corrosion-resistive alloy appropriate to the nature of the hazard.
30.19-7  Underground and Underwater Steel


30.20  GAS CUTTING
Gas cutting shall not be performed on a member while it is under stress, except the detail cutting to correct minor errors may be done if the removal of metal does not reduce the  strength below design requirements.  To determine the net area of members so cut, one-eighth (1/8) inch shall be deducted  from the gas cut edges.  Gas cut edges  which will be subjected to substantial tensile stress shall be cut by a mechanically guided torch, or if hand cut, shall be carefully examined and any nicks removed.   The radii of re-entrant  gas-cut fillets shall be as large as practicable,but never less than one (1) inch.  Edges and grooves may be prepared for welding by gas cutting.  Flame cutting of structural aluminum alloys shall not be permitted.

30.21  LIGHTWEIGHT METAL ALLOYS

30-22  COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION, STEEL AND CONCRETE
30.22-1  Beams
a.  Definition
Composite construction shall consist of steel beams or girders supporting a reinforced concrete slab, so interconnected that the bean and slab act together to resist bending.  When the slab extends on both sides of the beam, the effective width of the concrete flange  shall be taken as not more than one-fourth (1/4) of the span of the beam, and its effective projection beyond the edge of the beam shall not be taken as more than one-half (1/2) the clear distance to the adjacent beam, nor more than eight (8) times the slab thickness.  When the slab is present on only one side of the beam, the effective width of the concrete flange (projection beyond the beam) shall be taken as not more than one-twelfth (1/12) of  the beam span, nor six (6) times its thickness, nor one-half (1/2) the clear distance to the  adjacent beam.  Beams totally encased two (2) inches or more on their side and soffit in  concrete poured integrally with the slab may be assumed to be interconnected to the  concrete by natural bond without additional anchorage, providing the top of the beam is at  least one and one-half  (1-1/2) inches below the top and two (2) inches above the bottom of the slab, and provided that the encasement has adequate mesh or other reinforcing steel throughout the whole depth and across the soffit of the beam.  When shear connectors are provided in accordance with Section 30.22-1d, encasement of the beam to achieve composite action is not required.
(1)  Encased beams shall be proportioned to support unassisted all dead loads applied prior to the hardening of the concrete (unless these loads are supported temporarily on shoring) and, acting in conjunction with the slab, to support all dead and live loads applied after hardening of the concrete, without exceeding a computed bending stress of 0.66F, where F        is the yield point of the steel beam.   The bending stress produced by loads  after the concrete has hardened shall be computed on the basis of the moment of inertia of  the composite section.  Concrete tension stresses below the neutral axis of the composite  section shall be neglected.  Alternatively, the steel beam alone may be proportioned to  resist unassisted the moment produced y all loads, live and dead, using a bending stress equal to 0.76F       in which case temporary shoring  is not required.
(2)  When shear connectors are used in accordance with Section30.22-1d, the composite section shall be proportioned to support all of the loads without exceeding the allowable stress prescribed in AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection  of Structural Steel Buildings, as applicable.  The moment of inertia I      of the composite section shall be computed in accordance with the elastic theory.  Concrete tension stresses below the neutral axis of the composite section shall be neglected.  The compression area of the concrete above the neutral axis shall be treated as an equivalent area of steel by dividing it by the modular ratio n.
(3)  For construction



30-22-2  Column
For composite construction of columns, see Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


ARTICLE XXXI
PLASTER DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


31.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
31.1-1             Scope
31.1-2            Structural Design of Support Systems
31.1-3            Materials

31.2        GYPSUM PLASTERING
31.2-1            Lath
31.2-2            Application
31.2-3            Interior Partitions

31.3        PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTERING AND STUCCO
31.3-1            Application and Base
31.3-2            Reinforcement
31.3-3            Working Stresses

31.4        FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENT FOR PLASTER
31.4-1            Time Rated Construction
31.4-2            Furring
31.4-3            Double Reinforcement
31.4-4             Injurious Locations


31.1      INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
31.1-1  Scope
Lathing and plastering shall conform to the requirements of this Article and to the following standards of accepted engineering practice:

Specifications for Gypsum Plastering                                        ASA    A42.1
                 or
Recommended Specifications, Gypsum Plastering                    GA
Specifications for Portland Cement Stucco                                ASA    A42.2
Specifications for Portland Cement Plastering                        ASA    A42.3
Specifications for Interior Lathing and Furring                        ASA    A42.4

31.1-2  Structural design of Support Systems
Support for lath systems of curved and compound curved shapes which do not follow the general lines of the structural system from which they are hung or furred shall be especially designed to support the loads imposed, using allowable stresses appropriate to the structural material used for support.
31.1-3  Materials
Materials shall conform to the following standards:
a.  Gypsum Plasters (all types)                                            ASTM C28
b.  Molding Plaster                                                            ASTM C59
c.  Keenes Cement                                                            ASTM C61
d.  Bond Plaster shall be mill prepared plaster without
     further additions other than water
e.  Special Finishing Hydrated Line (Type S)                       ASTM C206
f.  Normal Finishing Hydrated Line (Type N)                        ASTM C6
g.  Quicklime for Structural Purposes                                    ASTM C5
h.  Portland Cement                                                                ASTM C150
i.  Sand                                                                                    ASTM C35
j.  Vermiculite                                                                            ASTM C35
k.  Perlite                                                                                    ASTM C35
l.  Water shall be clean, and free from such amounts of mineral and organic substances as would affect the set of the plaster.
m.    Wood Lath shall bed No. 1 lath grade, reasonably clear, evenly manufactured, and free from detrimental effects.  A few worm holes, small pitch pockets,  well set or  firm knot (not more than 3/4 inch in diameter and not bunched), and wane not more than one-third (1/3) the thickness and one-third (1/3) the width for one third (1/3) the length on one side of the lath, or its equivalent otherwise located when not in combination with any other defect; shall be permitted.  Wood lath shall conform to the following dimensional requirements:

                                                                Minimum        Maximum
Thickness                                                    5/16"            3/8"
Width                                                            1-5/16"        1 5/8"
Length                                                        31 1/2"            48"
                                                                                        32"
n.  Fiber Insulation Lath shall conform to Class B of the Federal specification for insulating fiberboard (LLI-F-3216).  Fiber insulation lath may be either single or multiple ply board.  The individual plys shall be joined in such a  manner as to prevent separation in normal use.  Minimum overall thickness shall be one-half (1/2) inch.
o.  Gypsum Lath shall conform to the Standard Specifications for Gypsum Lath (ASTM C37). It shall be one of the following types:  plain, gypsum lath, perforated gypsum lath, insulating gypsum lath, or long length gypsum lath.
p.  Wire Lath shall be not lighter than No. 19   U.S.S.W. gauge wire, two and one-half (2-1/2) meshes per inch, coated with zinc or rust inhibitive   paint.
q.  V-Stiffened Wire Lath shall not belighter than No. 20 U.S.S.W. gauge wire, two and one-half (2-1/2) meshes per inch , with No. 24 U.S.S.W. gauge V-rib stiffeners spaced at least eight (8) inches  apart, coated with zinc or rust-inhibitive paint.
r.  Paper-Backed Wire Fabric shall be not lighter than No. 16 U.S.S.W. gauge zinc coated wire, with not to exceed two by two (2x2) inch mesh with stiffening ribs spaced not to exceed five (5) inches center to center, and absorptive paper baking securely  attached to metal by not less than No. 17 U.S.S.W. gauge stitch two 92) inches on center in such a manner as to provide full embedment of at least one-eighth (1/8)  inch of plaster for at least one-half (1/2) of the total length of the strands and one-half (1/2) of the total weight of the metal.  The design shall be such as to provide a mechanical bond and continuous metallic reinforcement in both directions for plaster.
s.  Metal Lath - Expanded Ribbed and Sheet hall be of copper-bearing steel, coated with rust inhibitive paint after cutting, or cut from zinc-coated sheets
t.  Metal accessories such as corner beads, base, screeds, concealed picture molds etc., shall be not lighter than No. 26 U.S.S.W. gauge steel, zinc-coated with  perforated or expanded flanges or clips shaped so as to permit complete embedment in the plaster.
u.  Channels shall be hot rolled or cold rolled steel, free of rust, of the following minimum weights per thousand lineal feet:

Size                        Hot Rolled                Cold Rolled
3/4"                        300#                            300#
1"                            410#                            --
1 1/2"                        1120#                        475#
2"                            1260#                        --
v.  Tie Wire shall be of galvanized, soft annealed steel, or of a material and size having superior corrosion-resistance, and strength equivalent to the galvanized steel wire specified.


31.2  GYPSUM PLASTERING
31.2-1  Lath
Workmanship and standards of attachment of lath for gypsum plaster shall be those set forth in American Standard Specifications for Interior Lathing and Furring; ASA No. A42.4, from which the following tables are derived:

TABLE 31.2A
NON-METALLIC LATH, MAXIMUM SPACING OF SUPPORTS
(Inches)




TABLE 31.2B
METAL LATH, MAXIMUM SPACING OF SUPPORTS
(Inches)





TABLE 31.2C
HANGERS, MAIN RUNNERS, AND CROSS FURRING
FOR SUSPENDED AND FURRED CEILINGS
MINIMUM SIZES AND MINIMUM SPACING


31.2-2  Application
Workmanship, preparation of bases, and proportioning of mixtures shall be as set forth in American Standard Specifications for Gypsum Plastering ASA No. A42-1, or Recommended Specifications, Gypsum Plastering , published by the Gypsum Association.  Requirements of said standards shall apply, where appropriate, to pneumatically-placed and machine-finished plaster.
31.2-3     Interior Partitions
Hollow partitions of lath and plaster shall have a shell thickness of not less than three-fourths (3/4) inch.  The minimum thickness of solid partitions of lath and plaster shall be not less than one eighty-fourth (1/84) of the least distance between horizontal, or vertical supports.  In no case shall such wall be less than two (2) inches thick.


31.3  PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTERING AND STUCCO
31.3-1  Application and Base
 All Portland cement plaster and stucco shall conform to the standards set forth in American Standard Specifications for Portland Cement Stucco, A42.2; and American Standard Specifications for Portland Cement Plastering, A42.3.
31.3-2  Reinforcement
All Portland cement stucco and plastering shall be reinforced with the minimum reinforcement shown in Table 31.3-2, except when applied directly to a masonry is protected with bituminous surfacing.


TABLE 31-3-2
PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER AND STUCCO REINFORCEMENT
MINIMUM STANDARDS

31-3-3  Portland cement plaster not less than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches in thickness reinforced in two (2) directions with not less than 0.3 percent of steel may be considered to act with the studs to which it is attached to resist bending and shear under horizontal forces when the reinforcement is anchored to the studs in such a manner as to resist effectively the stresses developed.  The unit stresses for such reinforced plaster shall be those shown in Table 31.3-3.
 

TABLE 31-3-3
ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES IN PORTLAND
CEMENT DIAPHRAGMS

31.4  FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENT FOR PLASTER
3.4-1  Time Rated Construction
a.  To supply the degree of fire protection achieved by a fire resistant time rated construction, lathing, proportions of  mix, method of application, and thickness of plaster must match or be superior to, that of the construction upon which the time rating is based.  To be considered superior to, that of the construction upon which the time rating is based.  To be considered superior, the plaster must be either thicker or of a richer mix.
b.  Time rating shall be based on performance under test conditions of ASTM E119, Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, as certified by an independent laboratory.
31.4-2  Furring
For construction type I Fire Resistive Construction and type II.  Unprotected Metal Frame Construction lath and furring shall be of incombustible material except for furring strips applied directly against an incombustible surface.
31.4-3  Double Reinforcement
Except in solid plaster partitions or where otherwise determined by the prescribed fire tests, plaster protection more than one (1) inch in the thickness shall be reinforced with an additional layer of metal lath embedded at least three-fourths (3/4) inch from the outer surface and fixed securely in place.
31.4-4  Injurious Locations
Gypsum plaster shall not be used for fire protection in locations where it would be subject to frequent wettings or standing water, nor shall it be used without adequate protective covering in locations where it would be subject to mechanical injury.


ARTICLE XXXII
EXTERIOR WALL AND ROOF COVERINGS AND VENEERS

Index
23.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
32.1-1            Impervious Enclosure Required
32.1-2            Strength of Attachments
32.1-3            Strength of veneers

32.2        ROOF AND HORIZONTAL COVERINGS
32.2-1            General
32.3-2            Building Paper Required
32.3-3            Acceptable Materials

32.3        WALL AND VERTICAL COVERINGS
32.3-1        General
32.3-2            Building Paper  Required
32.3-3            Acceptable Materials

32.4        FLASHING
32.4-1            Flashing Required
32.4-2            Materials
32.4-3            Locations

32.5        ATTACHMENT OF VENEERS
32.5-1            Masonry Veneer
32.5-2            Glass Veneer
32.5-3            Stone Veneer
32.5-4            Metal Veneer

32.6        HEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR VENEERS
32.6-1            Masonry Veneer
32.6-2            Glass Veneer



32.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this article
32.1-1  Impervious Enclosure Required
Every building designed to be occupied  shall have walls and roof, or other enclosing surfaces, which are impervious tot he weather.  Such enclosure shall be capable of keeping the interior of the building dry and preventing exterior moisture form damaging the structural elements of the building.
32.1-2  Strength of Attachments
All exterior coverings and veneers must be capable of withstanding the wind loads specified in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS, and all other loads in which  they may be subjected during the life of the building or structure.
32.1-3  Strength of Veneers
Veneers shall not be considered as part of the required thickness of walls.  Veneer of nonstructural units shall not be assumed to support any superimposed loads.

32-2  ROOF AND HORIZONTAL COVERINGS
Roofs and other horizontal enclosures shall be of materials which are impervious to the weather; and shall be installed in such a manner as not to lessen their impervious qualities, in accordance with accepted engineering practices.

32.3  WALL AND VERTICAL COVERINGS
32.3-1  General
Walls and other vertical enclosures shall be of materials which are impervious to the weather; and shall be installed in such a manner as not to lessen their impervious qualities, in accordance with acceptance engineering practice.
32.3-2  Building Paper Required
On wood frame buildings which are normally occupied and which have exterior o wood siding, masonry veneer, or Portland cement plaster, a layer of building paper shall be attached between the exterior finish and the sheathing or studs.  Such paper shall be asphalt-saturated felt, free from holes and breaks, weighing not less than fourteen (14) pounds per one-hundred (100 square feet, or other approved waterproof paper lapped not less than two  (2) inches at horizontal joints and six (6) inches at vertical joints.  Building paper may be omitted over water repellent panel sheathing of fiberboard and gypsum board, except in back of stucco.
32.3-3  Acceptable Materials
The following materials when installed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and within the thickness and other limitations as shown in Table 32.3 shall be considered as satisfying the requirements for weather protection only, but not to the exclusion of other approved materials.


TABLE 32.3
ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS FOR EXTERIOR WALL
COVERINGS APPLIED TO A STRUCTURAL SUPPORT

32.4  FLASHING
32.4-1  Flashing Required
All buildings shall be provided with flashing and counter flashing sufficient to prevent moisture penetration, due to wind and rain, into the interior of a building; and to protect the structural members and other elements of a building from deterioration caused by such moisture.
32.4-2  Materials
Materials used for flashing shall be approved as suitable for the locations in which they are used,.  Such materials shall include, but not be limited to the following; copper, lead, terne metal, stainless steel, corrosion-resistant metal, approved plastics and metal or plastic faced building paper.
32.4-3  Locations
Locations where flashing is to be installed shall include, but not be limited to, the following:  roof valleys, at all projections through roofs, through wall flashing of parapet walls, where roofs meet walls or chimneys, at changes of exterior wall materials, above spandrel beams, at the bottom of cavity  walls, and over door and window heads.


32.5  ATTACHMENT OF VENEERS
32.5-1    Masonry Veneer
a.  Attached to Masonry
(1)  Masonry veneer shall be tied into masonry backing by a header for every four (4) square feet of wall surface, extending at least four (4) square inches into the backing; or by corrosion-resistant metal ties not less in thickness than No. 9 U.S. gauge, spaced not  further apart than 24 inches both horizontally and vertically.
(2)  Units of flat tile, stone, or terra cotta which are manufactured with a scored surface may be cemented to a masonry, concrete, or portland cement plaster wall with Type A mortar (See Section 28.3-13 of Article XXVIII), provided the mortar bound is sufficient to withstand a shearing stress of fifty (50) pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days.
b.  Attached to Wood, Steel or Concrete
(1)  Masonry veneers on wood, steel, or concrete framing shall be attached to the building or structure with corrosion-resistant anchors not less in thickness than No. 9 U.S. gauge, spaced  not further apart than twenty-four (24) inches  both horizontally and vertically , with not less than one (1) anchor for each three (3) square feet of wall surface.
(2)  Masonry veneers on wood framing shall be supported on the foundation wall.
32.5-2  Glass Veneer
a.  General
This section shall apply to structural glass veneer cemented to a backing; and not to glass set in frames.
b.  Backing Surface
Glass Veneer shall be applied only upon masonry, concrete, or portland cement plaster.  Absorbent  surfaces shall be sealed by a bonding coat before the mastic is  applied.
c.   Mastic
(1)  Glass veneer units shall be set in mastic which  covers not less than one-half (1/2) the area of the unit after the unit has been set in place; and shall be neither less than one-fourth (1/4) inch nor more than one-half (1/2) inch in thickness.
(2)  The mastic shall be insoluble in water and and shall not lose its adhesive qualities when dry.  Where a sealer coat is used, the mastic shall b cohesive with it.
d.  Support
The base course of glass units shall be supported on a corrosion-resistant metal frame anchored to the backing and caulked with a waterproof compound at grade.
e.  Reinforcement
Metal reinforcing consisting of corrosion-resistant shelf angles shall be provided in all horizontal joints.
f.  Expansion Joints
Glass veneer units shall be separated from each other and from adjoining materials by an expansion joint at least one thirty-second (1/32) inch in thickness.  There shall be at least one sixty-fourth (1/64) inch clearance between bolts and the adjacent glass.
32.5-3  Stone Veneer
Every bonding stone, and except when alternate courses are full bond courses, every stone not a bond stone, shall be securely anchored to the backing with corrosion-resistant metal anchors with a cross section of not less than three-sixteenth (3/16) inch by one (1) inch or its equivalent in cross sectional area.  There shall be at least one (1)  in length and three (3) square feet in face area; facing stones of greater size shall have at least one anchor to each four (4) square feet of face area of the unit as applied, but not less than two (2) anchors.
32.5-4  Metal Veneer
Exterior metal veneers shall be securely attached to the supporting masonry or framing members with corrosion-resistant fastenings spaced not more than twenty-four (24) inches both horizontally and vertically.   Units which exceed four (4) square feet in area shall have not less than four (4) attachments per unit.

32.6  HEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR VENEERS
32.6-1  Masonry Veneer
The average height of four (4) inches brick veneer shall be not more than twenty-five (25) feet above its supports on foundation wall or on corbels of masonry or steel; and not more than eighteen (18) feet in height for two (2) inch veneers.
32.6-2  Glass Veneer
Glass veneer shall not be attached to any exterior wall at a point more than thirty-five (35) feet above the adjoining ground elevation.


ARTICLE XXXIII
ELEVATORS AND SIMILAR MECHANICAL DEVICES

    Index
33.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
33.1-1            Compliance with Requirements
33.1-2            Existing Installations
33.1-3            Cleaning
33.1-4            Unsafe Conditions
33.1-5            Power to Seal Equipment
33.1-6            Accidents Reporting and Recorded
33.1-7            Removal of Damaged Parts

33.2        CONSTRUCTION OF HOISTWAY AND HOISTWAY ENCLOSURES
33.2-1            Enclosures of Hoistways
33.2-2            Floor Over Hoistways
33.2-3            Windows in Hoistway Enclosures
33.2-4            Projections Recesses and Setbacks in Hoistway Enclosures of Power Elevators

33.3         MACHINE ROOMS AND MACHINERY SPACES
33.3-1            Enclosures of Machine Rooms and Machinery Spaces for Elevators and Dumbwaiters
33.3-2            Equipment in Machine Rooms of Power Elevators
33.3-3            Storage  of Materials in Machine and Control Rooms

33.4        ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND WIRING

33.5        PIPES AND DUCTS CONVEYING GASES, VAPORS OR LIQUIDS IN HOISTWAYS

33.6        MACHINERY AND SHEAVE BEAMS, SUPPORTS AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ELEVATORS AND DUMBWAITERS
33.6-1            Beams and Supports Required
33.6-2        Securing of Machinery and Equipment to Beams, Foundations or Floors
33.6-3             Allowable deflections of Machinery and Sheave Beams and Their Supports

33.7        PITS FOR ELEVATORS AND DUMB WAITERS
33.7-1            Pits for Power Elevators                
33.7-2            Pits for Dumbwaiters  and Hand Elevators

33.8        HOISTWAY LANDING OPENINGS FOR ELEVATORS AND DUMBWAITERS
33.8-1            Hoistway Doors and Construction of Doors
33.8-2            Types of Hoistway Doors
33.8-3            Closing of Hoistway Doors
33.8-4            Signs on Hoistway Doors of Hand Elevators and Hand Dumbwaiters
33.8-5            Hoistway Gates for Landing Openings of Hand Elevators
33.8-6            Size and Location of Hoistway Door Openings of Dumbwaiters
33.8-7            Location of Horizontally Sliding or Swinging Elevator Hoistway Doors
33.8-8            Projection of Elevator Hoistway Doors and Other Equipment Beyond the Landing Sills
33.8-9            Opening of Elevator Hoistway Doors from the Hoistway Side
33.8-10            Power Elevator Hoistway -- Door Vision Panels
33.8-11            Power Elevator Landings Sills and Guards, and Tracks on Landings

33.9        HOISTWAY DOOR LOCKING DEVICES, CAR-DOOR OR GATE ELECTRIC CONTACTS, HOISTWAY ACCESS SWITCHES, AND ELEVATOR PARKING DEVICES
33.9-1            Locking Devices Required
33.9-2            Car-Door or Gate Electric Contacts of Power Elevators

33.9        HOISTWAY DOOR LOCKING DEVICES, DOOR AND GATE CONTACTS, ACCESS SWITCHES AND ELEVATOR PARKING DEVICES

33.10        POWER-OPERATION, POWER-OPENING AND POWER-CLOSING OF HOISTWAY DOORS AND CAR DOORS
33.10-1            Types of Doors and Gates Permitted
33.10-2            Conformance

33.11        POWER PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATORS
33.11-1            Capacity and Loading
33.11-2            Speed Governors
33.11-3            Emergency Signal Devices
33.1-4            Design, Construction and Installation
33.11-5            Tests and Inspection

33.12        HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS
33.12-1            Capacity and Loading
33.12-2            Protection of Hoistway Landing Openings
33.12-3            Machinery, Control and Safety equipment
33.12-4            Field Inspections and Tests of Hydraulic Elevators and Dumbwaiters

33.13        POWER AND HAND SIDEWALK ELEVATORS
33.13-1            Hoistways and Hoistway Enclosures
33.13-2            Landing Openings and Covers in Sidewalks and Other Areas Exterior to the Building
33.13-3            Protection of Other Hoistway Openings
33.13-4            Electrical Wiring and Equipment
33.13-5            Design, Construction, and Installation
33.13-6            Tests and Inspection

33.14        PRIVATE RESIDENCE ELEVATORS AND INCLINED LIFTS
33.14-1            Private Residence Elevators
33.14-2            Private Residence Inclined Lifts
33.14-3            Tests and Inspection

33.15        HAND ELEVATORS
33.15-1            Capacity and Loading
33.15-2            Car Safety Test
33.15-3            Power Attachments Prohibited
33.15-4            Design, Construction and Installation
33.15-5            Tests and Inspection

33.16            HAND AND POWER DUMBWAITERS
33.16-1            General
33.16-2            Capacity and Loading
33.16-3            Design, Construction and Installation
33.16-4            Field Inspection and Tests

33.17        MOVING STAIRS
33.17-1            Angle of Inclination
33.17-2            Width
33.17-3            Balustrades
33.17-4            Handrails
33.17-5            Step Treads
33.17-6            Combplates
33.17-7            Rated Load
33.17-8            Design Factors of Safety
33.17-9            Rated Speed
33.17-10            Lighting of Step Treads
33.17-11            Design Construction and Installation
33.17-12            Type Tests of Moving Stairs
33.17-13            Acceptance Tests of Moving Stairs

33.18        MOVING WALKS   
33.18.1            Scope
33.18-2            Design Requirements
33.18-3            Supports
33.18-4            Threshold Plates
33.18-5            Balustrades
33.18-6            Guards at Ceiling
33.18-7            Handrails
33.18-8            Protection of Floor Openings
33.18-9            Equipment and Controls
33.18-10            Tests and Inspection

33.19        MANLIFTS
33.19-1            Scope
33.19-2            General Requirements
33.19-3            Speed
33.19-4            Platform or Steps
33.19-5            Handholds
33.19-6            Factor of Safety
33.19-7            Equipment and Controls
33.19-8            Instruction and Warning Signs
33.19-9            Tests and Inspections

33.20        MECHANICAL AMUSEMENT DEVICES
33.20-1            General
33.20-2            Design
33.20-3            Safeties
33.20.4            Inspection and Tests

33.21        TESTS AND INSPECTION   
33.21-1            Acceptance Inspections and Tests of New Installations and Alterations
33.21-2            Acceptance Test Schedule for Car and Counterweight Safeties  and Governor
33.21-3            Acceptance Tests of Car and Counterweight Buffers
33.21-4            Periodic Inspections and Tests of All Installations
33.21-5            Maintenance Inspection and Tests
33.21-6            Installation Placed out  of Active Service

33.22        MAINTENANCE

33.23        ALTERATIONS, REPAIRS AND REPLACEMENTS



33.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy  class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
33.1-1  Compliance with Requirements
In every building or structure hereafter erected, elevators, dumbwaiters, moving stairs, moving walks, manlifts, inclined lifts or hoistways and mechanical amusement devices shall comply with all applicable requirements of this Article.  The provisions of the following safety codes shall be considered accepted engineering practice for situations not covered by this Article:

ASA A17.1                Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Escalators
ASA A17.1.13            Moving Walks
ASA A90.1                Manlifts
33.1-2  Existing Installations
a.  Any existing device covered by this Article shall be made to comply with the requirements of this Article only if it is altered to change any of the following:
(1)  The speed or capacity of the device
(2)  The purpose for which it is used
(3)  The basic operating, controlling, or safety equipment
(4)  Change from non-passenger to passenger operation
(5)  Change from electric to hydraulic or from hydraulic to electric operation
b.  The requirements of this Article shall not apply to repairs which are necessary to keep existing devices in safe operating condition nor to the replacement of parts which serve a similar purpose to those replaced, provided safe conditions are maintained.
c.  The following changes shall not require the entire installation to comply with the requirements of this Article:
(1)  The installation of additional  equipment which complies with this Article
(2)  Changes in the enclosure of elevator hoistways
(3)  The installation of new elevator cabs without changes in other parts of the installation
33.1-3  Cleaning
Elevator hoistways and pits and drip pans of moving stairs shall be kept clean, no rubbish or oil shall be allowed to accumulate therein nor shall any part of the hoistway, including hatch covers, be used for storage of materials or equipment
33.1-4  Unsafe Conditions
a.  If, upon inspection, any equipment covered by this Article is found to be in a unsafe condition, or not in accordance with the provisions of this Article, the Building Commissioner shall submit a written notice of such findings to the owner or lessee stating the date  when the repairs or changes must be completed.
b.  After the submittal  of such notice, it shall be the duty of the owner to proceed within the time allowed to make such repairs or changes as are necessary to place the equipment in a safe condition, and it shall be unlawful to operate such equipment after the date stated in the notice unless the repairs or changes have been made and the equipment has been approved by the Building Commissioner.
33.1-5  Power to Seal Equipment
a.  The Building Commissioner shall have the power to seal out of service any device or equipment covered by this Article for either of the following reasons:
(1)   When in case of emergency, in the opinion of the Building Commissioner, any such equipment is in such conditions to render it unsafe for operation
(2)  For willful failure to comply with recommendations and orders issued by the Building Commissioner.
b.  Before sealing any equipment out of service the Building Commissioner,  except in case of emergency, shall serve written notice to the owner or lessee stating intention to seal the equipment out of service and the reasons therefor.
c.  Any equipment or device sealed out of service by the Building Commissioner shall be plainly marked with a sign or tag, or any tampering with or removal of the seal without approval of the Building Commissioner shall constitute a violation of this Article.
33.1-6  Accidents Reported and  Recorded
a.  The owner of the building or structure shall immediately notify the Building Commissioner of every accident involving personal injury or damage to apparatus on or about or in connection with any device or equipment covered in this Article, and
b.  When an accident involves personal injury, death, or the failure, breakage, damage or destruction of any part of the apparatus or mechanism, it shall be unlawful to use such device until after an examination  by the Building Commissioner and approval of the equipment for continued use.
33.1-7  Removal of Damaged Parts
It shall be unlawful to remove from the premises any part of the damaged construction or operating mechanism of any device or equipment covered in this Article until permission  to do so has been granted by the Building Commissioner.

33.2  CONSTRUCTION OF HOISTWAY AND HOISTWAY ENCLOSURES
33.2-1  Enclosure of Hoistways
a.  Fire-resistive Construction Required
Hoistways shall be enclosed throughout their height with fire-resistive enclosures, and all hoistways landing openings shall be protected with fire-resistive door assemblies. exceptions:
(1)  Partitions between fire-resistive hoistways and machine  rooms having fire-resistive enclosures and which are located at a side of or beneath the hoistway, may be of unperforated incombustible material at least equal to No. 16 U.S. gauge sheet steel in strength and stiffness, with openings, therein essential for ropes, drums, sheaves and other elevator equipment.
(2)  Sidewalk elevators that have a travel of not more than one (1) story below the sidewalk or grade level and have their top openings in a sidewalk or other area exterior to the building.
(3)  Elevators and dumbwaiters which are entirely within one  story or which pierce no solid floors and serve two (2) or more open galleries, book stacks, etc., in buildings such as powerhouses, libraries, open towers and similar structures.
(4)  Fire windows in exterior building walls.
b.  Fire Resistance Ratings
The fire resistance ratings of hoistway enclosures, doors and door assemblies shall be as required in Section 20.7-1 and 20.18-4 of Article XX, FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS.
c.  Non-Fire-Resistive Enclosures
Where fire-resistive hoistway enclosures and doors are not required by Paragraph 1., above, the hoistway shall be fully enclosed.  Enclosures and doors shall be unperforated to  a height of six (6) feet above each floor  or landing and above the treads of adjacent stairway.   Enclosures shall be so supported and braced as to deflect not over one (1) inch when subjected to a force of one-hundred (100) pounds applied horizontally at any point.  Openwork enclosures may be used above the six (6) foot level and  shall reject a ball two (2) inches in diameter, and shall be either  of wire grille at least No. 13 steel wire U.S.S.W. gauge or expanded metal at least No. 13 U.S. gauge.
d.  Multiple Hoistways
Not more than three (3) elevators shall be located in any one (1) hoistway.
33.2-2  Floor Over Hoistways of Power Elevators
a.  Where Required
A metal or concrete floor shall be provided at the top of the hoistway.  Exceptions:  Floors are not required below:
(1)  Secondary and deflecting sheaves of traction-type machines located over the hoistway.
(2)  Overhead sheaves, governors, and other equipment where the elevator machine is located below or at the side  of the hoistway, provided that:
(a)  Means of access for inspection and servicing of governors is provided from outside the hoistway.
(b)  Sheaves and other equipment can be inspected and serviced from the op of the car, or means of access for inspecting and servicing are provided from outside the hoistway.
b.  Location of Floor
The floor shall be located:
(1)  Above, or level with, the top of the machine beams where the machine is located over the hoistway.
(2)  Below the overhead sheave where the machine is not located over the hoistway
c.  Strength of Floor
A sign stating the maximum allowable load for which the floor is designed shall be prominently displayed in all main and secondary machine-room spaces.  The sign shall be of metal with black letters and figures at least four (4) inches high on a white background.
d.  Construction of Floors
Floors may be of concrete, or may be of metal construction with or without perforations.  Perforated metal floors shall conform to the following:
(1)  If of bar-type  grating, the openings between bars shall  reject a ball three-quarter (3/4) inch in diameter.
(2)  If of perforated sheet metal or of fabricated openwork construction, the openings shall reject a ball one (1) inch in diameter.
e.  Area to be Covered by Floor
(1)  The floor shall extend over the entire area  of the hoistway where the cross-sectional area is one hundred(100) square feet or less.  Where the cross-sectional area is greater, the floor shall extend not less than two (2) feet beyond the general contour of the machine or sheaves or other equipment and to the entrance to the machinery space at or above the level of the platform.
(2)  Where the floor does not cover the entire horizontal area of the hoistway, the open or exposed sides shall be provided with a standard railing not less than forty-two (42) inches high and a toe board not less than four (4) inches high, conforming to the requirements of American Standard Safety Code or Floor and Wall Openings, Railings and Toe Boards ASA A12.
f.  Difference in Floor Levels
Difference in levels of machine-room and machinery-space floors shall be avoided where practicable.  Where there is a difference in level in such floors, exceeding fifteen (15) inches, a railing of at least forty-two (42) inches high shall be provided at the edge of the higher level where such changes in level occurs, an stairs or ladders  shall be provided for access between levels.  Railings shall conform to the requirements of ASA A12.
33.2-3  Windows in Hoistway Enclosures
a.  Where Permitted
Windows shall be permitted only in exterior building walls.
b.  Inside Guarding of Hoistway - Window Openings in Power Elevator Hoist-ways
(1)  Window openings in a hoistway wall facing an entrance side of a power elevator shall be provided with guards on the hoistway side, set flush with the general surface of the hoistway, so that the clearance between the car-platform sill and the window guard will not exceed five (5) inches.  Guards shall be reinforced and permanently fastened to the hoistway wall.
(2)  Guards may be made of sheet metal or metal bars or grating, or of screens  of rods or wire, or of expanded or perforated sheet metal.  The material used shall conform to the following:
(a)  Openings shall reject a ball two (2) inches in diameter,
(b)  Bars shall  be not less than one-half (1/2) inch in diameter.
(c)  Sheet metal, with or without perforations, shall be not less than No. 14 U.S. gauge
(d)  The wire of screens shall be not less than No. 13 steel wire U.S.S.W. gauge
(e)  Expanded-metal screens shall b not less than No. 1q3 U.S. gauge.  Exception:  Where fixed metal-sash windows, having solid -section steel muntins of not less than one-eighth (1/8) inch thickness and spaced not more than eight (8) inches apart, are set so that the face of the muntins on the hoistway side are located as herein provided, the guards may be omitted.
c.  Outside Guarding of Hoistway - Window Openings in Elevator and Dumbwaiter Hoistways
(1)  Every hoistway-window opening ten (10) stories or less above a thoroughfare, and every such window opening three (3) stories or less above a roof of the building or of an adjacent building, shall be guarded on the outside by  one (1) of the following methods:
(a)  By vertical bars at least five-eighths (5/8) inch in diameter or equivalent, spaced not more than ten (10) inches apart, permanently and securely fastened in place.
(b)  By metal-sash windows having solid-section steel muntins of not less than one-eighth (1/8) inch thickness, spaced not more than eight (8) inches apart.
(2)  In every such case a non-corrodible  metal sign shall be permanently located on the outside of the window at the sill level, extending the full width of the window opening marked "HOISTWAY" in letters not less  than twelve (12) inches high.
33.2-4  Projections, Recesses and Setbacks in Hoistway Enclosures of Power Elevators
Hoistway enclosures shall have substantially flush surfaces on the hoistway side, subject to the following:
a.  On Slides for Loading and Loading
Landing sills, hoistway doors, door tracks, and hangers may project inside the general line of the hoistway.  Sills shall be guarded as required by Section 33.8.
b.  On Sides not Used for Loading and Unloading
Recesses other than for windows, or recesses other than necessary for installation of elevator equipment, shall not be permitted.  Beams, floor slabs, or other building construction shall not project more than two (2) inches inside the general line of the hoistway unless the top surface of the projection is v beveled at an angle of not less than seventy-five (75) degrees with the horizontal.  Where setbacks occur in the enclosure wall, the top of the setback shall be beveled at an angle of not less than seventy-five (75) degrees with the horizontal.  Separator beams between adjacent elevators are not required  to have bevels.

33.3  MACHINE ROOMS AND MACHINERY SPACES
33.3-1  Enclosures of Machine Rooms, and Machinery Spaces for Elevators and Dumbwaiters
a.  Machine Enclosures with Fire-Resistive Hoistway Enclosures
Spaces containing machines, control equipment, sheaves and other machinery shall be enclosed with fire-resistive enclosures.  Enclosures and access doors thereto shall have a fire resistance rating at least equal to that required for the hoistway enclosure.  Exceptions:
(1)  Partitions between elevator machine rooms and fire-resistive hoistway.
(2)  Screw machines may be installed inside the hoistway without additional enclosures, provided the control equipment shall be located outside the hoistway
b.  Machine Enclosures with Non-Fire-Resistive Hoistway Enclosures
Spaces containing machines, control equipment, sheaves, and other machinery shall be enclosed in enclosures of incombustible material not less than six (6) feet high.  If of openwork material, the enclosure shall reject a ball two (2) inches in diameter.
c.  Enclosures for Dumbwaiter and Hand Elevator Machines and Control Equipment
(1)  Hand elevator machines and hand or power dumbwaiter machines, and their  control equipment, may be located inside the hoistway enclosure at the top or bottom without intervening enclosures or platforms.
(2)  Power dumbwaiter machines and control equipment located outside the hoistway shall be enclosed as required for power elevators, except that control equipment located outside the hoistway may be enclosed in a metal cabinet equipped with a self-closing and self-locking door to prevent access by unauthorized persons.
(3)  Machines of hand sidewalk elevators having a travel of not more than one (1) story and having an opening  into the building at the bottom terminal landing only, shall not be required to be enclosed.
33.3-2  Equipment in Machine Rooms of Power Elevators
a.  Equipment Permitted in Machinery and Control Spaces
Where the elevator machine and control equipment are located at the top of the hoistway, they may be located in a room or space containing other machinery and equipment essential to the operation of the building; provided they are separated from the other  machinery or equipment by a substantial metal grille enclosed not less than six (6) feet high with a self-closing and self-locking door.  The grille enclosure shall be of a design which will reject a ball two (2) inches in diameter.
b.  Equipment prohibited in Machine Room
Where the elevator machine an control equipment are not located at the top of the hoistway, only machinery and equipment required for  the operation of the elevator shall be permitted in the elevator machine room.
33.3-3  Storage of Materials in Machine and Control Rooms
Elevator and dumbwaiter machine and control rooms shall be maintained free of refuse, and shall not be used for the storage of articles or materials unnecessary for the maintenance or operation of the elevator or dumbwaiter.  Flammable liquids having a closed cup flash point of less than 110 deg. F shall not be kept in such rooms.

33.4  ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND WIRING
The electrical apparatus and wiring used in connection with any equipment covered in this Article shall conform to the requirements of Article III, 27(14-32-200) of the Chicago Electrical Code.

33.5  PIPES AND DUCTS CONVEYING GASES, VAPORS OR LIQUIDS IN HOISTWAYS
Pipes or ducts conveying gases, vapors, or liquids, and not used in connection with the operation of the elevator or dumbwaiter, shall not be installed in any hoistway.  Exceptions:
33.5-1  Steam and hot-water pipes for heating the hoistway and pipes for hoistway sprinklers may be installed in hoistways subject to the following:
a.  Heating pipes shall convey only low-pressure steam (five (5) pounds per square inch or less) or hot water (250 deg F. or less) and shall supply radiators used only to heat the hoistway.
b.  All risers and return pipes for heating, for the sprinkler-supply riser, and for the sprinkler branch lines not directly supplying the hoistway sprinkler, shall be located outside the hoistway.
c.  Sprinkler branch lines in hoistways shall supply sprinklers at not more than one (1) floor level.
d.  Traps and shut-off valves, for heating liens, and shut-off valves for sprinklers, shall be provided and located outside the hoistway so that they are readily accessible.
33.5-2  Piping for Pit Sump Pumps

33.6  MACHINERY AND SHEAVE BEAMS, SUPPORTS AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ELEVATORS AND DUMBWAITERS
33.6-1  Beams and Supports Required
a.  Machines, machinery and sheaves  shall be so supported and maintained in place as to effectually prevent any part form becoming loose or displaced under the conditions imposed in service.
b.  Supporting beams, if used, shall be of steel or reinforced concrete.  Beams shall not be required under machines, sheaves, and machinery or control equipment which are supported on floors provided such floors are designed an installed to support the load imposed thereon.
33.6-2  Securing of Machinery and Equipment to Beam, Foundations or Floors
a.  Overhead Beams and Floors
Machinery or equipment shall be secured to and supported on  or from the top of overhead beams or floors.  Exceptions:
(1)  Secondary or deflecting sheaves of traction elevators.
(2)  Devices and their accessories for limiting or retarding car speed
(3)  Securing bolts or fastenings are not required where sound isolation is used between bases of machinery or equipment and supporting beams or floors.
b.  Overhead Hoisting Rope Hitches
Where hoisting ropes are secured to the structure above a hoistway, the hitch plates and hitch-plate blocking beams, where used, shall be secured to and mounted on top of overhead beams, machine beams or on top of auxiliary beams connected to the webs of overhead beams.
c.  Cast Metals in Tension or Bending
Cast metals having an elongation of less than twenty (20) percent in length of two (2) inches, which are subject to tension or bending, shall not be used to support machinery or equipment  from the underside of overhead beams or floors.
33.6-3  Allowable Deflections of Machinery and Sheave Beams and Their Supports
The allowable deflections of machinery and sheave beams and their immediate supports under static load shall not exceed 1/1666 of the span.


33.7  PITS FOR ELEVATORS AND DUMBWAITERS
33.7-1  Pits for Power Elevators
Pits shall be provided for power elevators as required in Section 106 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators.
33.7-2  Pits for Dumbwaiters and Hand Elevators

33.8  HOISTWAY-LANDING OPENINGS FOR ELEVATORS AND DUMBWAITERS
33.8-1  Hoistway Doors and Construction of Doors
a.  Hoistway Doors Required and Size
(1)  All elevator and dumbwaiter hoistway-landing openings shall be provided with hoistway doors which shall guard the full height and  width of the openings.
(2)  Where an elevator is installed in a single blind hoistway, there shall be installed in the blind portion of the hoistway an emergency door at every third floor, but not more than thirty-six (36) feet apart, conforming to the following:
(a)  It shall be at least thirty (30) inches wide and six (6) feet six (6) inches high  (clear opening).
(b)  It shall be easily accessible and free from fixed obstructions.
(c)  It shall be either of the horizontally sliding or swinging single section type, irrespective of the type of door installed at the other landings.
(d)  It shall be self--closing and self-locking and shall be marked in letters not less than two (2) inches high, "DANGER, ELEVATOR HOISTWAY."
(e)  It shall be provided with a hoistway door interlock which can be unlocked only  from the landing side through the use of a cylinder type lock having not less than a five (5) pin or five (5) disc combination.  The cylinder lock shall:
(i)  Be  located not less than five (5) feet above the floor
(ii)  Not be unlocked by any key which will open any other lock or device used for any other purpose in the building.
(iii)  Be so designed that the  key shall be removable only in the locked position.  The key shall be kept where it is accessible only to authorized persons.
b.  Material and Fire Resistance Rating
(1)  The doors of fire-resistive hoistway enclosures shall be of fire-resistive construction and together with their frames and mountings, shall have fire resistance ratings as specified 33.2-1b.
(2)  The doors of non-fire-resistive hoistway doors shall be constructed as specified in Section 33.2-1c.
(3)  Glazed panels in fire-resistive hoistway doors shall be limited to vision panels conforming to Section 33.8-10.
c.  Construction of Doors
(1)  Strength
Hoistway doors shall be so constructed as to withstand a constant force of two hundred fifty (250) pounds  applied at right angles to, and at approximately the center of, the door without causing  the door to break or to be permanently deformed.  Each panel or section of multi-panel or multi-section doors  shall withstand the force specified.
(2)  Center-Opening Horizontally Swinging Doors.
Center-opening horizontally swinging doors shall conform to the following:
(a)  One door section shall be provided with an overlapping astragal on its vertical edge.  Exception:  Where each door section is provided with a hoistway-door interlock.
(3)  Vertically Sliding Doors
(a)  Truckable sills, of vertically sliding counterweighted doors which slide down to open and of bi-parting counterbalanced doors of elevators used to carry freight, shall be designed to withstand the following loads:
(i)  For Class A Loading:  One-quarter (1/4) of the rated load shall be considered as being concentrated on the mid-point of the frame member.
(ii)  For Class B Loading.  75 percent of the rated load shall be considered as being concentrated on the frame member in two (2) equal loads five (5) feet apart, located symmetrically with respect to the mid-point of the member.
(iii)  For Class C Loading.  80 percent of the rated load shall be considered as being concentrated on the frame member in two (2) equal loads two (2) feet six (6) inches apart, located symmetrically with respect to the mid-point of the members.
(b)  Bi-parting counterbalanced elevator doors, shall have the lower edge of the  upper door section provided with a fire-resistive non-shearing, non-crushing member to provide a spacing of not less than three-quarter (3/4) inch between the rigid members of the door sections when closed.  Any rigid astragal overlapping the meeting edge is prohibited.
(4)  Horizontally Sliding Doors
The leading edge of all horizontally sliding doors shall be smooth and free of sharp projections.  The meting edges of center-opening doors may be provided with a fire-resistive resilient member on one or both doors to form a shallow overlap.  Single-slide and two-speed doors shall lap the strike jambs but shall not close into pockets in the strike jambs.  The clearance between the corridor face of the doors and  shall not exceed a maximum of three-eighths (3/8) inch.
d.  Counterweighing or Counterbalancing of vertically Sliding Hoistway Doors of Elevators and Dumbwaiters.
(1)   Single or multi-section vertically sliding doors shall be so counterweighted and vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced doors shall be so counterbalanced that they will not open or close by gravity.
(2)  Fastenings shall be provided to prevent the detachment or dislodgement of counterbalancing weights of doors.
(3)  Suspension means and their connections, for vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced doors and for the counterweights of vertically sliding counterweighted doors, shall have a factor of safety of not less than five (5)
e.  Beveled Guards for Vertically Sliding Hoistway Doors of Elevators
Where the lower side of the truckable sill of vertically sliding counter weighted doors  which slide down to open and of vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced doors  projects more than one-half (1/2) inch beyond the nearest surface below it, the sill shall be  provided with a guard equivalent to not less than No. 16 U.S. gauge metal beveled at an angle of not less than sixty (60) degrees nor more than seventy-five (75) degrees from the horizontal.
f.  Pull Straps on Manually Operated, Vertically Sliding Bi-Parting Counterbalanced Hoistway Doors
(1)  Manually operated, vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced hoistway doors of elevators which can be operated from the landings shall be provided with pull straps  on the inside and outside of the door where the lower edge of the upper door panel is more than six (6) feet six (6) inches above the landing when the door is in the full opened position.
(2)  The length of the pull straps shall conform to the following:
(a)  The bottom of the strap shall be not more than six (6) feet six (6) inches above the floor when the door is  in the fully opened position
(b)  The length of the strap shall not be extended by means of ropes or other materials.
(3)  The length of pulls traps, where provided on such doors of elevators which can be operated from the are only, shall conform to the requirements specified.
33.8-2  Types of Hoistway Doors
a.  For Power Passenger Elevators and Power Freight Elevators Authorized to Carry Employees.
Doors shall be one of the following types:
(1)  Horizontally sliding single- or multi-section
(2)  Horizontally swinging, single section
(3)  Combination horizontally sliding and swinging.
(4)  Power-operated, vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced, or vertically sliding counterweighted which slide down to open,where located at entrances used by the passengers.
(5)  Hand- or power-operated  vertically sliding counterweighted which slide up to open. Exception:  At landing openings used exclusively for freight, any type of door permitted by Paragraph b., below
b.  For Power Freight Elevators and Power Dumbwaiters
Doors shall be one of the following types:
(1)  Horizontally sliding, single- or multi-section
(2)  Horizontally swinging, single-section
(3)  Combination horizontally sliding and swinging
(4)  center-opening two-section, horizontally swinging, subject to the restrictions of Paragraph c. below
(5)  Vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced
(6)  Vertically sliding counterweighted, single- or multi-section
(7)  For sidewalk elevator doors in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building, see Part IV, Section 401, Rule 401.3d of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.  NOTE  See Section  33.8-7 for location of horizontally sliding and swinging doors in relation to the edge of the landing sill.
c.  Limitations of Use of Center-Opening Two-Section Horizontally Swinging Doors Center-opening two section horizontally swinging doors shall be permitted only:
(1)  For freight elevators  which can be operated only from the car; or
(2)  For freight elevators not accessible to the general public; which can be operated from outside the hoistway, and which are located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar industrial buildings.
d.  For Hand Elevators
Doors shall be one of the following types:
(1)  Self-closing or manually operated, horizontally sliding or swinging, single-section
(2)  Self-closing or manually operated horizontally swinging, two-section (Dutch  Type) with one (1) section above the other and the lower section extending not less than forty-two (42) inches above the floor and arranged to be opened only when the car is in the landing zone and after the upper section has been opened, and to be closed by the closing of the upper section.
(3)  Manually operated, vertically sliding counterweighted, single- or multi-section.
Manually operated, vertically sliding, bi-parting counterbalanced
(5)  For sidewalk elevator doors in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building, see Part IV, Section 401, Rule 401.3d. of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.
e.  For Hand Dumbwaiters
Doors shall be one of the following types:
(1)  Manually operated, vertically sliding  counterweighted, single-or-multi-section.
(2)  Manually operated, vertically sliding, bi-parting counterbalanced.
33.8-3  Closing of Hoistway  Doors
a.  For Power Elevators
Horizontally sliding or swinging doors of automatic-operation elevators shall be provided with door-closers  arranged to close an open door automatically if the car for any reason leaves the landing zone.   Exceptions:
(1)  The bottom landing doors of sidewalk elevators
(2)  Center-opening horizontally swinging doors
(3)  The swinging portion of combination horizontally sliding and swinging type doors
b.  For Hand Elevators and Hand Dumbwaiters
(1)  All doors shall be kept closed except the door at the floor where the car is being operated or is being loaded or unloaded.
(2)  Manually operated doors shall be equipped with approved devices to close them automatically when released by the action of heat.   See Section 20.18 of Article XX, FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS.  Self-closing doors  may be equipped with hold-open devices provided that such devices shall be equipped with fusible links   Exception:   Bottom landing door of sidewalk elevators
33.8-4  Signs on Hoistway Doors of Hand Elevators and Hand Dumbwaiters
Every hoistway door of hand elevator and hand dumbwaiters shall  have conspicuously displayed on the landing side in letters not less than two (2) inches high in words:

"DANGER -- ELEVATOR -- KEEP CLOSED"
                    or
"DANGER -- DUMBWAITER -- KEEP CLOSED"

33.8-5  Hoistway Gates for Landing Openings of Hand Elevators
Hoistway-landing openings of hand elevators equipped with horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall also be provided with vertically sliding semi-automatic gates, not less than forty-two (42) inches high,   of a design that will  reject a ball two (2 inches in diameter.  Gates shall be so constructed and guided as to withstand a lateral force of one-hundred (100) pounds concentrated at the center of the gate without being deflected beyond the line of the landing sill, and a force of two-hundred-fifty (250 pounds without forcing the gate from its guides or without causing it to break or to be permanently deformed.
33.8-6  Size and Location of Hoistway-Door Openings of Dumbwaiters
a.  For Power Dumbwaiters
The size and location of door openings shall conform to the following:
(1)  Size of Openings
The width and height of door openings shall    not exceed the width and height of the dumbwaiter car by more than one (1) inch in each dimension.  Exception:  One (1) door opening may be of sufficient size to permit installing and removing the car, but shall be not more than four (4) feet nine (9) inches in height.
(2)  Location of Door Opening
The bottom of the door opening shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches above the floor.   Exceptions:
(a)  Undercounter dumbwaiters
(b)  Dumbwaiters where the load is handled on wheeltrucks.
(c)  Dumbwaiters having hoistway door equipped with hoistway door interlocks.
(d)  Where  the still of the dumbwaiter landing is within five (5) feet of the pit floor.
b.  For Hand Dumbwaiters
The width of door openings for hand  dumbwaiters shall not exceed the width of the car by more than six (6) inches, and the maximum height of the opening of  any height of car  by  more than six (6) inches and the maximum height of the opening of any height of car shall be fifty-four (54) inches.  The bottom of the door openings for hand dumbwaiters shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches above the floor at each landing; except that for the upper landing of undercounter hand dumbwaiters, the bottom of the opening shall be at last four (4) inches above the floor.
33.8-7  Location of Horizontally Sliding or Swinging Elevator Hoistway  Doors
Horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall be so located that the distance from the hoistway face of the doors to the edge of the hoistway-landing sill, measured from the face of the door section nearest to the car, shall be not more than the following:   
a.  For power elevators which can be operated only from the car, and for hand elevators four (4) inches.  Exceptions:
(1)  Where semi-automatic gates are provided for hand elevators, the four (4) inch dimension shall be measured between the door and the gate.
(2)  Where new power elevators are installed in existing multiple hoistways or where alterations involving replacement of the doors are made to existing elevators in multiple hoistways, and the location of the door openings is such that the four (4) inch dimension specified cannot be maintained, the distance specified may be increased to not more than five (5) inches where sliding type doors are used.
b.  For power elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation, one-half (1/2) inch for swinging doors and two and one-quarter (2-1/4) inches for sliding doors.  Exceptions:
(1)  Freight elevators, not accessible to the general public,and which are located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar-type industrial buildings, may have  single-section or center-opening two-section horizontally swinging doors located as permitted in Paragraph a., above.
(2)  One-half 1/2) inch for swinging doors used with automatic or continuous-pressure operation may be increased to two and one-quarter (2-1/4) inches if such doors are emergency doors conforming to Section 33.8-1a.
33.8-8  Projection of Elevator Hoistway Doors and Other Equipment Beyond the Landing Sills
Hoistway doors and equipment, except that required for interlocking indicator and signal deices and door operating devices, shall not project into an elevator hoistway beyond the line of the landing sill.    Exception:  Vertically sliding doors
33.8-9  Opening of Elevator Hoistway Doors from the Hoistway Side
a.  Hoistway doors shall be so arranged that they may be opened by hand from the hoistway side, except when locked "out of service".
b.  Means shall not be provided for locking "out of service" either the doors at the main-entrance landing or at the top or bottom terminal landing.
c.  Automatic fire doors, the functioning of which is dependent on the action of heat, shall  not lock any elevator hoistway door so that it cannot be opened manually from inside the hoistway nor shall such doors lock any exit leading from  any elevator hoistway door to the outside of the building.
d.  Handles or other means provided for operation of manually operated doors shall be so located that ti is not necessary to reach back to any panel, jamb, or sash to operate them.
33.8-10  Power Elevator Hoistway -- Door Vision Panels
a.  Manually operated or self-closing hoistway doors of the vertically or horizontally sliding type, for elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation, shall be provided with a vision panel,  except at landings of automatic-operation elevators where a hall position indicator is provided.  In multiple-section doors the vision panel is required in one section only, but may be placed in all sections.  All horizontally swinging  elevator doors shall be provided with vision panels.  Vision panels may be provided for any type of hoistway door irrespective of the type of operation of the elevator.
b.  Where required and used, vision panels shall conform to the following requirements:
(1)  The area of any single vision panel shall be not less than twenty-five square inches and the total area of one or more vision panels in any hoistway door shall not be more than eighty (80) square inches.
(2)  Each clear panel opening shall reject a ball six (6) inches in diameter.
(3)  Muntins used between panel sections shall be of incombustible material and of substantial construction.
(4)  Panel openings shall be glazed with clear wired glass not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch thick.
(5)  The center of the panel shall be located not less than fifty-four (54) inches nor more than sixty-six (66) inches above the landing; except that for vertically sliding bi-parting counterbalanced doors, it shall be so located as to comply with the dimensions specified insofar as the door design will permit.
(6)  The vision panels in horizontally swinging doors shall be located for convenient vision when opening the door from the  car side.
(7)  Wired-glass panels in power-operated doors shall be substantially flush with the surface of the landing side of the door.
33.8-11  Power Elevator Landing Sills and Guards, and Tracks on Landings
a.  Landing Sills Required
(1)  Metal sills, of sufficient  strength to support the load to be carried by the sill when loading and unloading the car, shall be permanently secured in place at each hoistway- door opening.   Sills shall be substantially level with the floor surface of the elevator landing or shall be beveled to meet the floor surface, and for passenger elevators shall be so designed and maintained as to provide secure foothold for the entire width of the door opening.
(2)  Landing sills of elevators used to carry freight shall be designed and installed to withstand the loads specified in Section 33.8-1c (3).
b.  Landing-Sill Guards
Landing sills, except those for elevators equipped with vertically sliding, bi-parting counter-balanced doors or with vertically sliding counterweighted doors which slide down to open, shall be guarded on the underside with guard plates of smooth metal of not less than No. 16 U.S. gauge extending no less than the full  width of the car entrance and securely fastened in place, as follows:
(1)  Where a car-leveling device is provided an the hoistway edge of the sill is either flush with or projects into the hoistway, the guard shall have a straight vertical face extending  below the sill not less than the depth of the leveling zone plus  three (3) inches.  Where the sill projects inward from the general line of the hoistway, the bottom of the  guard shall also be beveled at an angle of not less than sixty (60) degrees nor more than seventy-five (75) degrees from the horizontal or the guard shall be extended from the hoistway edge of the landing sill to the soffit of the hoistway-landing door next below.  Exception:  Freight elevators with sills not projecting inward from the general line of the hoistway.
(2)  Where no car-leveling device is provided and the sill projects inward from the general line of the hoistway, the guard shall be either beveled at an angle of not less than sixty (60) degrees nor more than seventy-five (75) degrees from the horizontal or it may have a straight vertical face extending from the hoistway edge of the landing sill to thee soffit of the hoistway-landing door next below.
c.  Illumination of Landing Sills
The building corridors shall be so lighted that the illumination on at the landing sills, when an elevator is in service, shall be not less than five (5) foot-candles.
d.  Hinged or Movable Hoistway-Landing Sills
Hinged or movable hoistway - landing sills, if used, shall be provided with electric contracts which will prevent operation of the elevator by the normal operating device unless the  hinged or movable sill is within two (2) inches of its fully retracted position.  The elevator may be operated by a leveling device with the sill in any position.

33.9  HOISTWAY-DOOR LOCKING DEVICES, CAR-DOOR OR GATE ELECTRIC CONTRACTS,
HOISTWAY ACCESS SWITCHES, AND ELEVATOR PARKING DEVICES
  33.9-1  Locking Devices Required
a.  For Power Passenger Elevators
Hoistways doors shall be equipped with hoistway-unit system hoistway-door interlocks
b.  For Power Freight Elevators
Hoistway doors shall be equipped with hoistway-unit system hoistway-door interlocks.  Exceptions:
(1)  Hoistway-unit system combination mechanical locks and electric contracts may be used for manually opened, vertically sliding, counterweighted or vertically sliding, biparting counterbalanced doors under the following conditions:
(a)  Elevators with a Travel of 15 feet or less.  For the top  landing door and for any door whose sill is located not more than four (4) feet below the sill of the top landing door.
(b)  Elevators with any Travel.  For any door whose sill is within five (5) feet of the bottom of the pit.
(2)  Combination mechanical locks and electric contacts may be used on the door at the bottom landing of sidewalk elevators.
(3)  Interlocks or electric contracts shall not be required on horizontally hinged doors or vertically lifting covers of sidewalk elevator as located in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building.  Locking devices conforming to the requirements of Section 33.9-1e., may be provided for such doors or covers.
c.  For Power Dumbwaiters
Hoistway doors shall be provided with hoistway-unit system hoistway-door combination mechanical locks and electric contracts.  Exception:  Hoistway door interlocks shall be provided at landings where the bottom of the door opening is less than twenty-four (24) inches above the floor, other than the following:
(1)  Undercounter dumbwaiters
(2)  Dumbwaiters not accessible to the general public, where the load is handled on wheel trucks.
(3)  At landings where the landing sill is within five (5) feet of the bottom of the pit.
d.  For Hand Elevators and Hand Dumbwaiters
Hoistway doors shall be provided with locking devices as follows:
(1)  Door Latches.
Hoistway doors shall be provided with spring-type latches to hold them in the closed position.  Such latches may be released from both the hoistway and landing side, irrespective of the position of the car.
(2)  Gate Locks
Hoistway gates required with horizontally sliding or swinging type hoistway doors (See Section 33.8-5) shall be provided with hoistway gate separate mechanical locks.
e.  Locking Devices for Doors of Sidewalk Elevators Located in Sidewalks or Other Areas Exterior to the Building
Locks, if provided on horizontally hinged doors and vertically  lifting covers in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building, shall be of the spring type and shall be automatically unlocked by the bowiron or stanchions on the car.  Exception:  Locking devices of a type which will permit operation of the elevator to open the doors or covers only if the locking device is in the unlocked position.
33.9-2  Car-Door or Gate Electric Contacts for Power Elevators
Car doors or gates, including side emergency-exit doors of passenger elevators, shall be provided with car-door or gate electric contacts.

33.9  HOISTWAY-DOOR LOCKING DEVICES, DOOR AND GATE CONTACTS

ACCESS SWITCHES, AND ELEVATOR PARKING DEVICES
Hoistway-door locking devices, door and gate contacts, access switches and elevator parking devices shall conform to the requirements of Section 111 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators.

33.10  POWER-OPERATION, POWER-OPENING, AND POWER-CLOSING
OF HOISTWAY DOORS AND CAR DOORS OR GATES
33.10-1  Types of Doors and Gates Permitted
Where both a hoistway door and a car door or gate are opened and/or closed b power, the hoistway door and the car door or gate shall:
a.  Both be of the horizontally sliding type, or
b.  Both be of the vertically sliding type.
33.10-2  Conformance
Power hoistway doors, car doors and gates shall conform to the requirements of Section 112 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators

33.11  POWER PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATORS
33.11-1  Capacity and Loading
a.  Rated Load for Passenger Elevators
(1)  The following formulas

TABLE 33.11-1
RATED LOAD AT VARIOUS NET PLATFORM AREAS

b.  Partitions for Reducing Platform Area
Where partitions are installed in elevator cars for the purpose of restricting the platform net area for passenger use, they shall be permanently bolts, riveted, or welded in place.  Gates, doors or handrails shall not be used for this purpose.  Partitions shall be so installed as to provide for approximately symmetrical loading.
c.  Carrying of Freight on Passenger Elevators
Where freight is to be carried on a passenger elevator, the minimum rated load shall conform to their requirements of Section 33.1-1a., or 33.11-1d., whichever is greater.
d.  Rated Load for Freight Elevators
(1)  The minimum rated load for freight elevators in pounds shall be based on the weight and class of the load to be handled, but shall in no case be less than the minimum specified in Paragraph (2), below, for each class of loading based on the inside net platform area.
(2)  Freight elevators shall be designed for one of the following classes of loading
(a)  Class A - General Freight Loading
Where the load is distributed, the weight of any single piece of freight or of any single hand truck and its load is not more than one-quarter (1/4) the rated load of the elevator, and the load is handled on and off the car platform manually or by means of hand trucks.  For this class of loading, the rated load shall be based on not less than fifty (50) pounds per square foot of inside net platform area.
(b)  Class B - Motor-Vehicle Loading
Where the elevator is used solely to carry automobile trucks or passenger automobiles up to the rated capacity of the elevator.   For this class of loading, the rated load shall be based on not less than thirty (30 pounds per square foot of inside net platform area.
(c)  Class C - Industrial Truck and other Concentrated Loading
Where a concentrated load including the weight of an industrial power or hand truck if used, is more than one-quarter (1/4) the rated load but does not exceed the rated load, the following requirements shall apply:  For this class of loading the following requirements shall apply:
(i)  The rated load shall be based on not less than fifty (50) pounds per square foot of inside net platform area
(ii)  The weight of the loaded industrial truck shall not exceed the rated load of the elevator.
(iii)  The weight of the industrial truck plus any other material carried on the elevator shall not exceed the rated load when the industrial truck is also carried.
(iv)  During loading and unloading, the load on the elevator shall in no case exceed one-hundred-fifty (150) percent of the rated load, and where this load exceeds the rated load, the capacity of the brake and the traction relation shall be adequate to sustain safely at lease one-hundred fifty (150) percent of the rated load.
e.  Passengers on Freight Elevators
Freight elevators shall not be permitted to carry passengers.  Exceptions:
(1)  Elevators not permitted to carry employees may in case of fire, panic, or similar emergencies carry passengers not greater in number than the rated load divided by one-hundred-fifty (150).
(2)  Elevators, not accessible to the general public, may carry employees provided special permission to do so is granted by the Building Commissioner, subject to the following conditions:
(a)  The rated load of the elevator shall be not less than that required for a passenger elevator of equivalent inside net platform area.
(b)  Hoistway doors and car doors or gates shall conform to the requirements of the following Sections:
(i)  Hoistway doors shall conform to Section 33.8, except Section 33.82b.
(ii)  Car doors and gates shall conform to Section 33.8-5.  Such elevators may carry any class of passengers in case of fire, panic, or similar emergencies
f.  Capacity and Data Plates
(1)  Plates Required and Location
(a)  Every elevator shall be provided with a capacity plate and a data plate permanently and securely fastened in place.
(b)  Capacity plates shall be located in a conspicuous plate inside the car
(c)  Data plates shall be attached to the car crosshead.  Exception:  For underslung elevators having no crosshead, the data plate shall be located inside the car.
(2)  Information Required on Plates
 Capacity and data plates shall contain the following information:
(a)  Capacity plates shall indicate the rated load of the elevator in pounds, and in addition this plate or a separate plate shall indicate:
(i)  The capacity lifting one-piece loads where the requirements of Section 33.11-1i., are conformed with
(ii)  For freight elevators designed for Class C loading, the maximum load the elevator is designed to support while being loaded and unloaded.
(b)  Data plates shall indicate:
(i)  The weight of the complete car including the car safety and all auxiliary equipment attached to the car.
(ii)  The rated load and speed.
(iii)  The following wire rope data:
  • The number of ropes
  • The diameter in inches
  • The manufacturer's rated breaking strength per rope in pounds
(3)  Material and Marking of Plates
(a)  Plates shall be of metal and shall have letters and figures stamped or etched in or cast on the surface of the plate in such a manner as to be readily legible.
(b)  The height of the letters  and figures shall be not less than:
(i)  One-quarter (1/4) inch for passenger elevator capacity plates
(ii)  One inch for freight elevator capacity plates
(iii)  One-eighth (1/8) inch for data plates
g.  Signs Required  in Freight Elevator Cars
(1)  Signs Required
Signs, in addition to the capacity and data plates required by Section 33.11-1f., shall be provided inside the car and shall be located in a conspicuous position and permanently and securely fastened to the car enclosure, subject to the following requirements.
(a)  In every elevator the sign shall specify the type of loading for which the elevator is designed and installed, with one of the following markings:
(i)  "THIS ELEVATOR DESIGNED FOR GENERAL FREIGHT LOADING"
(ii)  "THIS ELEVATOR DESIGNED FOR MOTOR-VEHICLE LOADING."
(iii)  "THIS ELEVATOR DESIGNED FOR INDUSTRIAL TRUCK LOADING."
(b)   In elevators not permitted to carry passengers, a sign reading "THIS IS NOT A PASSENGER ELEVATOR.  NO PERSONS OTHER THAN THE OPERATOR AND FREIGHT HANDLERS ARE PERMITTED TO RIDE ON THIS ELEVATOR."
(c)  In elevators permitted to carry employees, subject to the requirements of Section 33.11-1e., a sign reading:  "NO PASSENGERS  EXCEPT EMPLOYEES PERMITTED."
 h.  Overloading of Freight Elevators
(1)  Freight elevators shall not be loaded to exceed their related load as specified on the capacity plate required by Section 33.11.1f.  Exceptions: 
(a)  Static loads on elevators loaded and unloaded by industrial trucks as noted on  car capacity or separate plate.
(b)  Elevators, designed and installed in conformity with Section33.1-1i to carry one-piece loads exceeding their rated load.
(2)  Passenger elevators and freight elevators permitted by Section 33.1-1e to carry employees shall be designed and installed to safely lower, stop and hold the car with an additional load of to twenty-five (25) percent in excess of the rated load.
(3)  The elevator is not required to attain rated load performance under the passenger overload conditions specified, but shall conform to the following:
(a)  Where duplex safeties are provided, the lower safety device shall be capable of developing not less than one-half (1/2) for force required to stop the entire car with one hundred-twenty-five (125)  percent of the rated load.
(b)  The safety device shall be capable of stopping and sustaining the entire car with one hundred-twenty-five (125) percent of its rated load from governor tripping speed.
(c)  The elevator driving machine brake shall be designed to have a capacity sufficient to hold the car at rest with one hundred-twenty-five (125) percent of the rated load.
(d)  Upper and lower normal terminal stopping devices shall be provided and arranged to slow down and stop the car automatically, at or near the top and bottom terminal landing, with any load up to and including one-hundred-twenty-five (125) percent of the rated load in the car and from any speed attained in normal operation.
(e)  The control circuits shall be so designed and installed that the car speed in the down direction with one-hundred-twenty-five (125) percent of rated load in the car shall not exceed one-hundred-twenty-five (125) percent of the rated speed.
i.  Carrying of One-Piece Loads Exceeding the Rated Load
Passenger and freight elevators may be used, where necessary to carry one-piece loads greater than their rated load provided they are designed, installed and operated to conform to the following requirements:
(1)  A locking device shall be provided which will hold the car at any landing independently of the hoisting ropes while the car is being loaded or unloaded.
(2)  The locking device shall be so designed that it cannot be unlocked unless and until the  entire weight of the car and load is suspended on the ropes.
(3)  A removable wrench or other device shall be provided to operate the locking device.
(4)  The locking device shall be so designed that the locking bars will be automatically withdrawn should they come in contact with the landing locks when the car is operated in the up direction.
(5)  A special capacity plate shall be provided inside the elevator car and located in a conspicuous place which  shall bear the words, "CAPACITY LIFTING ONE-PIECE LOADS" in letters followed by figures giving the special capacity in pounds for lifting one-piece loads for which the machine is designed.  For material and size of letters, see Section33.1-1f(3).
(6)  The car platform, car frame, sheaves, shafts, ropes and locking device shall be designed for the specified "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads" with a factor of safety of not less than five (5).
(7)  The car safeties shall be designed to stop and hold the specified "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads" with the ropes intact.
(8)  Where there is an occupied space, or an unoccupied space not secured against unauthorized access, under the hoistway, the following requirements shall be conformed to:
(a)  The machine shall be designed to operate with the "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads" at slow speed.
(b)  The car safety shall be designed to stop and hold the cars with this load independently to the hoisting ropes.
(c)  The counterweight safety, where  required, shall be designed to stop and hold the entire weight of the counterweight  independently of the ropes.
(9)  For traction machines, where necessary to secure adequate traction, additional  counterweight shall be added so that the total overbalance is at least equal to forty-five (45) percent  the "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads".
(10)  A special operating device of the car-switch or constant-pressure type shall be provided  in the machine room located near the driving machine, to operate the elevator.  When this device is operative , all other operating devices shall be inoperative.
(11)  The "Capacity Lifting One-Piece Loads" of any passenger traction elevator shall not exceed one and one-third (1-1/3) times the rated load of the elevator.
33.11-2  Speed Governors
The design, construction and installation of speed governors and their accessory pars shall be in accordance with Section 206 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17-1.
33.11-3  Emergency Signal Devices
a.  Elevators which are located in buildings other than private residences and which are operated at any time without  a designated operator in the car shall be provided with one of the following emergency signal devices operable from within the car:
(1)  An electric signal bell, not less than six (6) inches in diameter located inside the  building and audible outside the hoistway.  Only one bell is required for a group of elevators if operable from all cars in the group.
(2)  A telephone or other means of communicating with the building personnel.
(3)  A telephone connected to a central telephone exchange system.
b.  Where such elevators are located in buildings other than apartments, hotels, or similar residential buildings and in which attendants, watchmen, or tenants are not continuously in the building and available to take action in case the emergency signal is operated and  provided with one of the following additional emergency signal devices:
(1)  An electric alarm bell, not less than six (6) inches in diameter,  operable from inside the car and enclosed in a weatherproof enclosure marked "ELEVATOR EMERGENCY, CALL POLICE", in letters not less than two (2) inches high.  The alarm bell shall be mounted on the outside of the building near the main entrance and located so that the sign can be read from the adjacent sidewalk.  Only one outside alarm bell is required which shall be operable from the cars of all elevators of the type specified in the building or:
(2)  Means within the car for communicating with an approved emergency service which operates 24 hours each day.
33.11-4  Design, Construction and Installation
The design, construction and installation of power passenger and freight elevators and their control and safety equipment shall conform to the requirements of Part II, Section 200 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1, in matters not covered in this ordinance.
33.11-5  Tests and Inspection
Refer to Section33.21 for requirements for tests and inspection

33.12  HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS
33.12-1  Capacity and Loading
The requirements of Section 33.11-1 covering capacity  and loading shall apply to hydraulic elevators, provided that  for hydraulic elevators with Class C loading, the static load during loading and unloading shall not exceed the rated load of the elevator unless all parts of the hydraulic equipment are designed for the maximum pressure developed as a result of the maximum static load when the elevator is  being loaded and unloaded.   NOTE:  When the entire rated load is placed in increments on the elevator by the industrial truck, the load imposed on the car platform while the last increment is being loaded or the first increment unloaded will exceed the rated load by the weight of the empty industrial truck.
33.12-2  Protection of Hoistway Landing Openings
The protection of hoistway landing openings shall conform to the requirements of Section 33.8.
33.12-3  Machinery, Control and Safety Equipment
Machinery, control and safety  equipment for hydraulic elevators shall conform to the requirements of Part III, Section 300 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1
33.12-4  Field Inspections and Tests of Hydraulic Elevators and Dumbwaiters
a.  Acceptance Inspections and Tests
(1)  General
Acceptance inspections  and tests of hydraulic elevators and dumbwaiters shall conform to the applicable requirements of Section 33.21.
(2)  Additional Tests
In addition to the tests required  by Section33.21-1, the following tests shall be made:
(a)  For hydraulic elevators, a test with no load and a test with rated load in the car to determine the car speed under each condition of loading in both the up and down direction.
(b)  A test check of the working pressure including in the case of pressure tanks, a check of the accuracy of the tank pressure gauge.
(c)  The pump relief valve or pump cut-off pressure shall be inspected for compliance.
b.  Periodic, Inspections and Tests
Periodic inspections and tests of hydraulic elevators and dumbwaiters shall be made in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section33.21-4
c.  Maintenance Inspections and Tests
(1)  Inspections and Tests Required
Maintenance inspections and  tests shall be made of all existing elevator and dumbwaiter installations, and of all new installations after they are placed in service, at the intervals,  hereinafter, specified.
(2)  Persons Authorized to Make Maintenance Inspections and Tests
The owner or his authorized agent shall have maintenance inspections and tests made by a person qualified to perform such service in the presence of an inspector in the employ of or authorized by the Building Commissioner.  Exception:  Where an inspector in the employ of or authorized by the Building Commissioner, is not available at the time the required tests are made, the person or firm conducting the tests shall submit to the Building Commissioner a statement upon a form furnished by him certifying that the tests have been conducted and  the results thereof.
(3)  Inspection and Test Periods
maintenance inspections and tests shall be made at least once every three (3) years coincident with one of the periodic inspections and tests required by Section 33.12-4b.
(4)  Inspection and Test Requirements
In addition to the inspections and tests a required by Section 33.12-4b, the following inspections and tests shall be made:
(a)  Pressure tanks shall, after being thoroughly cleaned, be internally  inspected and shall, after such inspection, be subjected to a hydrostatic test with one hundred-fifty (150) percent of the working pressure applied for one (1) minute.
(b)  Piston rods and roped hydraulic elevators and dumbwaiters shall, after being cleaned, be exposed and inspected and where pitted or worn to  a diameter less than the root diameter of the threads shall be replaced.

33.13  POWER AND HAND SIDEWALK ELEVATORS
33.13-1  Hoistways and Hoistway Enclosures
The construction of hoistways, hoistway enclosures and machine rooms is subject to the following exceptions:
a.  Elevators having a travel of not more than one (1) story below the sidewalk or grade level, and having their top opening in the sidewalk or other area exterior to the building, are subject to the following exceptions:
(1)  Hoistway and machine-room enclosures may be of non-fire-resistive construction.
(2)  Machine rooms of hand elevators shall not be required to be enclosed
b.  Venting of Hoistways shall not be Required
c.  Elevators having their hoistways located entirely outside the building with the top opening located in the sidewalk or other exterior area are not required to be enclosed at the top with fire-resistive construction.
33.13-2  Landing Openings and Covers in Sidewalks and Other Areas Exterior to the Building
a.  Location of Hoistway and Top-Landing Openings
Sidewalk elevator hoistways may be located entirely outside the building with the top opening located in the side walk or other area exterior to the building, or the hoistway may be located in the sidewalk or other area exterior to the building, or the hoistway may be located inside the building with the top-landing opening located in the building wall facing the sidewalk or other area served, but without any opening into the interior of the building at the top landing.
b.  Maximum Size of Opening Permitted in Sidewalks
The maximum clear opening permitted in a sidewalk, when the sidewalk door or cover is open, shall not exceed five (5) feet at right angles to and seven (7) feet parallel to the building line, except by special permission of the Building Commissioner.
c.  Hoistways in Front of Building Entrances Prohibited
Hoistways shall not be located either wholly or partially in front of any entrance to a building.
d.  Protection  of Horizontal Openings in Sidewalks or other Exterior Areas
(1)  Horizontal openings in sidewalks or other areas exterior to the building shall be protected by hinged metal doors or vertically lifting covers having anon-slip top surface.  Such doors or covers shall not be used where the hoistway is located inside the building.  Doors or covers shall be of sufficient strength to support safely a static load of not less than  three hundred (300) pounds per square foot, uniformly distributed.
(2)  Such doors or covers shall conform to the following requirements:
(a)  Hinged-type Swinging Doors,
Hinged-type swinging doors shall conform to the following:
(i)  The line of the hinges shall be at right angles to the building wall.
(ii)  The side of the door opening nearest to the building shall be four (4) inches or less from the  building wall, except where a greater distance is approved by the Building Commissioner.
(iii)  There shall be a minimum clearance of eighteen (18) inches between the face of the doors and any obstruction when the doors are in the open position.
(iv)  The doors shall be opened by the ascending car and shall be self-closing as the card descends, and shall be kept in the closed position when the car is not at the top landing.     Exception:  The doors may be held or fastened in the open position, when the car is not at the top landing, only where self-closing hinged metal screen panels which will reject a ball two (2) inches in diameter and which are capable of supporting a static load of not less than thee hundred (300) pounds applied on any area two (2) feet on the side and no less than one hundred-fifty (150) pounds applied at any point, are installed directly below the weather tight sidewalk doors. Screen panels shall be opened and closed automatically by  the ascending and descending car, and shall always be closed when the car is not at the top landing.
(v)  Stops shall be  provided to prevent the doors from opening more than ninety (90) degrees from their closed position.
(b)  Vertically Lifting Covers
Vertically lifting covers shall conform to the following:
*i)  The cover shall be raised and lowered vertically by the ascending and descending car and shall not be held or fastened in the open position when the car is not at the top landing.
(ii)  The edge of the cover adjacent tot any building wall or other obstruction shall be less than four (4) inches or more than four (4) feet from such wall or obstruction, except where a greater distance is approved by the Building  Commissioner.
(iii)  There shall be  a clearance of not less than two (2) feet between the top of the cover and any obstruction vertically above it where  the car is at the top of its over travel.
(iv)  Recesses or guides which will securely hold the cover in place on the stanchions shall be provided in the underside of the cover.
33.13-3  Protection of Other Hoistway Openings
Hoistway doors at all interior openings in basements, and the door at the top terminal landing in the building wall facing the sidewalk or other exterior area where the hoistway is located inside the building, shall meet the requirements of Section 33.8.  Exception:  Hoistway doors at the bottom terminal landings shall not be required to be equipped with door-closers or  with automatic closing devices required by Section 33.8-3a and b.

33.13-4  Electrical Wiring and Equipment

a.  Where the top-terminal-landing opening is in the sidewalk or other area exterior to the building, the following special requirements shall apply:(a  All electrical wiring shall be in rigid metal conduit or electrical metallic tubing, and all electrical outlets, switches, junction boxes, and fittings shall be weatherproof.
b.  Traveling cables, where used between the car and hoistway wiring shall be type E.O.
c.  Slack-rope switches where required, lower normal terminal and lower final terminal hoistway limit switches, and pit stop switches shall be located as far above the bottom of the pit as practicable.

33.13-5  Design, Construction and Installation

The design, construction and installation of  power and hand sidewalk elevators and their control and safety equipment shall conform to the requirements of Part IV, Section 400 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.

33.13-6  Tests and Inspection
Refer to Section 33.21 for requirements for tests and inspection.


33.14  PRIVATE RESIDENCE ELEVATORS AND INCLINED LIFTS
33.14-1   Private Residence Elevators
a.  Enclosure of Hoistways
The hoistway shall be solidly enclosed, except for exterior windows, throughout its height, with out grille work or openings other than for landing or access doors.  Enclosures shall be of sufficient strength to support in true alignment the hoistway doors and gates and their locking equipment.  Exceptions:
(1)  The enclosure may be omitted on the upper landing on continuous pressure-operation elevators serving only adjacent landings (one-story travel) provided he floor opening at the upper landing is protected by an enclosure and gate at least thirty-six (36) inches high with openings that will reject a ball one (1) inch in diameter.
(2)  For rated speeds less than forty (40) feet per minutes, the hoistway enclosure may be omitted, provided that:
(a)  The car platform is equipped with a device which will stop the car if it is obstructed in its downward travel by a force not to exceed four (4) pounds applied anywhere at its lower surface, which will open an electric contact in the control circuit and thus stop the down travel of the car within the range of free suspension of the device, and not exceeding three (3) inches; and
(b)  The entrance sides of the hoistway at the upper landings are protected as required  in Exception (1) of this Section.
b.  Horizontal Car Clearances
(1)  Between Car and Hoistway Enclosures or Counterweight
There shall be a clearance of not less than three-quarter (3/4) inch between the car and the hoistway enclosure, and between the car and its counterweight.
(2)  Between Car and Landing Threshold
The clearance between the car platform and the landing threshold shall be not less than one-half (1/2) inch nor more than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches.
c.  Pits and Top Car Clearances
(1)  Protection of Spaces Below Hoistways
Where the space below the hoistway for an elevator car or counterweight is used for a passageway or is occupied by persons, or if unoccupied is not  secured against unauthorized access, it shall conform to the following requirements:
(a)  The car and counterweight shall be provided with safeties conforming to this Section, and with spring buffer so design that they will not be fully compressed when struck by the car with its rated load or by the counterweight traveling at one hundred-fifty (125) percent of rated speed, or at governor tripping speed where a governor-operated safety is used.    
(b)  Car and counterweight buffer supports shall be provided engagement at one hundred twenty-five(125)  percent of rated speed, or at governor tripping speed where a governor-operated safety is used.   Exception:  Buffers may be omitted for elevators installed in single-family residences where the space blow the car and counterweight consists of a cellar, provided the floor below the car and the counterweight has sufficient strength to withstand without failure the impact of the car and counterweight descending at rated speed.
(2)  Pits
(a)  A pit shall not be required at the bottom of the hoistway.  The car may stop immediately on or above the  bottom landing floor, or a pit may be provided to permit the car floor to stop  flush with the landing floor.
(b)  A pit shall not be provided where there is no hoistway enclosure at the lowest story served.
(3)  Top Car Clearance
At the top landing, there shall be a clearance above the car of not less than four (4) inches, plus one (1) inch for each three and one-third (3-1/3) feet per minutes of speed in excess of thirty (30) feet per minute.

d.  Design, Construction and Installation
The design, construction and installation of private residence elevators and their control and safety equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section 503 of the ASA Safety Code of  Elevators, A17.1.
33.14-2  Private Residence Inclined Lifts
a.  Capacity and Rated Load
The capacity shall not exceed two (2) persons.  The rated load shall be not less than two hundred-fifty (250) pounds for a single-seat lift and shall be not less than four hundred (400) pounds for a lift having two (2) seats.
b.  Rated Speed
The rated speed measured along the incline shall not exceed fifty (50) feet per minute.
c.  Carriage
The carriage (or chair) shall have a foot platform with  a seat or seats, and shall have handgrips so arranged as to provide safe support for passengers.
d.  Free Passageway on Stairway
The equipment shall be so constructed as to permit a free passageway width of not less than twenty (20 inches throughout the length  of the stairway.  If the seat and platform fold automatically when not in use, this clearance may be measured from the folded position.
e.  Design, Construction and Installation
The design, construction and installation of private residence inclined lifts and their control and safety equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section 50 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.

33.15  HAND ELEVATORS
33.15-1  Capacity and Loading
a.  Minimum Rated Load
The rated load of hand elevators shall be not less than fifty (50) pounds per square foot of net inside car area.
b.  Capacity Plate
A metal plate shall be fastened in a conspicuous place in the elevator car and shall bear the following information in not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch letters or figures stamped, etched or raised on the surface of the plate:
(1)  Rated load in pounds
(2)  The maximum number of passengers to be carried, based on one hundred fifty (150) pounds) per person (if passenger elevator).
(3)  Suspension, member data, including the size, rated ultimate strength and material of the suspension members.
33.15-2  Car Safety Test
A rated-load test and a test of the car safety device, with rated load in the car, shall be made of every new elevator before it is placed in regular service.

33.15-3  Power Attachments Prohibited

a.  Hand elevators shall not be equipped  with any means or attachment for applying electric or other power unless the elevator is permanently and completely converted into a power elevator complying with all the requirements of this ordinance for power elevators.
b.  Electric or other power shall not be applied to hand elevators by means of rope-grip attachments or clutch mechanism.

33.15-4  Design, Construction and Installation

The design, construction and installation of hand elevators and their control and safety equipment shall conform to Part VI, Section 600 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.

33.15-5  Tests and Inspection
Refer to Section 33.21 for requirements for tests and inspection.

33.16  HAND AND POWER DUMBWAITERS
33.16-1  General
a.  This Section applies to hoisting and lowering mechanisms equipped with cars which move in guides in a substantially vertical direction, the cars of which have a net inside floor area not exceeding nine (9) square feet, and a total internal height   whether or not provided with fixed or removable shelves not exceeding four (45) feet, the rated load of which does not exceed five hundred (500) pounds, and which are used exclusively for carrying materials.
b.  Power and hand dumbwaiters shall comply with the requirements of this Section,  except that hand dumbwaiters serving not more than two (2) consecutive stories and having a capacity of twenty (20) pounds or less and a car platform area of not more than two (2) square feet are not required to conform hereto.
33.16-2  Capacity and Loading
a.  Structural Capacity Load
Driving machines, car and counterweight suspension means, and over had beams and supports shall be designed and installed to sustain the car with a structural capacity load not less than that specified in Table 33.16, based on the net inside platform area  with the factors of safety specified in the respective rules applying to such parts.  The motive power shall not be required to be sufficient to lift the structural capacity load.

TABLE 33.16
MINIMUM ALLOWABLE STRUCTURAL CAPACITY LOAD
CORRESPONDING TO NET INSIDE PLATFORM AREA

b.  Rated Load
The rated load shall be not more than five hundred (500) pounds.
c.  Capacity Plate
A metal plate shall be fastened in a conspicuous place in the car and shall give the rated load in letters and figures not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch high, stamped, etched, or raised on the surface of the plate.
33.16-3  Design, Construction and Installation
The design, construction and installation of hand and power dumbwaiters and their control and safety equipment shall conform to Part VI, Section 700 of the ASA Safety Code of Elevators, A17.1.
33.16-4  Field Inspection and Tests
Refer to Section 33.21 for the required field inspections and tests of hydraulic elevators and dumbwaiters.

33.17  MOVING STAIRS
33.17-1  Angle of Inclination
The angle of inclination shall not exceed thirty (30) degrees from the horizontal.
33.17-2  Width
The width between the balustrades shall be not less than twenty-two (22) inches nor more than forty-eight (48)  inches, measured as a a point twenty-seven (27) inches vertically above the nose line of the steps.  This width shall not exceed the width of the steps by more than thirteen (13) inches.
33.17-3  Balustrades
a.  Construction
A solid balustrade shall be provided on each side of the moving steps.  The balustrade on the step side shall have no areas or moldings depressed or raised more than one-quarter (1/4) inch from the parent surface.  Such areas or moldings shall have all boundary surfaces beveled unless parallel to the direction of travel.
b.  Use of Glass Balustrades and Steps
Glass panels, if used in balustrades, shall e of tempered-type glass.
c.  Clearance Between Balustrades and Steps.
The clearance on either side of the steps between the step and the adjacent skirt guard shall be not more than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch, and the sum of the clearance on both sides shall be not more than one-quarter (1/4) inch.
d.  Change in Width Between Balustrades
(1)  The width between the balustrades in the direction of travel shall not be changed abruptly nor by more than eight (8) percent of the greatest  width.
(2)  In changing from the greater to the smaller width, the maximum allowable angle of change in the balustrading  shall be fifteen (15) degrees from the line of  travel.
e.  Guards at Ceiling Intersection
(1)  A solid guard shall be provided in the intersecting angle of the outside balustrade (deck boar) and the ceiling or soffit.  Exception:  Where the intersection of the outside balustrade (deck board) and the ceiling or soffit is more than twenty-four (24) inches from the center line of the handrail.
(2)  The vertical face of the guard shall project at least fourteen (14) inches horizontally from the apex of the angle
(3)  The exposed edge of the guard shall be rounded to eliminate shear hazard. Guards may be glass if shatterproof.
33.17-4  Handrails
a.  Type Required
Each balustrade shall be provided with a handrail moving in the same direction and at substantially the same speed as the steps.
b.  Extension Beyond Combplates
Each moving handrail shall extend at normal handrail height not less than twelve (12) inches beyond the line of points of the combplate teeth at the upper and lower landings.
c.  Guards
Hand or finger guards shall be provided at the point where the handrail enters the balustrade.
33.17-5  Step Treads
a.  Material and Type
(1)  Step frames and step treads shall be made of incombustible material.  Exception:  Step treads made of slow-burning material and covered on the underside with sheet metal not less than No. 27 U.S. gauge or equivalent fire-resistive material.
(2)  Step treads shall be horizontal and designed to afford a secure foothold.
b.  Dimensions of Steps
The depth of any step tread in the direction of travel shall be not less than fifteen and three-quarter (15-3/4) inches and the rise between treads shall be not more than eight and one-half (8-1/2)  inches.  The width of a step tread shall be not less than sixteen (16) inches.
c.  Clearance Between Steps
The maximum clearance between step treads on the horizontal run shall be three thirty-seconds (3/32) inch.
d.   Slotting of Step Treads
The tread surface of each step shall e slotted in a direction parallel to the travel of the steps.  Each slot shall be not more than one-quarter (1/4) inch wide and not less than three-eighths (3/8) inch deep; and the distance from center to center of adjoining slots shall be not more than three-eighths (3/8) inch.
33.17-6  Combplates
a.  Where Required
There shall be a combplate at the entrance and at the exit of every moving stairway.
b.  Design of Combplates
(1)  The combplate teeth shall be meshed with and set into the slots in the tread surface so that the points of the teeth are always below the upper surface of the treads.
(2)  Combplate shall be adjustable vertically.  Sections forming the  combplate teeth shall be readily replaceable.
33.17-7  Rated Load
The rated load, in pounds, shall be computed by the following formula:
RATED LOAD = 4.6WA
W is the width in inches between the balustrades and A the horizontal distance in feet between the upper and lower combplate teeth.
33.17-8  Design Factors of Safety
The factors of safety, based on the static loads, shall be at last the following:
a. .  For trusses and all structural members, including tracks, five (5)
b.   For driving machine parts:
(1)  Where made of steel or bronze, eight (8)
(2)  Where made of cast iron or other materials, (50)
c.  For power-transmission members, 10
Exception:  Step chains composed of cast-steel links which, if thoroughly annealed, shall be permitted with a factor of safety of at least twenty (20).
33.17-9  Rated Speed
 The rate of speed, measured along the angle of inclination, shall be not more than one hundred twenty-five (125) feet per minute, except that higher speeds may be permitted subject to the approval of the Building Commissioner.
33.17-10  Lighting of Step Treads
Step treads shall be illuminated throughout their run.  The light intensity on the tread surface shall be not less than two (2) foot candles.
33.17-11  Design, Construction and Installation
The design, construction and installation of moving stairs and their control and safety equipment shall conform to Part VIII, Section 800 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.
33.17-12  Type Tests of Moving Stairs
a.  Each type  and size of moving stairs shall be tested for the rated load that it is designed to carry.  Such tests may be made, at the option of the manufacturer, in his plant or in the field on the first moving stairway of that type and size installed in a building.
b.  Where a type and size of moving stairway has previously been tested and approved  in one jurisdiction, certified copies of such test may be accepted in lieu of an actual test at the option of the Building Commissioner.
33.17-13  Acceptance Tests of Moving Stairs
Moving stairway operating and safety devices required by Part VIII, Section 805 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1 shall be tested with no    load on the moving stairs in accordance with the following:
a.  Speed Governor Test.
Where a speed governor is required, the governor shall be tested by operating it by hand.
b.  Broken Step-Chain Device
Operation of the broken step-chain device, required by Rule 805.1d of the ASA Safety Code  for Elevators, A17.1, shall be tested by operating the actuating device by hand.
c.  Broken Drive-Chain Device
Operation of the broken drive-chain device required by Rule 805 of  the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1, where the drive chain is used, shall be tested by operating  the actuating device by hand.
d.  Stop Buttons
The emergency stop buttons, required by the Rule 805.1b of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1, shall be  tested by operating them when the moving stairway is operated in each direction of travel.

33.18  MOVING WALKS
33.18-1  Scope
The requirements of this Section  cove the design, construction, installation, operation, inspection and testing of moving walks installed for the purpose of transporting passengers, but do not apply to moving walks used as part of an industrial process or as a part of a transportation system consisting of a combination  of moving walks and cars.
33.18-2  Design Requirements
a.  Direction of Passage
Passage from a landing to a treadway or vice versa shall be in the direction of treadway travel at the point of passenger entrance or exit.
b.   Load Rating
(1)  Structural
For the purpose of structural design the load rating shall be considered to be not less than one hundred (100) pounds per square foot of exposed treadway.
(2)  Machinery
For the purpose of brake, treadway, and power transmission calculations, the load rating shall be considered to be not less than seventy-five (75) pounds per square foot of exposed treadway.
c.  Width
(1)  Limitations
The width of a moving walk shall be the exposed  width of treadway and shall be not less than sixteen (16) inches.  The maximum width shall depend both on the maximum treadway slope at any point on the treadway, and on the treadway speed.  The  width shall not exceed the value determined by Table 33.18-2a. 
(2)  Change in Width
The exposed width of  treadway shall not be decreased in the direction of travel.  This width requirement applies only to moving walks having entrance to or exit from landings.  It is not intended to preclude development of moving walk systems in which changes in width are made safe and practical  by direct passage from one treadway to another, subject to the approval of the Building Commissioner.

TABLE 33.18-2A

d.  Belt Type Treadways
Belt type treadways shall conform to the following:
(1)  Factor of Safety
Belt type treadways shall be designed with a factor of safety of not less than five (5), based on ultimate strength.
(2)  Splices
Splicing of the treadway belt shall be made in such a manner as to result in a continuous unbroken treadway surface of the same characteristics as the balance of the belt.
(3)  Grooving
The treadway surface shall be grooved in a direction parallel to its travel for purpose of meshing with combplates at the landings.  Each groove shall be not more than one-quarter (1/4) inch side at the treadway surface and not less than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch deep; and the distance from center to center  of adjoining grooves shall be not more than one-half (1/2) inch.  Sides of grooves may slope for mold draft purposes and may be filleted at the bottom.
e.  Belt Pallet Type Treadways
Belt pallet type treadways shall conform to the following:
(1)  Factor of Safety
Pallet connecting chains or other connecting devices between pallets, and pallets where part of the propelling system, shall have a factor of safety of not less than ten (10), based on ultimate strength.
(2)  Splices
Splicing of the treadway belt shall be made in such a manner as to result in a continuous unbroken treadway surface of the same characteristics as the balance of the belt.
(3)  Grooving
The treadway surface shall be grooved in a direction parallel to its travel for the purpose of meshing with combplates at the landings.  Each groove shall be not more than one-quarter (1/4) inch wide at the treadway surface and not less than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch deep; and the distance from center to center of adjoining grooves shall be not more than one-half (1/2) inch.  Sides of grooves may slope for mold draft purposes and may be filleted at the bottom.
(4)  Alignment
Adjacent ends of pallets shall not vary in elevation more than one-sixteenth (1/16) inch.  The fasteners that attach the belt to the pallets shall not project above the exposed treadway surface.
f.  Pallet Type Treadway
Pallet type treadways shall conform to the following:
(1)  Factor of Safety
Pallet connecting chains or other connecting devices, and pallets where part of the propelling system, shall have a factor of safety of not less than ten (10), based on ultimate strength.
(2)  Clearance Between Pallets
The maximum clearance between pallets shall be five thirty-seconds (5/32) inch
(3)  Grooving
The treadway surface of each pallet shall be grooved in a direction parallel to its travel.  Each groove shall be not more than one-quarter (1/4) inch wide at the treadway surface and not less than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch deep; and the distance from center to center of adjoining grooves shall be not more than one-half (1/2) inch.  Sides of grooves may slope for mold draft purposes and may be filleted at the bottom.
(4)  Alignment of Pallet Tread Surfaces
Adjacent ends of pallets shall not vary in elevation more than one-sixteenth (1/16) inch.
g.  Treadway Slope
The slope of a treadway shall not exceed fifteen (15) degrees at any point.
h.  Speed
Treadway speed shall conform to the following:
(1)  Maximum Speed
The maximum speed of a treadway shall be depend both on the maximum treadway  slope at points of entrance or exit, and on the maximum treadway slope at any other point on the treadway.  This speed shall not exceed the lesser of the values determined by Tables 33.18-2C and 33.18-2C

TABLE 33.18-2B



TABLE 33.18-2C

33.18-3  Supports
a.  Slider Bed
The carrying portion of the treadway shall be supported for its entire width and length, except where it passes from a support to a pulley.  The surface of the slider bed shall be reasonably smooth.  It shall be so constructed that it will not support combustion.
b.  Roller Bed
Where the treadway is supported on a series of rollers, the combination of roller spacing, belt tension and belt stiffness shall be such that the deflection of the treadway surface, midway between rollers, shall not exceed the quantity 0.094 inch + (0.004 times center to center distance of rollers in inches) when measured as follows:
(1)  The treadway surface shall be loaded midway between rollers with a twenty-five (25) pound weight concentrated on a cylindrical foot piece two (2) inches long by one (1) inch diameter placed with its long axis across the belt.  Deflection of this foot piece from its unloaded position shall not exceed the figure obtained above.
(2)  The rollers shall be concentric and true-running within commercially acceptable tolerances
c.  Pallet and Belt  Pallet Type
Pallet wheel tracks shall be so designed and located as to prevent more than one-eighth (1/8) inch vertical displacement of the treadway should the pallet connection means break.
33.18-4  Threshold Plates
The entrance to or exit from a moving treadway shall be provided with a threshold plate designed and installed to provide a smooth passage between treadway and landing and vice versa and conform to the following.
a.  Type Required
The threshold plate shall be provided with a comb
b.  Clearance
The threshold comb teeth shall be meshed with and set into the grooves of the treadway surface so that the end of the surface of the teeth is always below the upper surface of the treadway.
c.  Surface
The surface of the plate shall afford a secure foothold for a distance not exceeding four (4) inches and not less than two (2) inches from the threshold comb intersection with the treadway, and shall be smooth from this point to the treadway surface.
33.18-5  Balustrades
Moving walks shall be provided with an enclosed balustrade on each side, conforming to the following:
a.  Construction
Balustrades without moving handrails shall be designed so as to provide no surface which  can be gripped by a passenger.  On the treadway side the balustrade shall have not areas or moldings depressed or raised more than one-fourth (1/4) inch from the parent  surface.  Such areas or moldings shall have all boundary surfaces beveled, unless parallel  to the direction of travel.  The balustrades shall extend at normal height at least twelve (12) inches beyond the end of the exposed treadway.  Glass panels, if used, shall be of the tempered type.
b.  Height and Flare
The height of a balustrade shall be not less than thirty (30) inches, measured perpendicular to the treadway surface.  At this height, the inner surface of the balustrade shall be located not more than eight (8) inches outside the vertically projected edge of the exposed treadway.
c.  Clearance With Treadway
The clearance between the top surface of the treadway and the underside of the balustrade shall not exceed one-eighth (1/8) inch
33.18-6  Guards at Ceiling
Where the intersection of the balustrade (desk board) and the ceiling of soffitt  is less than twenty-four (24) inches from the center line of the handrail, a solid guard shall be provided in the intersecting  angle.  The vertical face of the guard shall have a height of at least seven (7) inches and shall be rounded.  The guard may be of glass if of the tempered type.
33.18-7  Handrails
Handrails shall conform to the following:
a.  Number Required
Two (2) moving handrails shall be provided on each moving walk.    Exceptions:
(1)  Moving walks having a slope of three (3) degrees or less and a sped of 70 feet per minute or less.
(2)  Moving walks having a width of twenty-one (21) inches or less where a single moving handrail may be used.
b.  Location
The moving handrail at both the entrance and exit landings shall extend at normal height at least twelve (12) inches beyond the end of the exposed  treadway.  The point where the moving handrail enters  or leaves an enclosure shall be not more than ten (10) inches above the floor line.
c.  Handrail Guards
Hand or  finger guards shall be provided at the points where the handrail enters the balustrade.
d.  Enclosure
The moving handrail return run and its driving and supporting machinery shall be fully enclosed
e.  Speed
Each moving handrail shall move int he same direction and at substantially the same speed as the treadway.
33.18-8  Protection of Floor Openings
Where a moving walk pierces a building floor, the opening shall be protected the same as for moving stairs.
33.18-9  Equipment and Controls
The design, construction and installation of moving walks and their control and safety equipment, shall conform to the requirements of ASA Safety Code Rules for Moving Walks, A17.1.13 in all matters  not covered in this Article.
33.18-10  Tests and Inspections
a.  Acceptance Inspections and Tests
(1)  Inspections and Tests Required
In order to insure the safe operation of new moving walks, such devices shall, on their completion and before being placed in service, be subjected to an acceptance inspection completion and before being placed in service, be subjected to an acceptance inspection and tests in the field to determine that all parts of the installation  conform to the applicable requirements, and that all safety devices function as intended.
(2)  Persons Authorized to Make Acceptance Inspections and Tests
Acceptance inspections and tests shall be made by the following:
(a)  Inspections, by an inspector employed by the Building Commissioner.
(b)  Tests, by the person or firm installing the equipment in the presence of the inspector employed by the Building Commissioner
(3)  Test Requirements
Required operating and safety devices  shall be tested, with no load on the treadway, by operating each of the safety devices manually.
b.  Periodic Inspections and Tests
(1)  Inspection and Tests Required
All existing installations and all new installations, after being placed in service, shall be subjected to periodic inspections and tests at interval not longer than six (6) months to determine that the equipment is in a safe operating condition.
(2)  Persons Authorized to Make Periodic Inspections and Tests
(a)  Periodic inspections shall be made by an inspector in the employ of the Building Commissioner or by a person  or firm authorized by the Building Commissioner.
(b)  The owner or his authorized agent shall have the periodic tests required by this Section  made by a person qualified to perform such service in the presence of the inspector in the employ of, or authorized by, the Building Commissioner
(3)  Inspection and Test Requirements
(a)  All parts of the equipment shall be inspected to determine that they are in a safe operating condition, and that parts subject to wear have not worn to such an extent as safe operating condition and that parts subject to wear have not worn to such an extent as to affect the safe condition, and that parts subject to ear have not worn to such an extent as to affect the safe operation of the installation.
(b)  Tests shall be made of all required operating and safety devices, with  no load on the treadway, by operating the device by hand.
33.19  MANLIFTS
33.19-1  Scope
a.  This Section applies to manlifts used to carry plant or operating personnel.  Manlifts shall not be available to the general public and, if located in  buildings to  which the public has access, such manlifts  or manlifts located in areas accessible to the public shall be located in enclosures protected by self-closing doors.
c.  This Section applies to the construction, maintenance,  inspection and operation of manlifts in relation to accident hazards  to employees.  Manlifts covered herein consist of platforms or brackets mounted on, or attached to an endless belt, cables, or chains or similar method of suspension; such belt, cables or chains operating in a substantially vertical direction and being supported by, and driven through, pulleys, sheaves or sprockets at the top and bottom.  These manlifts are intended for conveyance of persons only.
33.19-2  General Requirements
a.  Floor Openings
(1)  Allowable Size Floor openings for both the "up" and "down" runs shall be not less than twenty-eight (28) inches nor more than thirty-six (36) inches in width for a twelve (12) inch belt, not less than thirty-four (34) inches nor more than thirty-eight (38) inches for a fourteen (14) inch belt, and not less than thirty-six (36) inches nor more than forty (40) inches for a sixteen (16) inch belt, and shall extend not less than twenty-four (24) inches nor more than twenty-eight (28) inches from the face of the belt.
(2)  Uniformity
 All floor openings for a given manlift shall be uniform in size and shall be  approximately circular, and each shall be located vertically above the opening below it.
b.  Landings
(1)  Vertical Clearance
The clearance between the floor or mounting platform and the lower edge of the conical guard above it required by Section 33.19-2c, shall be not less than seven (7) feet, six (6) inches.  Where this clearance cannot be obtained no access to the manlift shall be provided and the manlift runway shall be enclosed where it passes through such floor.
(2)  Clear Landing Space
The floor space adjacent to the floor openings shall be free of obstructions and kept clear at all times.
(3)  Lighting of Landings
Adequately lighting, not less than three (3) foot candles shall be provided at each floor landing at all times when the lift is in operation.
(4)  Landing Surface
The landing surfaces at the entrances and exits to the manlift shall be so constructed and maintained as to provide safe footing at all times.  Coefficient of friction of not less than 0.5)
(5)  Emergency Landings
(a)  Where there is a travel of fifty (50) feet or more between floor landings, one or more emergency platforms shall be provided so that there will be a landing either floor or emergency) for every twenty-five (25) feet or less of manlift travel.
(b)   Such emergency landings shall be accessible from both runs of the manlift, and shall give access to the ladder required in Section 33.19-2h.
(c)  Emergency platforms shall be completely enclosed with a standard railing and toe board.
(d)  Emergency platforms may be arranged to give access to vertical bucket conveyors or other equipment for the purpose of inspection, lubrication and repair.  Runways to such equipment will be considered part of the emergency platform and shall be provided with standard railings and toe boards.
c.  Floor Opening Guards
On the ascending side of the manlift all landings shall be provided with a bevel guard or cone meeting the following requirements:
(1)  Slope
The cone shall make an angle of not less than forty-five (45) degrees with the horizontal.  An angle of sixty (60) degrees or greater shall be used where ceiling heights permit.
(2)  Extent
This guard shall extend  at least forty-two (42) inches outward from any handhold on the belt.  It shall not extend beyond the upper surface of the floor above.
(3)  Material and Construction
The cone shall be made of not less than No. 18 U.S. gauge sheet steel or material of equivalent strength or stiffness.  The lower edge shall be rolled to a minimum diameter of one-half (1/2) inch and the interior shall be smooth with no rivets, bolts, or screws protruding.
d.  Protection of Entrances and Exits
(1)  Guardrail Requirement.
The entrance and exits at all floors or landings affording access to the manlift shall be guarded by a maze (staggered  railing) or a handrail equipped  with self-closing gates.
(2)  Construction
The rails shall be standard guardrails with toe boards meeting the requirements of the Safety Code for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings, and Toeboards. ASA A12.
(3)  Gates
Gates, if used, shall open outward and shall be self-closing.  Corners of gates shall be rounded
(4)  Maze
Maze or staggered openings shall offer no direct passage between enclosure and out floor space
(5)  Rails shall be located at least two (2) feet form the edge of the opening measured at right angles to the face of the belt.  The intersection of the top rail and the end post at openings shall be a bend or standard long sweep "ell".
(6)  Except where building layout prevents, entrances at all landings shall be in the same relative position.
e.  Guards for Openings
(1)  Construction
The floor opening at each landing shall be suitably guarded on sides not used for entrance or exit.
(2)  Height and Location
Such  guards shall be at least forty-two (42) inches in height on the up-running side and sixty-six (66)  inches on the down-running side.  Guards shall be located not more than one (1) foot from the  edge of the floor opening.
f.  Bottom Arrangement
(1)  Bottom Landing
At the bottom landing the clear area shall be not smaller than the s area enclosed by the guardrails on the floors above, and any wall in front of the down-running side of the belt shall be not less than forty-eight (48) inches from the face of the belt.  This space shall not be encroached upon by stairs or ladders.
(2)  Location of Lower Pulley
The lower (boot) pulley shall be installed so that it is supported by the lowest landing served.
(3)  Mounting Platform
A mounting platform shall be provided in front or to one (1) side of the up-run at the lowest landing, unless the floor level is such that the following requirements can be met:  The floor or platform shall be at or above the point at which the upper surface of the ascending step assumes a horizontal position.
g.  Top Clearance
(1)  Clearance from Floor
A top clearance shall be provided of at least eleven (11)  feet above the top terminal landing.  This clearance shall be maintained from a plane through each face of the belt to a vertical cylindrical plant having a diameter two (2) feet greater than the diameter of the floor opening, extending upward from the top floor to the ceiling on the  up-running side of the belt.  No encroachment of structural or machine-supporting members within this space will be permitted.
(2)   Pulley Clearance
(a)  There shall be a clearance of at least five (5) feet between the center of the head pulley shaft and any ceiling obstruction
(b)  The center of the head pulley shaft shall be not less than six (6) feet above the top terminal landing.
h.  Emergency Exit Ladders
Where Required.  A fixed metal ladder accessible from both the "up" and  "down" run of the manlift shall be provided where the vertical distance between landings exceeds twenty (20) feet.
i.  Illumination
(1)  General
Both runs of the manlift shall be illuminated at all times when the lift is in operation.  An intensity of not less than one (1) foot-candle shall be maintained at all points.
(2)  Control of Illumination
Lighting of manlift  runways shall be by means of circuits permanently tied in to the building circuits (no switches), or shall be arranged to be turned on by the starting switch controlling the manlift motor, or shall be controlled by switches at each landing.  Where separate switches are provided at each landing, any switch shall turn on all lights necessary to illuminate the entire runway.
33.19-3  Speed
a.  Maximum Speed
No manlift designed for a speed in excess of eighty (80) feet  per minute (fpm) shall be installed except up special  permission of the Building Commissioner.  To take care of variations in voltage, etc., the actual free running speed of the belt (no load) may exceed contract sped by not more than ten (10) percent.
b.  Equal Speeds
All manlifts in a given building shall run at approximately the same speed.
33.19-4  Platform or Steps
a.  Minimum Depth
Steps or platforms shall be not less than twelve (12) inches nor more than fourteen (14) inches deep, measured from the belt to the edge of the step or platform.
b.  Width
The width of the step or platform shall be not less than the width of the belt to which it is attached.
c.  Distance Between Steps
The distance between steps shall be equally spaced and not less than sixteen (16) feet, measured from the upper surface of one (1) step to the upper surface of the next step above it.
d.  Angle of Step
The surface of the step shall make approximately a right angle with the "up" and "down" run of the belt, and shall travel in an approximately horizontal position with the "up" and "down" run of the belt.
e.  Surfaces
The upper or working surfaces of the step shall be of a material having inherent nonslip characteristics (coefficient of friction no less than 0.5) or shall be covered completely by a nonslip tread securely fastened to it.
f.  Strength of Step Supports
When subjected to a load of four hundred (400) pounds applied at the approximate center of the step, step frames or supports and their guides shall be of adequate strength to:
(1)  Prevent the disengagement of any step roller
(2) Prevent any appreciable misalignment.
(3)  Prevent any visible deformation of the step or its support
g.  Prohibition of Steps Without Handholds
No step shall be provided unless there is a corresponding handhold above or below it meeting the requirements of Section 33.19-4.  If a step is removed for repairs or permanently, the handholds immediately above and below it shall be removed before the lift is again placed in service.
33.19-5  Handholds
a.  Location
Handholds attached to the belt shall be provided and so installed that they are not less than four (4) nor more than four (4) feet eight (8) inches above the step tread.  These shall be so located as to be available on both the "up" and "down" run of the belt.
b.  Size
The grab surface of the handhold shall be not less than four and one-half (4-1/2) inches in width.  Fastenings for handholds shall not come within one () inch of the belt.
c.  Strength
The handhold shall be capable of withstanding without damage a load of three hundred (300) pounds applied parallel to the run of the belt.
d.  Prohibition of Handhold Without Steps
No handhold shall be provided without a corresponding step.  If a handhold is removed permanently or temporarily, the corresponding step and handhold for the opposite direction of travel shall also be removed before the lift is again placed in service.
e.  Type
All handholds shall be of the closed type.
33.19-6  Factor of Safety
All parts of the machine shall have a factor of safety of six (6) based on a load of two hundred (200) pounds on each horizontal step on the "up" and "down" runs
33.19-7  Equipment and Controls
The design, construction and installation of manlifts and their control and safety equipment shall conform to the requirements of ASA Safety Code for  Manlifts, A90-1, in all matters not governed in this Section.
33.19-8  Introduction Signs at Landings or on Belt
a.  Instruction Signs at Landings or on Belt
Signs of conspicuous and easily-read style giving instructions for the use of the manlift shall be posted at each landing or stenciled on the belt.
(1)  Size and Legibility
Such signs shall be of letters not less than one (1) inch in height and of a color having high contrast with the surface on which it is stenciled or painted (white or yellow on black or black on white or gray).
(2)  Inscription
The instructions shall read approximately as follows:
"Face the Belt."
"Use the Handhold"
"To top -- Pull Rope"
b.  Top Floor Warning Sign or Light
(1)  Requirement
At the top floor an illuminated sign shall be displayed bearing the following wording:
"Top Floor -- Get Off"
(2)  Size of Letters
Signs shall be in block letters not less than two (2) inches in height
(3)  Location
This sign shall be located within easy view of an ascending passenger and not more than two (2) feet above the top terminal landing.
(4)  Alternate Warning Light
As an alternate for the sign required by Paragraph (1) above, a red light of not less than forty (40) watt rating may be provided immediately below the upper terminal landing and so located as to shine in a passenger's face.
c.  Visitor Warning
(1)  Requirement
A conspicuous sign having the following legend -- "Employees Only -- Others  Keep Off" -- shall be displayed at each landing.
(2)  Size of Letters
The sign shall be of block letters not less than two (2) inches in height and shall be of a color offering high contrast  with the background color.
33.19-9  Tests and Inspections
a.  Acceptance Tests
These tests shall be made by the installer in the presence of the owner and representatives of the Building Commissioner.
(1)  Up Capacity
The manlift with two hundred (200) pounds on each  horizontal step of the "up" run shall show no appreciable slip of the belt when
(a)  Standing
(b)  Running at rated speed
(2)  Down Capacity -- Brake
The manlift with two hundred (200) pounds on each horizontal step of  the "down" run shall show no appreciable slip of the belt when
(a)  Standing
(b)  Running at rated speed.
The brake shall stop and hold the belt with test load
(3)  Loaded Step Deflection
The brake Each step shall be subject to a four hundred (400) pound proof load applied to the center of the step with the machine stationary,.  The guides shall not be displaced and there shall be no visible deformation or misalignment of the step or its support during the test.
(4)  Strength of Handhold
Each handhold shall support a load of three (300) pounds without appreciable deformation or injury to its fastenings.  Test to be made with machine stationary
(5)  Final Limit Stop
The "up" final limit shall be tested by placing a weight of one hundred (100) pounds on the approximate center  of the step or platform and running the machine in the "up" direction until the lift is stopped by the limit stop
(6)  Emergency Stop
The machine shall be stopped on both the "up" and  "down" run by means of the Emergency Stop
(7)  Speed
Speed shall be taken and checked against specified (rated) speed.  It shall not exceed the rated speed by more than ten (10) percent when running empty.
b.  Periodic Inspection
(1)  Frequency
All manlifts shall be inspected by a competent designated person at intervals of not more than 30 days.
(2)  Items Covered
This periodic inspection shall cover, but is not limited to, the following items:
Steps                                                Warning Signs and Lights
Step Fastenings                                Signal Equipment
Rails                                                Drive Pulley
Rail Supports and Fastenings            Bottom (Boot) Pulley and Clearance
Rollers and Slides                            Pulley Supports
Belt and Belt Tension                        Motor
Handholds and Fastenings                Driving Mechanism
Floor Landings                                Brake
Guardrails                                        Electrical Switches
Lubrication
(3)  Inspection Log
A written record shall be kept of findings at each inspection.  Records of inspection shall be made available to the Building Commissioner.

33.20  MECHANICAL AMUSEMENT DEVICES
33.20-1  General
a.  The design, construction, materials and operation of mechanical amusement devices shall be  such as to provide adequate safety to the public, and shall be approved by the Building Commissioner.
b.  Such devices shall meet all the applicable requirements of this ordinance
c.  Handrails, handles, safety straps and other protective devices of approved design shall be provided in all cars and for all riding, sliding, rotating, rolling or other moving devices.
33.20-2  Design
a.  In a device of the dip type, such as a roller coaster, the "up" grade in each dip shall be designed so that the cars will run up the structure at  a speed such that the cars will run  over the top of the next  dip without raising the passengers out of their seats.
b.  The cars shall  be equipped with dogs to drop into a sprocket chain or other approved device to pull the car or train to the starting point of its travel.
c.  Ferris wheels, except the portable type, shall have steel frames and steel tripods supported upon, and anchored to, concrete piers; and their cars shall be constructed of steel, or wood reinforced with steel.
d.  Ferris  wheels of the portable type shall be constructed of steel and shall be set on suitable bases under the towers and side tripods.
33.20-3  Safeties
a.  Each device shall be provided with a terminal brake, and if designed for more than two (2) car trains, the device shall be provided with an emergency brake, the release of which will immediately stop the train.  Such emergency brake shall be placed in a level spot on the structure, or if approved by the Building Commissioner, on one of the curves.
b.  The emergency brake shall be under the control of an attendant at the loading platform.
c.  Each car shall be equipped with a safety device arranged to catch  and hold the car at any point on the road or track should the chain  break or should any other failure occur to the machinery while the car or train is in transit.
33.20-4  Inspection and Tests
a.  Inspection
All mechanical amusement devices including portable types shall be inspected and approved by the Building Commissioner before being placed in operation.
b.  Tests
All mechanical amusement devices, including portable types, shall be completely tested in the presence of the Building Commissioner or his representative.  All safety devices shall be caused to function.
c.  Certificate
Upon successful completion of such inspection and tests, the Building Department shall issue a certificate of compliance which shall be prominently displayed at he entrance to the device.
d.  Re-approval Required
Approval of mechanical amusement  devices shall be limited to one (1)  year and shall be  re-inspected and approved by the Building Commissioner or his representative.
33.21 TESTS AND INSPECTION
33.21-1  Acceptance Inspections and Tests of New Installations and Alterations
a.  Inspections and Tests Required
In order to insure the safe operation of new elevators, moving stairs and dumbwaiters, such devices shall, on their completion and before being placed in service, be subjected to an acceptance inspection and tests in the field to determine that all parts of the installation conform to the applicable requirements and that all safety equipment functions as required.  A similar inspection and test shall be made following a major alterations as required.  A similar inspection and test shall be made following a major alteration of an existing installation.
b.  Persons Authorized to Make Acceptance Inspections and Tests
Acceptance tests  and inspections shall be made by the following:
(1)  Inspections shall be made by an inspector employed by the Building Commissioner.
(2)  The following tests shall be made by the person or firm installing or altering the equipment in the presence of an inspector employed by the Building Commissioner.
(a)  Tests specified in Sections 33.21-2 and 33.21-3
(b)  Any tests which:
(i)  Require rendering any safety devices or equipment temporarily inoperative.
(ii)  Require removal or setting of devices or equipment.
(iii)  Require removal or resetting of devices or equipment.
c.  Acceptance Inspection Requirements
All parts of the installation shall be inspected for conformity with the applicable requirements.  The American Standard Practice for the Inspection of Elevators, Inspector's Manual, ASA A17.2, Part II for Elevators and Part III for Escalators is recommended as a guide in making the inspection.
d.  Acceptance Test Requirements
(1)  Acceptance tests shall be made of all safety devices and equipment to determine that they function as required by the applicable requirements.  In making the acceptance tests, the test of car and counterweight safeties and governors, buffers, and moving stairs shall conform to Sections 33.21-2 and 33.21-3.
(2)  For the procedure to be followed in making  the tests, the American Standard Practice for the Inspection of Elevators, Inspectors' Manual, ASA A 17.2, Part II for Elevators and Part III for Escalators is recommended as a guide.
33.21-2  Acceptance Test Schedule for Car and Counterweight Safeties and Governors
a.  General Requirements for Type A, B and C Safeties
(1)  Test Load
Car safeties shall be tested with rated load in the car.  In making the test of car safeties, the load shall be centered on each quarter of the platform symmetrically with relation to the center lines of the platform.  Counterweight safeties, where provided shall be tested with no load in the car.
(2)  Governor Tripping Speed
The tripping speed of the governor shall be measured by means of a tachometer.
(3)  Sealing of Governors
Governors shall be sealed, either before or at the time of the safety test.  If any change is made in the governor setting during the field test, governors previously sealed shall be resealed immediately following the test.
(4)  Governor Overspeed Switch and Car-Safety-Mechanism Switch
The operation of the governor over speed switch and the car-safety-mechanism switch shall be checked for conformity.
(5)  Level of Car Platform
After the safety has stopped the car, the level of the car platform shall be checked for conformity with Part II, Section 205, Rule 205.9b of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.
b.  Tests of Type A Governor-Operated Safeties
(1)  Type A governor-operated safeties shall be tested by operating the car at its normal speed in the "down" direction and tripping the governor jaws by hand.  A test shall also be made of the inertia application of the safety for conformity with Part II, Section 205, Rule 205.8a of the ASA Safety Code for  Elevators, A17.1, by attaching the proper eight to the return  run of the governor rope.
(2)  The manufacturer shall inform the person making the test of the weight necessary to be added to the governor rope when making the inertia application test.  This weight shall be that necessary to reproduce inertia operation of the safety at not to exceed nine-tenths (9/10) gravity.  The inertia application test shall be made with the car stationary and the weight when released shall move  the safety parts into contact with the rails.
c.  Test of Type A Safeties, Without Governors, Operated only as a Result of the Breaking or Slackening of the Hoist Ropes
The operation of this type of safety shall be tested by obtaining the necessary slack rope to cause it to function.
d.  Tests of Type B and C Safeties
(1)  Tests Required
Type B and C safeties shall be subjected to overspeed test, with the hoisting ropes attached, by gradually increasing the sped of the car until the governor causes application of the safety.   Exception:  Safeties of elevators equipped with alternating-current driving machine motors, where the car with its rated load does not cause sufficient overspeed when the machine brake is released to trip the governor jaws, shall  be tested by operating the car at its normal speed in the "down" direction and tripping the governor jaws by hand.
(2)  Operation of Governor Overspeed Switch and Car-Safety-Mechanism Switch During Test
The overspeed switch on the governor shall be inoperative during the overspeed test.  In order to assure that the safety will retard the car with the minimum assistance from the elevator driving machine and to minimize the development of  slack rope and fall-back of the counterweight, the switch on the car operated by the car safety mechanism shall, for the duration of the test, be temporarily adjusted to open as close as possible to the position at which the car safety mechanism is in the fully applied position.
(3)  Stopping Distances for Type B Safeties
The stopping distance shall conform to the requirements of Rule 205 in the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1, and shall be determined by measuring the length of the marks made by the safety jaws on both sides of each car guide rail and taking the average  of the four readings.
(4)  Stopping Distances for Type C Safeties
The stopping distance shall be equal to the stroke of the buffer located between the lower member of the car frame and the auxiliary safety plank.  After the safety has  stopped the car, the level of the auxiliary safety plank  shall be checked for conformity.
(5)  Buffer Compression-Switch and Oil-Level Device for Type C Safeties.
Tests shall be made of the buffer compression-switch and oil-level device for conformity.
(6)  Movement of Governor Rope to Operate Type B Safeties
The movement of the governor  rope to operate the safety mechanism shall be tested for conformity with the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1
33.21-3  Acceptance Tests of Car and Counterweight Buffers
No acceptance test shall be required for solid or spring type buffers.  Oil buffers shall be tested in the field, in accordance with the following:
a.  Oil Level Test
The level of the oil shall be tested to determine that it is within the maximum and minimum allowable limits
b.  Plunger Return Tests
Car and counterweight buffers, when filled with oil, shall be tested for conformity with the plunger return requirements, as follows:
(1)  The plunger shall be fully compressed and when released, shall return to the fully extended position within ninety (90) seconds.
(2)  A weight of fifty (50)  pounds shall be placed on the plunger of spring-return-type buffers.  The plunger with this weight resting on it shall be depressed two (2) inches and then released.  When released, the plunger with the weight resting on it shall return to the fully extended position within thirty (30) seconds.
c.  Load and Speed Tests
(1)  Prior to making this test, load range and maximum speed given on the buffer name plate shall be checked to make sure that the correct buffer has been used.
(2)  The car oil buffer shall be tested by running the car with its rated load onto the buffer at rated speed.
(3)  The counterweight oil buffer shall be tested by running the counterweight onto its buffer at rated speed with no load in the car.   Exception:  For reduced-stroke buffers, conforming to the requirements of Part II, Section 201, Rule 201.4a(2)  of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1 this test shall be made at the reduced striking speed permitted therein.
(4)  In making these tests the normal terminal limit switches shall be made temporarily inoperative; and the final terminal limits shall remain operative, but shall be temporarily relocated if necessary to permit full compression of the buffer during  the tests.
33.21.4  Periodic Inspections and Tests of All Installations
a.  Inspections and Tests Required
All existing installations and all new installations after being placed in service, shall be subjected  to periodic inspections and tests at regular  intervals to determine that the equipment is in a safe operating condition and has not been altered.
b.    Persons Authorized to Make Periodic Inspections and Tests
(1)  Periodic inspections and tests, except annual periodic tests required by Section 33.21-4e and tests which are outlined in Section 33.21-1, shall be made by an inspector in the employ of the Building Commissioner, by a person or firm authorized by the Building Commissioner, or by an inspector employed by an accredited insurance company which is the primary insurer of the equipment to be inspected.
(2)  The owner  or his authorized agent shall have the periodic tests required by this Article made by a person qualified to perform such service in the presence of an inspector in the employ of or authorized by the Building Commissioner.   Exception:  Where an inspector in the employ of or authorized by the Building Commissioner is not available at the time the required tests are made, the person or firm conducting the tests shall:
(a)  Submit to the Building Commissioner a statement upon a form furnished by him certifying that the tests have been conducted and the results thereof.
(b)  Attach to the governor rope a tag marked to show the date of the test and the name of the person or firm who conducted  it.
c.  Periodic Inspection and Test Periods
Periodic inspections and tests  shall be made at intervals not longer than:
(1)  Three (3) months for power passenger elevators
(2)  Six (6) months for moving stairs, power-fright elevators, and manlifts.
(3)  Twelve (12) months for hand elevators, and power and hand dumbwaiters    Exception:  Inspection and tests of car and counterweight safeties, governors and oil butter specified in Section 33.21-4e.
d. Periodic Inspections and Tests
All parts of the equipment shall be inspected and where necessary tested to determine that they are in safe operating condition and that parts subject to wear such as ropes,  bearings, gears, car safety and governor parts, buffers, etc., have not worn to such an extent as to affect the safe  operation of the installation.  Any such worm parts shall be adjusted or replaced.
e.  Car and Counterweight Safety, governor and Oil Buffer Annual Periodic Inspections and Tests
(1)  Safeties, governors and oil buffers shall be inspected and tested for conformity with Sections 33.21-4f through 33.21-4i at intervals not longer than twelve (12) months unless an inspection made in conformity  with Section 33.21-4d indicates that the test should be made at shortest  intervals.   Exception:  Tests of the following shall be made at each inspection period specified in Section 33.21-4c;
(a)  Oil buffer compression  switch and oil level device of Type C safeties for conformity with Section 205 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators A17.1
(b)  Level of the oil in the oil buffer for conformity with Section 33.21-3.
(2)  For procedure to be followed in  making the inspections and tests, see American Standard Practice for Inspection of Elevators, Inspectors' Manual ASA A17.2
f.  Inspection of Safety Parts
(1)  All working parts of car and counterweight safeties shall be inspected to determine that they are in satisfactory operating condition and that the distance between the rail  gripping faces of the safety parts is not less than:
(a)  For new elevators having Type A, B, or C safeties, as specified in Part II Section 205, Rule 205.10 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.
(b)  For existing elevators having steel guide safeties, not less than the thickness of the guide rail plus three thirty-seconds (3/32) inch.
(c)  For existing elevators with wood guide safeties not less than the thickness of the guide rail plus one-quarter (1/4) inch.
(2)  Type B safeties shall be operated by hand until the safety jaws contact the guide rail after which the following inspection shall be made:
(a)  For Type B drum operated  safeties which require continual unwinding of the safety drum to fully apply the safety, check the number of turns remaining on the car safety drum.  These must be sufficient to insure proper operation of the safety on the maintenance test.  Note that Rule 205.11 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1, requires that three (3) turns shall remain on the drum after application of the safety at overspeed with rated load in the car.
(b)  For all Type B safeties measure the movement of the governor rope necessary  to bring the safety jaws into contact with the guide rail surfaces, which for new elevators shall not exceed the amount specified in Part II, Section 205, Rule 205.11 of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.
   NOTE:  When  resetting  drum-operated safeties by means of the wrench in the car, sufficient tension shall be kept in the safety-drum rope to prevent kinking of the rope and to insure that it is wound evenly and uniformly in the drum grooves.  The drum must be rewound until no slack remains in the safety rope between the drum and the car releasing carrier.
(3)  For Type C safeties check the level of the oil in the oil buffer.  Operate the buffer compression switch and the oil level device by hand to make sure that they conform.
g.  Inspection of Governor
(1)  Governors shall be inspected and operated by hand to determine that all parts, including the rope-grip jaws, operate freely.  All bearings, governor-rope-grip jaws, and all rubbing surfaces shall be checked to make sure they are not worn excessively and are free of paint.
(2)  A test of the governor tripping speed is not required unless the seal on the governor has been disturbed or the inspection indicates that for  other  reasons is retest is necessary.  If a retest is made, the governor shall be resealed after the test.
h.  Test Safeties
Safeties shall be subjected to a running test with no load in the car as follows:
(1)  Type A, B, or C Governor-Operated Safeties.  The safety shall be operated by tripping the governor by hand with the car operating at the SLOWEST operating speed in  the "down" direction.  In this test the safety shall bring the car to rest promptly.  In the case of type B safeties, the stopping distance is not required to conform.  In the case of type C safeties, the oil buffer may or may not compress its full stroke.  In the case of type A, B or C safeties employing rollers or dogs for application of the safety, the rollers or dogs are not required to operate their full travel.
(2)  Wood Guide Governor Operated Safeties.  The safety shall be tested by tripping the governor by hand with the car at resat and moving the car in the "down" direction until it is brought to rest by the safety and until the hoist ropes become slack.
(3)  Type A and Wood Guides Safeties Without Governors Operated Only as a Result of the Breaking or Slackening of the Hoist Ropes   The operation of this type of safety shall be  tested by obtaining the necessary slack rope to cause it to function.
i.  Periodic Tests of Car and Counterweight Oil Buffers
Periodic Tests of oil buffers shall be made as specified in Section 33.21-3.
j.  Periodic Tests of Moving Stairs
Periodic tests of moving stairs shall be made as specified in Section 33.17-13.
33.21-5  Maintenance Inspection and Tests
a.  Inspection Tests Required
All existing installations, and all new elevator installations after being placed in service, shall be subjected to maintenance inspections and tests.   Exception:  Wood guide safeties.
b.  Inspection and Test Periods
(1)  Maintenance inspection and tests of elevator car and counterweight safeties, governors, and oil buffers shall be made at intervals not exceeding five (5) years.
(2)  These inspections and tests shall be in lieu of one of the periodic inspections and  tests of such equipment required by Section 33.21-4.
c.  Persons Authorized to Make Maintenance Inspections and Tests
The owner or his authorized agent shall have maintenance inspections and tests made by a person qualified to perform such service in the presence of an inspector in the empty of or authorized by the Building Commissioner.  Exceptions:  Where an inspector in the employ of or authorized by the Building Commissioner is not available at the time the required tests are made, the person or firm conducting the tests shall:
(1)  Submit to the Building Commissioner a statement upon  a form furnished by him certifying that the tests have been conducted and the results thereof.
(2)  Attach to the governor rope a tag marked to show the date of the tests and the name of the person or firm who conducted it.
d.  Inspection and Test Requirements
Maintenance inspections and tests of car and counterweight safeties, governors and oil buffers shall conform tot he following:
(1)  Car and Counterweight Safeties and Governors.
The car safety, the counterweight safety where provided, and the governor shall be subjected to the inspections and tests specified in Section 33.21-4, subject to the following modifications:
(a)  Type A safeties and Type A safety parts of Type C safeties shall, prior to the safety tests specified herein, be inspected an the safety operated by hand  to determine that:
(i)  It is in satisfactory operating condition
(ii)  Following hand operation the safety rollers or dogs operate simultaneously and have approximately the same travel.
(iii)  There is sufficient remaining travel of the rollers or dogs to bring the car and its rated load to rest from rated speed.
(b)  The safety tests  for type A, B, and C safeties shall be made with rated load in the car by tripping the governor by hand at rated speed.
(c)  Type B safeties shall stop the car with rated load within the required range of stopping distances.   Exception:  The minimum siding distance of existing gradual wedge clamp and drum-operated flexible guide clamp safeties with rated load in the car shall conform to the following:
TABLE 33.21-5 
MAXIMUM SLIDING DISTANCE

(d)  For Type A safeties and Type A safety parts of Type C safeties there shall be sufficient travel of the safety rollers or dogs remaining  after the test required by Section 33.21-5d (1) to bring the car and its rated load to rest on safety application at governor tripping speed.
(e)  The tripping speed of the governor, and the speed at which the governor overspeed switch, where provided, operates, shall be tested.  This may be done by removing the governor rope from the governor sheave and driving the governor by a hand or motor-driven device with a gradual acceleration in order to insure an accurate determination of the tripping speed, or by other approved means.  If the tripping speed of the governor does not conform to its requirements, it shall be readjusted to conform, after which it shall be resealed.  A metal tag shall be attached to the safety-releasing carrier  in a permanent manner, giving the date of the safety test together with the name of the person or firm who performed the test.
33.21-6  Installations Placed Out of Active Service
a.  Where for any reason an installation is placed out of active service so  that it cannot be operated for a definite period, the periodic and maintenance inspections and tests may be discontinued for the  out-of-service period.
b.  Before such installation is again placed in active service, it shall be subjected to inspections and tests in accordance with Section33.21-4, provided that if the out-of-service period exceeds one year, it shall also be subjected  to a maintenance test in accordance with Section 33.21-5.

33.22  MAINTENANCE
The alteration, repair and replacement of equipment or parts of equipment covered in this Article shall be in accordance with the requirements of Part XI of the ASA Safety Code for Elevators, A17.1.


ARTICLE XXXIV
CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENTS
Index
34.1        INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
34-1-1            Flue Required
34.1-2            Fuel Burning Devices
34.1-3            Plans Required
34.-14            Tests
34.1-5             Maintenance
34.1-6            Minor Repairs
34.1-7            Materials
34.1-8            Spark Arrestor
34.1-9            Design of Chimneys, Flues and Vents
34.1-10            Breechings
34.1-11            Draft Hoods
34.1-12            Required Insulation

34.2        CLASSIFICATION OF CHIMNEYS
34.2-1            Low Temperature
34.2-2            Medium Temperature
34.2-3            High Temperature

34.-3        CHIMNEY CONSTRUCTION
34.3-1            Materials
34.3-2            Loads
34.3-3            Support

34.4        HEIGHT OF CHIMNEYS
34.4-1            Low Temperature
34.4-2            Medium Temperature
34.4-3            High Temperature
34.4-4            Incinerators

34.5     CLEARANCE FROM COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL

34.6        MASONRY CHIMNEYS
34.6-1            General
34.6-2            Flue Linings
34.6-3            Low Temperature Masonry Chimneys
34.6-4            Medium Temperature Masonry Chimneys
34.6-5            High Temperature Masonry Chimneys

34.7         MASONRY CHIMNEYS FOR INCINERATORS
34.7-1             Incinerators for Single-Family and two-Family dwellings
34.7-2            Non Fuel Fired Incinerators
34.7-3            Fuel Fired Incinerators
34.7-4            Incinerators, Connected to Other Flues


34.8        PROHIBITION OF FLUE-FED INCINERATORS

34.9        REFUSE CHUTES
34.9-1            Interior
34.9-2            Exterior

34.10        METAL CHIMNEYS (SMOKESTACKS)
34.10-1            Construction
34.10.2            Protection
34.10-3            Lining
34.10-4            Exterior Metal Chimneys
34.10-5            Interior Metal Chimneys

34.11        FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEYS

34.12        VENTS FOR GAS APPLIANCES
34.12-1            Venting Required
34.12-2            Types of Vents
34.12-3            Use Limits
34.12-4            Side of Vents
34.12-5            Height of Vents
34.12-6            Interconnecting of Vents
34.12-7            Installation of Vents

34.13        FIREPLACES
34.13-1            Construction
34.13-2            Hearth
34.13-3            Damper
34.13-4            Factory-Built Fireplaces
34.13-5            Clearances

34.14        EXISTING BUILDINGS
34.14-1            Extension of Existing Chimneys
34.14-2            Height and Size of Extended Flues
34.14-3            Alternate


34.1  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
34.1-1  Flue Required
Except for electric heating appliances, and as otherwise provided for gas appliances, all fuel burning devices shall be connected to flues complying with the provisions of this Article.
34.1-2  Fuel Burning Devices
In determining the temperature range of any fuel burning device, the standards of the N.B.F.U Code for Heat Producing Appliances shall be considered as accepted engineering practice.
34.1-3  Plans Required
The plans shall indicate the size, location and construction of all fireplaces and of all chimneys, flues, and vents and their connections to fuel burning devices.
34.1-4  Tests
The Building Department may require tests of all chimneys, flues and vents and their connections to fuel burning devices to insure gas,  smoke, and flame tightness
34.1-5  Maintenance
Chimneys shall be so constructed as to permit necessary cleaning.  Whenever a new flue is completed or an existing flue is altered, it shall be clean and left  smooth on the inside.
34.1-6  Minor Repairs
Minor emergency repairs for the purpose of maintenance and upkeep, which do not increase the capacity of the fuel burning devices and which do not  involve structural changes  in the permanent chimneys, flues, or vents, may be made without a permit.
34.1-7  Materials
The provisions of this Article shall not be interpreted as precluding the use of other materials having equivalent properties.
34.1-8  Spark Arrestor
Every incinerator chimney or other chimney that may emit sparks capable of igniting combustible material shall be provided with an approved incombustible and noncorrosive spark arrester.  The spark arrester shall have a total area of not less than four (4) times the total flue cross-sectional area, with mesh not to exceed one-half (1/2) inch
34.1-9   Design of Chimneys, Flues and Vents
The standards set forth in the ASHRAE Guide and Data Book shall be considered accepted engineering practice in the design of draft for chimneys, flues and vents.
34.1-10  Breechings
Breechings from several fuel burning devices may be joined to use a single flue connection, provided that both the combined breeching and flue cross-sectional areas are of sufficient size to serve all the devices connected thereto, and that they are constructed to comply with the severest requirements of any of the connected devices.  However, the breeching and flue for a fuel burning device using forced or induced draft shall be separate from all other breechings and flues.
34.1.11  Draft Hoods
Every fuel burning device, except an incinerator, shall be equipped with an effective draft hood or damper which will insure the ready escape of the products of combustion under any draft condition, prevent a back draft from entering the device and neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney flue upon the operation of the device.  Draft hoods or dampers shall not be required when the integral construction of the device is approved by the American Gas Association as serving the same purpose.
34.1-12  Required Insulation
Every range exhaust duct, except in dwelling units, and breechings or other ducts or pipes carrying the products of combustion, the temperature of which may exceed eight hundred (800) deg. F., shall be lined with not less than one (1) inch of refractory material, or shall be covered with at least two (2) inches of fireproofing insulation.  This requirement shall not apply to industrial process exhaust in buildings of  construction Type 1.

34.2  CLASSIFICATION OF CHIMNEYS
34.2-1  Low Temperature
Chimneys for warm air, hot water and low pressure steam heating plants and other devices in which the products  of combustion at the point of entrance to the chimney do not exceed a temperature of six hundred (600) deg. F. during normal operation, shall be classified as low temperature chimneys.
34.2-2  Medium Temperature
Chimneys for high pressure steam boilers and other devices in which the products of combustion at the point of entrance to the chimney have a temperature  between six hundred (600) deg. F. and one-thousand (1000) deg. F during normal operating shall be classified as medium temperature chimneys.
34.2-3  High Temperature
Chimneys for high temperature devices,  such as blast furnaces, incinerators, ceramic kilns, or glass furnaces, in which the products of combustion at the point of entrance to the chimney have a temperature greater than one thousand (1000) deg. F. during normal operation shall be classified as high temperature chimneys.

34.3  CHIMNEY CONSTRUCTION
34.3-1  Materials
Chimneys shall be constructed of masonry, reinforced concrete, metal or other approved incombustible  materials.
34.3-2  Loads
Chimneys shall be constructed to resist all loads, including wind loads, as required in Article XXIV, MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS, without exceeding the allowable stresses for the materials, and shall comply with the requirements of this Article.
34.3-3  Support
Chimneys shall be supported on properly designed foundations of masonry reinforced concrete, other incombustible materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than three (3) hours.

34.4  HEIGHT OF CHIMNEYS
34.4-1  Low Temperature
Low temperature chimneys shall extend at least three (3) feet above the highest point where they pass through the roof of the building and at least two (2) feet higher than any portion of the building within ten (10) feet of the chimney.
34.4-2  Medium Temperature
Medium temperature chimneys shall extend not less than ten (10) feet higher than any portion of the building within twenty(25) feet of the chimney.
34.4-3  High Temperature
High temperature chimneys, except incinerator chimneys, shall extend not less than twenty (20) feet higher than any portion of the building within fifty (50) feet of the chimney.
34.4-4  Incinerators
Chimneys for incinerators shall extend at least four (4) feet above the highest point where they pass through the roof of the building and at least two (2) feet higher than any portion of the building within twenty (20) feet of the chimney.  However, domestic type incinerators in one-and two-family dwellings may be connected to a low temperature chimney.

34.5  CLEARANCE FROM COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL
34.5-1     
All wood beams, joists and studs shall be trimmed away from chimneys.  Headers, beams, joists and studs shall be not less than two (2 inches from the outside  face of a chimney or from masonry enclosing a flue, and not less than eight (8) inches from any outlet of such chimney.
34.5-2 
All spaces between chimneys and wood joists, beams, or headers shall be firestopped according to the requirements of Article XX, Section 20.14

34.6  MASONRY CHIMNEYS
34.6-1  General
a.  Supports, Masonry chimneys shall be wholly supported on incombustible construction having a fire resistance rating of not less than three (3) hours.
b.  Corbeling
No chimney shall be corbeled from hollow or  cavity wall construction, nor from a wall built of hollow masonry units
Chimney Caps
The walls of masonry chimneys shall be capped with incombustible weatherproof materials
d.  Material
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed of solid masonry units or of reinforced concrete.
34.6-2  Flue Linings
a.  General
Flue linings shall be of refractory materials which will withstand the action of flue gases and resist, without softening or cracking, not less than two thousand (2000) deg. F.
b.  Type 1 Flue Linings
Type 1 flue linings shall have a fire-resistive, refractory and insulating properties equivalent to  flue linings of fire brick four and one-half (4-1/2) inches thick laid in fire clay mortar.
c.  Type 2 Flue Linings
Type 2 flue linings shall have fire-resistive refractory and insulating properties equivalent to flue linings of fire clay units not less than five-eighths (58) inch thick laid in fire clay mortar.
34.6-3  :Low Temperature Masonry Chimneys
a.  Wall Thickness
Chimneys in which no flue exceeds one-fifty (150 square inches in net area shall have walls not less than four (4) inches thick, not including the flue lining except rubble stone masonry which shall be not less than twelve (12) inches thick.
b.  Lining
Flues shall be lined with type 2 flue lining, extending from a point not less than eight (8) inches below the breeching inlet to the top of the chimney or to a point not less than twenty-five (25) feet above the top of the breeching.
c.  Two or More Flues
Where two (2) or more flues adjoin each other in the same chimney, the joints shall be staggered at least  seven (7) inches
d.  Wythes
Where more than two (2) flues are located in the same chimney, masonry wythes at least four (4) inches wide shall be installed and bonded into the walls of the chimney.  There shall be no more than two (20)  flues without such separation.
e.  Separation
Where masonry walls are less than eight (8) inches thick, flue linings shall b separate from the chimney wall and the space shall not be filled.
34.6-4  Medium Temperature Masonry Chimneys
a.  Wall Thickness
Chimney walls shall be not less than eight (8) inches thick, not including the flue lining; however, rubble stone masonry chimney walls shall be not less than twelve (12) inches thick.
b.  Lining
Flues shall be lined with Type 1 flue lining, extending from a point not less than two (2) feet below the intake to the top of the chimney or to a point not less than twenty (25) feet above the top of the breeching inlet.
34.6-5  High Temperature Masonry Chimneys
a.  Wall Thickness
Chimneys shall be built with double masonry walls, each not less than eight (8) inches thick, including flue lining and with an air apace of not less than two (2) inches between them.
b.  Lining
The interior walls of the double-wall construction shall be lined with Type 1 flue lining for their entire height.

34.7  MASONRY CHIMNEYS FOR INCINERATORS
34.7-1  Incinerators for Single-Family and Two-Family Dwellings
Chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements for Low Temperature Masonry Chimneys
34.7-2  Non Fuel-Fired Incinerators
When the grate area of the combustion  chamber does not exceed nine (9) square feet and the chimney does not exceed forty-eight (48)  feet in height, the chimney shall be constructed  in accordance with the requirements for Low Temperature Masonry Chimneys.  When the grate area exceeds nine (9) square feet of  the chimney exceeds forty-eight (48 feet in height, the chimney shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements for Medium Temperature Masonry Chimneys.
34.7-3  Fuel-Fired Incinerators
Chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements for Medium Temperature Masonry Chimneys, except that the type 1 flue lining shall extend to the top of the chimney to a point not less than forth (40) feet above the roof of the combustion chamber of the incinerator.
34.7-4  Incinerators Connected to Other Flues
With the exception of commercial incinerators, an incinerator may be connected to a flue serving another fuel burning device provided the cross-sectional area of such flue is at least four (4) times that of the incinerator breeching, is adequate for the combined service, and is constructed to meet the requirements of the incinerator, however, if the other device has forced or induced draft, separate flues shall be used.

34.8  PROHIBITION OF FLUE-FED INCINERATORS
Flue-fed incinerators shall not be permitted.

34.9  REFUSE CHUTES
34.9-1  Interior
a.  Construction
Every refuse chute located inside a building shall be of two (2) hour fire-resistive construction and supported on an incombustible foundation.  The minimum inside dimension of the chute shall be eighteen (18) inches.  The refuse chute shall discharge directly into a room other than the room in which the incinerator is located.  Such room shall have walls, ceiling and floor of two (2) hour fire-resistive construction and shall be used solely for the reception of refuse which shall be burned daily.
b.  Sprinklers
The refuse room shall be equipped with one (1) sprinkler head for each eighty (80) square feet of floor area or fraction thereof. One sprinkler head shall be installed in the  refuse chute at the top service opening, and in buildings over four (4) stories in height there shall be one additional sprinkler head at every fourth floor level below the top floor.
c.  Doors
A self-closing Class B fire door or fire shutter shall be installed at the service opening at each level, at the bottom of the chute, and on the door opening of the room into which  the refuse is discharged.
d.  Location
No refuse chute shall be located in any stairwell nor within ten (10) feet of any open stairway.
34.9-2  Exterior
a. Construction
Every refuse chute located outside of a building shall be constructed of at least No. 16 U.S. gauge metal with a minimum dimension of eighteen (18) inches
b.  Clearance
A clearance of at least six (6) inches shall be provided between the refuse chute and any combustible material.  A clearance of three (3) inches may be provided if the space between the refuse chute and the combustible material is protected with approved fire-resistive  material.
c.  Receptacle
The bottom of the refuse chute shall discharge directly into the metal or other incombustible receptacle equipped with a cover and maintained closed at all times.

34.10  METAL CHIMNEYS (SMOKESTACKS)
34.10-1  Construction
Metal chimneys shall be of riveted or welded construction.  Thickness of metal shall be adequate to resist all loads, including wind loads, without exceeding the allowable stresses for the metal as provided in Article XXX, STEEL AND METAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, but shall be not less than  the following minimum thicknesses:

            Size of Chimney                                            Minimum Thickness of Metal


34.10-2  Protection
Metal shall be galvanized or painted with an approved paint or constructed of approved corrosion-resistive alloys.
34.10-3  Lining
Metal chimneys used as High Temperature Chimneys shall be lined with four and one-half (4-1/2) inches of fire brick laid in fire clay mortar extending to the top of the chimney
34.10-4  Exterior Metal Chimneys
a.  Exterior metal chimneys shall have the following clearance from the building or structure:


b.  No exterior metal chimney shall be located less than twenty-four (24) inches from any door, window, or exitway , unless insulated and shielded in an approved manner to avoid a high surface temperature.
34.10-5  Interior Metal Chimneys
a.  Enclosed
Where a metal chimney extends through any story above that in which the devices served are located, it shall be enclosed, in all such stories, with walls of incombustible construction having a fire resistance rating of not less than three (3) hours.
b.  Air Space
A continuous air space not less than four (4) inches wide and extending through the roof shall be provided on all sides between the metal chimney and the enclosing walls.
c.  Thimbles
Where a metal chimney passes through a combustible roof, the roof shall be protected by an approved incombustible ventilating thimble that extends at least nine (9) inches below and above the roof construction.  The thimble shall be sized to provide clearance on all sides of the chimney of not less than six (6) inches for low temperature metal chimneys and not less than eighteen (18) inches for medium and high temperature metal chimneys.

34.11  FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEYS
Factory-built chimneys that are tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, and installed in accordance with the conditions of the approval, shall be acceptable.


34.12  VENTS FOR GAS APPLIANCES
34.12-1  Venting Required
a.  The following gas-burning devices shall b required to be vented:
(1)  Central heating devices, including steam and hot water boilers, warm air furnaces, floor furnaces, and vented recessed heaters
(2)  Unit heaters and duct furnaces
(3)  Gas-fired incinerators (see Section 34.-7-3)
(4)  All water heaters
(5)  Room heaters approved for vented use only
(6)  Devices equipped with gas conversion burners
(7)  Devices furnished with draft hoods by the manufacturer
b.  The following gas burning devices shall not be required to be vented:
(1)  Approved gas ranges
(2)  Approved hot plates and laundry stoves
(3)  Approved domestic clothes dryers
(4)  Approved gas refrigerators*
(5)  Counter appliances*
(6)  Room heaters listed for unvented use*
(7)  Devices approved for unvented use and not provided with flue collars*

*--When any of these devices are installed so that the aggregate input rating exceeds thirty (30) Btu per hour per cubic foot of room or space in which they are installed, they shall be provided with flues, or vents or other approved means of exhausting the flue gases to the outside atmosphere.  Where the room or space is directly connected to another room or  space by an open area which cannot bed closed, the volume of the adjacent room or space may be included in the calculations.
34.12-2  Types of Vents
a.  Type B  gas vents shall include vent piping of incombustible, corrosion-resistant material of sufficient thickness, cross-sectional area and  heat insulating quality to avoid excess temperature on adjacent combustible material.  Such material shall be approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
b.  Type BW gas vents shall include vent piping of incombustible, corrosion-resistant material, approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for use only with approved vented recessed heaters.
c.  Type C gas vents shall include vent piping of sheet copper of not less than No. 24 U.S. gauge or of galvanized iron, of not less than No. 20 U.S. gauge, or other approved incombustible corrosion-resistant material.
34.12-3  Use Limits
a.  Type B gas vents shall be used only with approved gas-burning devices which develop flue gas temperatures not greater than five hundred fifty (550) deg. F.  They shall not be used for venting the following:
(1)  Gas-fired incinerators
(2)  Devices which may be converted readily to the use of solid or liquid fuel
b.  Type BW gas vents shall be used only with approved venting recessed, heaters
c.  Type C gas vents shall be used only for runs directly from the space in which the device is located, through the roofing or exterior wall to the outer air, and shall not pass through any attic or concealed space or through any floor.
d.  Those gas-burning devices with which types B, BW and C gas vents cannot be used shall be furnished with masonry or metal chimneys in accordance with the applicable provision of this Article.
34.12-4  Size of Vents
The cross-sectional area of a vent for a gas-burning device with gravity draft shall be at least one (1) square inch for each seven thousand five hundred Btu per hour input, with a minimum diameter of thee (3) inches.  Vents for  forced-draft gas burning devices shall  be sized in accordance with  accepted engineering practice.
34.12-5  Height of Vents
Vents for gas burning devices shall extend at least two (2) feet above the highest point where they pass through the roof of the buildings and at least two (2) feet higher than any portion of the building with ten (10) feet of the vent.  Such vents need not comply with this provision if equipped with a device approved by the Building Commissioner as assuring proper and effective venting.
34.12-6  Interconnection of Vents
Except in single-family and two-family dwellings, a vent from a gas-burning device shall not be connected to a breeching or flue serving a device which uses a solid or liquid fuel.
34.12-7  Installation of Vents
a.  Type B and type BW vents shall be installed in compliance with the terms of their approval.
b.  Type C vents passing through a combustible wall or roof shall be guarded at the point of passing by a double metal ventilated thimble not less than six  (6) inches larger in diameter than the pipe, or by a double metal ventilated thimble not less than four (4) inches larger in diameter than the pipe, with the annual space filled with approved incombustible insulating material; or in lieu of such protection, all combustible material in the wall or partition shall be cut away from the vent pipe a sufficient distance to provide the clearance required from such vent pipe to combustible material, with any material used to close up such opening entirely incombustible.

34.13  FIREPLACES
34.13-1  Construction
The back and jambs of a fireplace shall be solid masonry or reinforced concrete having a lining of fire brick or other approved incombustible lining.  The minimum thickness of the back and jambs, including the lining, shall be eight (8) inches.  The lining may be omitted when an approved factory-built fireplace is used and is installed according to the terms of its approval.
34.13-2  Hearth
a.  Fireplace hearth extensions shall be provided of approved incombustible material for all fireplaces.  Where the fireplace opening is less than six (6) square feet, the hearth extension shall extend at least sixteen (16) inches in front of, and at least eight (8) inches beyond, each side of the fireplace opening.  Where the fireplace opening is six (6) square feet or larger, the hearth extension shall extend at least twenty (20) inches in front of, and at least twelve (12 inches beyond, each side of the fireplace opening.  Where a fireplace is elevated above or overhangs a floor, the hearth extension shall also extend over the area under the fireplace.
b.  Fireplaces constructed of masonry or reinforced concrete shall have hearth extensions of brick, concrete, stone, tile or other approved incombustible material, properly supported   and with no combustible material against the underside thereof.  Wood forms used during the  construction of hearth and hearth extension shall be removed when the construction is complete.
c.  Hearth extensions of approved factory-built fireplaces shall be not less than 0.375 inch thick of asbestos, concrete , hollow metal, stone, tile or other  approved incombustible material.  Such hearth extensions may be placed on the sub or finish flooring whether the flooring is combustible or not.  The hearth extension shall be readily distinguishable from the surrounding floor.
34.13-3  Damper
Every fireplace shall be provided with an approved adjustable damper.
34.13-4  Factory-Built Fireplaces
34.13-5  Clearances
All header and trimmer beams of combustible construction shall b located at least two (2) inches from the face of chimneys and backs of fireplaces, and the intervening space shall be firestopped by filling with approved incombustible material.  Wood or other combustible material shall not be installed on or about a fireplace less than six  (6) inches from the fireplace opening.  Refer to Article XX, Section 20.16 for framing around chimneys and fireplaces and to Article XX, section 20.14 for firestopping.

34.14  EXISTING BUILDINGS
34.14-1  Extension of Existing Chimneys
Whenever a building is erected or increased in height so that any wall along an interior lot line is within fifteen (15) feet of and extending above the top  of an existing  chimney, flue or vent of an adjoining existing building, the owner of the building being erected or increased in height, shall extend such existing chimney, flue or vent to the required height at his own expense, after receiving the consent of the adjoining property owner.
34.14-2  Height and Size of Extended Flues
The height and size of the extended chimney, flue or vent shall conform to the requirements of this Article but in no case shall the area be less than that of the existing flue.
34.14-3  Alternate
Instead of extending existing chimneys, flues or vents, the owner of the new structure may equipment with mechanical devices to insure adequate draft and to prevent harmful downdrafts.


ARTICLE XXXV
HEATING, MECHANICAL VENTILATING AND
REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS

Index

35.1         A -- HEATING REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS

35.2        CLEARANCE

35.3        FLOOR CONSTRUCTION AND CLEARANCES

35.4        STANDARD HEAT PRODUCING DEVICE  FOUNDATIONS

35.5        SMOKE AND GAS DISPOSAL
35.5-1             Breaching, Flues and Vents

35.6        GAS-FIRED DEVICES

35.7         OIL BURNERS
35.7-1            Oil Burning Devices
35.7-2            Oil Burner Controls

35.8        OIL STORAGE AND PIPING
35.8-1        Fuel Oil Storage Tanks
35.8-2            Fuel Oil Piping
35.8-3            Flammable Liquid Storage

35.9        GAS BURNERS

35.10        GAS FIRED DOMESTIC HEATERS AND WATER HEATERS -- IN LIVING SPACES

35.11        PIPE AND DUCT COVERINGS AND CLEARANCES
 35.11-1            Clearances
35.11-2             Coverings

35.12        WARM AIR HEATING SYSTEMS
35.12-1            Scope
35.12-2            Compliance with Air Pollution Controls
35.12-3            Minimum Design Requirements
35.12-4            Weakening of the Structure
35.12-5            Rating of Furnaces
35.12-6            Forced Air Heating Systems
35.12-7            Gravity Heating Systems
35.12-8            Gravity Ductwork
35.12-9            Return Air Ductwork
35.12-10            Furnace Approval
35.12-11            Clearance from Combustible Material
35.12-12            Air Filters
35.12-13            Electric Wiring and Equipment
35.12-14            Air Cooling Equipment
35.12-15            Heat Pump Systems

35.13        BOILERS AND UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS
35.13-1            Introductory Regulations
35.13-2            Materials and Construction
35.13-3            Unsafe Operation
35.13-4            Alterations and Major Repairs
35.13-5            Notification of Sale or Delivery
35.13-6            Secondhand or Used Boilers
35.13-7            Safety Controls
35.13-8            Relief Valves
35.13.9            Expansion Tanks

35.14        COMBUSTION AIR
35.14-1            General
35.14-2            Combustion Air for Non-Residential Installations

35.15        B - MECHANICAL, VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS

35.16        VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS

35.17        SOURCE OF AIR SUPPLY

35.18        ROOM AIR INLETS AND OUTLETS

35.19        MECHANICAL EXHAUST

35.20        HOODS

35.21        MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
35.21-3            Duct Work Construction
35.21-4            Duct Work Installation

35.22        VENTILATING OPENINGS TO ADJACENT ROOMS OPERATION OF VENTILATING SYSTEMS

35.24        PLANS

35.25        INSPECTION AND TEST OF VENTILATION SYSTEM

35.26        C -- REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS

 35.27        CLASSIFICATION OF REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS

35.28        CLASSIFICATION OF REFRIGERANTS BY RELATIVE SAFETY
35.28.-1            General
35.28-2            Flammable or Poisonous Refrigerants
35.28-3            Unlisted Refrigerants

35.29        UNIT SYSTEMS
35.29-1            Definition
35.29-2            Irritant or Flammable Refrigerants
35.29-3            Class D Unit Systems
35.29-4            Class E Unit Systems
35.29-5            Ventilation and Clearance
35.29-6            Pressure Relief Devices
35.29-7            Evaporators

35.30        REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS USED IN CONNECTION WITH AIR
35.30-1            General
35.30-2            Direct Systems
35.30-3            Class I, Non-Irritant and Non-Flammable Refrigerants
35.30-4            Class 2 or 3, Non-Irritant and Non-Flammable Refrigerants
35.30-5            Irritant and Class I Flammable Refrigerants
35.30-6            Indirect Systems
35.30-7            Other Regulations
35.30-8            Non-Flammable, Non-Irritant Refrigerants -- Quantities

35.31        CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION OF REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS
35.31-1            General Requirements
35.31-2            Minimum Refrigerant Field Leak Test Pressure
35.31-3            The Material and Construction of Pressure Vessels
35.31-4            Refrigerant Piping and Coils
35.31-5            Prohibited Location  of Piping and Fittings
35.31-6            Steel and Iron  Pipe
35.31-7            Stainless Soft Copper Tubing
35.31-8            Hard Copper Pipe
35.31-9            Valves

35.32        SAFETY DEVICES
35.32-1            Safety Devices Required
35.32.2            Connections with Water Supply
35.32-3            Pressure Vessel relief Devices
35.32-4            Compressors and Other Pressure Devices
35.32-5            Pressure Limiting Devices
35.32-6            Stop Valves
35.32-7            Emergency Relief Valves
35.32-8            Check Valves
35.32-9            Quick Closing Suction Valves
35.32-10           Pump-Out Connection
35.32-11            Pressure Gauges
35.32-12            Discharge of Refrigerant

35.33        PERMITS, TESTS AND INSPECTIONS
35.33-1            Permits and Plans Required
35.33-2            Tests Required
35.33-3            Gases Used For Testing
35.33-4            Inspection
35.33-5            Certificate of Inspection
35.33.6            Inspection Exemptions
35.33-7            Inspection of Repairs
35.33-8            Sale of Mechanical Refrigerating Equipment

 
A  -- HEATING REQUIREMENTS
35.1        Introductory Regulations
All buildings and structures, regardless of occupancy class or construction type, shall comply with the requirements contained in this Article.
35.1-1         
All heat producing devices in buildings and structures shall conform to the provisions of this ordinance and to accepted engineering practice, as defined in Section 4.6-5  of Article IV.
35.1-2          Plans shall be required to show the location and details of all heat producing devices and equipment including connections to flues or vents.
35.1-3
a.  All habitable building spaces and rooms shall be provided with a heating system capable of maintain a minimum temperature of 70 deg. F., when the outside temperature is -10 deg F.
b.  From September 15 of each year to June 1 of the succeeding year, every dwelling unit shall be supplied with sufficient heat so that the minimum temperature of the dwelling unit shall be sixty-five (65) degrees F. from 7:30 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. sixty=eight degrees (68) F. from 8:30 a.m. until 10:30 p.m. and sixty-three (63) degrees F.  from 10?30 p.m. until 7:30 a.m., averaged through the dwelling unit.  The requirements contained in this subsection  b. shall apply to all dwelling units except dwelling units where the occupant controls the temperature within such dwelling units.  (Effective June 4, 1996)
35.1-4  The ASHRAE Guide and Data Book, shall be considered as accepted engineering practice for the calculation of heat  losses and for the system designed.
35.1-5  The Standards of the following NFPA pamphlets shall be considered as accepted engineering practice.
35.1-6  All ash pits or receptacles for ashes from fuel burning devices shall be constructed of incombustible material.

35.1-7 
The use or storage of LP gas shall be prohibited below grade

35.1-8  A switch shall be installed in each fuel burning equipment room to stop all fuel burners and related forced and induced draft fans., located therein.  Such switch shall be located adjacent to the primary ingress-egress door, between six (6) feet and seven (7) feet above the floor and shall be painted red and labeled "Emergency Fuel Burner Switch".  However, fuel burning equipment rooms in Single-family and Two-family dwellings shall be exempt from this provision.

35.2  CLEARANCE
35.2-1  The exposed  surface of the enclosure of any heat producing device, or any pat thereof, shall be not less than the following distances from any wall or ceiling construction.

TABLE 35.2-1


35.2.2  Approved exceptions to Table 35.2-1, above, for specific heat producing devices, are as follows:

TABLE 35.2-2

35.2-3  No surface of  a heat producing device not provided for in Table 35.2-2 shall be placed close enough to any wall or ceiling to cause the temperature of the surface of such combustible wall or ceiling to rise more than 90 deg. F. above the  temperature of the room.  The minimum distance between such heat producing device and any combustible construction shall be three (3) inches.

35.3  FLOOR CONSTRUCTION AND CLEARANCES
Every heat producing device shall be placed on one of the following:
35.3-1  A foundation on soil;
35.3-2  A standard heat producing device foundation (see Section 35.4);
35.3.3  An incombustible floor or
35.3-4  Incombustible supports providing a clearance between the floor and the bottom of the appliance as follows

TABLE 35.3
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION AND CLEARANCES


.
35.4  STANDARD HEAT PRODUCING DEVICE FOUNDATIONS
The foundation or mountings for heat producing devices shall conform to all applicable provisions of N.B.F.U. Code for the Installation of Heat Producing Applications.

35.5  SMOKE AND GAS DISPOSAL
35.5-1  Breachings, Flues and Vents

Every fuel burning device using liquid fuel with a supply tank of more than two (2) gallons capacity shall be provided with a breeching, flue or vent which shall carry the products of combustion to the outside air.  Every flue burning device using gas shall be provided with a vent, except those devices specifically exempted in Section34.12-1b in Article XXXIV.
35.5-2 
The chimney or flue to which any breeching or vent from a fuel burning device is connected shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of Article XXXIV, CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENTS
35.5-3
Every breeching connection to a chimney shall be made gas-tight, and of incombustible material.
35.5-4
Not more than 80 percent of the internal cross-sectional area of any breeching or flue shall be closed off by any damper or automatic draft regulating device, except where  two (2) or more fuel burning devices are connected to a common breeching or flue.
35.5-5
There shall not be any construction which will impede the free circulation of air around the entire surface of any breeching, flue or vent.

35.6  GAS-FIRED DEVICES
35.6-1
Flues and vents to which gas-fired heat producing devices are connected shall have cross-sectional areas not less than the combined area of the vent outlets of the connected devices.
35.6-2
Every flue-connected gas-fired heat producing device, except an incinerator shall be provided with a  draft f hood or equivalent device.

35.7  OIL BURNERS
35.7-1  Oil Burning Devices
a.  Oil burners shall be equipped with controls as follows:
(1)  A means for manually stopping the flow of oil to the burners.
(2)  Automatic oil burners used on steam or water  boilers or forced warm air furnaces shall be equipped to aromatically shut down the burners in case of high steam pressure,  water temperature or air temperature, within the device.
(3)  The burner shall be equipped with automatic devices to shut off the oil supply to the  burners in case of failure of ignition or interruption of the oil supply.
b.  All electric controls and electric wiring shall conform to the requirements of Article XXXVII, ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
35.8  OIL STORAGE AND PIPING
35.8-1  Fuel Oil Storage Tanks
a.  Construction
(1)  Underground tanks and enclosed tanks inside of buildings shall be constructed of steel, or other equivalent material designed to provide safety factors equal to those obtained in steel tanks built as specified of the following thickness:

TABLE 35.8-1A

(2)  All joints of tanks shall be riveted and caulked, brazed or welded.  The shell of tanks shall be reinforced where connections are made, with all connections made through the top of the tank.  The tank shall be tested at twice the maximum working pressure.  All iron or steel tanks shall be coated on the outside with tar, ashphaltum, or heavy protective paint.  All concrete tanks shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
b.  Covering of Buried Tanks
All fuel oil tanks buried underground shall have the top of the tank not less than two (2) feet below grade, except that tanks may be buried not less than one foot below grade if provided with a cover of reinforced concrete not less than six (6) inches thick and extending not less than one (1) foot horizontally beyond the projected limits of the tanks  in all directions.  All concrete work shall be in accordance with Article XXIX, CONCRETE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.  Where tanks are located under driveways they shall be a minimum of three (3) feet below the top surface of the driveway, unless the driveways are paved with not less than six (6) inches of concrete, in which case the tanks shall be a minimum of two (2) feet below the top surface of the driveway.
c.  Anchoring of Buried Tanks
Tanks shall be securely anchored or weighted to prevent displacement due to moisture in the ground.
d.  Tanks Inside Buildings
(1)  Fuel oil tanks inside buildings shall be located in the basement or lowest story thereof, and shall not exceed five hundred fifty (550) gallons individual or aggregate capacity of more than five hundred fifty (550) gallons shall be enclosed within walls of not less than four (4) hour fire-resistive construction extending at least one (1) foot above the highest level of the tanks.  The  ceiling or enclosure above such tanks shall be of not less than four (4) hour fire-resistive construction, unless such tanks are surrounded with sand or earth within  the enclosure and up to a minimum of twelve (12) inches above the highest level of the tanks.  Instead of such an enclosure, the tanks may be embedded solidly in reinforced concrete, not less than six (6) inches thick at any point.  Concrete tanks shall be enclosed as required above, and shall have walls constructed independent of and not in contact with the building or enclosing walls.
(2)  Unenclosed fuel oil tanks located inside a building shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material designed to provide safety factors equal to those obtained in steel tanks built as specified, of the following thickness:

TABLE 35.8-1B

e.  Capacity of Fuel Oil Storage Tanks
The maximum capacity of fuel oil storage tanks located inside buildings shall be as specified below:
(1)  Construction Type 1A
In buildings of construction type 1A, the gross capacity of the fuel oil storage tanks shall not exceed 10,000 gallons.  However, any room having a separation of four (4) hours or more, fire-resistive construction from any other part of the building may provide a gross capacity of 50,000 gallons if the tanks are surrounded with not less than twelve (12) inches o sand at the sides and eighteen (18) inches of sand over the top.
(2)  Construction Types 1B and 1C
In buildings of construction types 1B and 1C, the gross capacity of fuel oil storage tanks shall not exceed seven thousand five hundred (7,500) gallons.
(3)  Construction Type II
In buildings of construction type II, the gross capacity of fuel oil storage tanks shall not exceed seven thousand five hundred (7,500) gallons.
(4)  Construction Type III
In buildings of construction type III, the gross capacity of fuel oil storage tanks shall not exceed five thousand (5,000) gallons.
(5)  Construction Type IV
In buildings of construction type IV, the gross capacity of fuel oil storage tanks shall not exceed five thousand (5,000) gallons.
(6)  Construction Type V
In buildings of construction type V, the tank capacity for fuel oil storage shall not exceed two hundred seventy-five (275) gallons, and the gross capacity shall not exceed five hundred fifty (550) gallons.  All  storage tanks shall be installed above ground in the lowest story of the building, or in the basement of said building and the storage tanks shall be located at least seven (7) feet from any boiler, furnace, or open flame.
35.8-2  Fuel Oil Piping
a.  No Connection to Drains
There shall be no floor drains or other connections to the sewer system from any tank, room or compartment in which fuel  oil is stored.
b.  Line Valves
Fuel oil pumps shall be provided with valves in both the suction and the discharge line.
c.  Drain Piping to Tank
All piping from underground fuel oil tanks shall be pitched toward the tanks without traps or pockets and shall enter the tanks at the top.
d.  Requirements for Pipe
Fuel oil piping with a working pressure of less than one hundred (100) pounds  per square inch shall be standard weight wrought iron, steel or brass pipe or brass or copper tubing.  No pipe smaller than three-eighths (3/8) inch diameter shall be used.
e.  Relief Valve
A pressure relief valve  shall be installed in the fuel oil pump discharge, with the overflow piped to the oil storage tank.
35.8-3  Flammable Liquid Storage
Refer to Section 16.2-2  of Article XVI, HIGH HAZARD BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES,  for requirements for flammable liquid storage not covered in this Article.


35.9  GAS BURNERS
Gas burners are a space  heating deices provided with automatic controls to turn this gas on and off, shall be equipped with a device to shut off the gas supply to the main burner in case of failure of ignition or interruption of the gas supply; and in addition, an  an automatic device which shall shut off the gas supply in case of undue steam pressure, excessive water temperature, or excessive air temperature within the fuel burning device.  Those space heating devices otherwise approved by nationally recognized testing agencies shall be exempt from this provision.

35.10  GAS FIRED DOMESTIC HEATERS AND WATER HEATERS -- IN LIVING SPACES
a.  Unvented gas-fired domestic heaters shall not be installed in any bathroom, toilet room, or sleeping room.
b.  Gas-fired water heaters, except the sealed combustion type, shall not be installed in any bathroom, toilet room or sleeping room.

35.11  PIPE AND DUCT COVERING AND CLEARANCES
35.11-1  Clearances
All pipes or ducts carrying steam, hot water, hot gases, or any other medium having a temperature of more than two hundred fifty (250) deg. F. shall have a clearance of not less than one (1) inch from all combustible materials, and shall be surrounded by metal collars where they pas through combustible floors, ceilings, or partitions.
35.11-2  Covering
All covering or insulation used on pipes or ducts extending vertically within a pipe shaft or other open space more than two (2) stories or thirty (30 feet shall be of incombustible material.

35.12  WARM AIR HEATING SYSTEMS
35.12-1  Scope
The provision of this Section 35.12 shall be minimum requirements and shall apply to all warm air heating installations.
35.12-2  Compliance with Air Pollution Controls
Fuel burning equipment shall be designed and installed so that the emission or discharge into the atmosphere of smoke, dust, particles, fly ash, odors, or other products of combustion shall conform to the requirements of Article X, Section 10.7, "Performance Standards -- Smoke and Particulate Matter", of the Cook County Zoning Ordinance and to  the provisions in the Cook County Air Pollution Control Ordinance.
35.12-3  Minimum Design Requirements
Every gravity or forced warm air heating system shall be designed and installed so that it is capable of maintaining a minimum temperature of seventy (70) deg. F. when the outside temperature is -100 deg. F.
35.12-4  Weakening of the Structure
a.  Where it is necessary, in the installation of a warm air heating system, to cut joists, studs or any structural member, the structural system  shall be braced or headered so that the structure is not weakened.
b.  The work on the structural components shall be done by an experienced tradesman in the specific trade involved.
35.12-5  Rating of Furnaces
a.  Furnaces having output ratings up to two hundred fifty thousand (250,000) Btu per hour shall be considered Light Duty Furnaces and shall be rated by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
b.  Furnaces having output ratings greater than two hundred fifty thousand (250,000) Btu per hour shall be considered Heavy Duty Furnaces and shall be rated in accordance with the ASHRAE Code For Testing and Rating Heavy Duty Furnaces.
35.12-6  Forced Air Heating Systems
a.  Maximum Register Temperature
The register air temperature shall not exceed one hundred seventy-five (175) deg. F.
b.  Distribution System
The construction and installation of duct work shall conform to the requirements of Sections 35.22-3, 35.22-4 and 35.22-5
35.12-7  Gravity Heating Systems
a.  Leader and Duct Sizing
(1)  The following formula shall be used for sizing the basement supply leaders; with H representing the total heat to  be supplied by any run for a one hundred seventy-five (175) deg. F register temperature.
(a)  Leader areas for First floor:
                                                            H
            Area in square inches  =   -------    = 0.009H
                                                        111
(b)  Leader areas for Second floor

                                                    H
            Area in square inches =  ------   =  0.006H
                                                    166
(2)  Minimum size duct shall be eight (8) inches in diameter.  These formula are for comparatively straight runs of duct not more than twelve (12) feet in length.  Longer duct runs or runs with sharp turns shall be increased in proportion to the added resistance.
b.  First floor wall stacks shall  have areas not less than the areas of the leaders to which they are connected and second floor wall stacks shall have areas not less than seventy (70) percent of the leaders to which they are connected.
c.  All registers shall have a fee area at least equal to the are of the basement leader supplying them.
35.12-8  Gravity Ductwork
a.  All gravity system supply ducts shall have an upward pitch in the direction of flow.
b.  Where warm air ducts in a gravity system enter a floor, partition, or enclosure of combustible construction within horizontal distance of six (6) feet of the furnace, the duct shall be so arranged that heated air must travel six (6) feet from the primary heating surface or turn a ninety (90) degree angle to eliminate direct reflection before entering the partition or enclosure.
c.  Where warm air registers of a gravity system are installed in the floor over the furnace (as in a "pipeless furnace") the register box shall be constructed with a double wall with a four (4) inch air space between them, except where the warm air passage is surrounded with a cold air passage.
35.12-9  Return Air Ductwork
a.  Return air ducts within two (2) feet of the heat exchanger shall be constructed of incombustible material.
b.  Where spaces between studs or joists are used as return air ducts, the portion of such spaces  used shall be separated from the unused portions by tight fitting stops of sheet metal or wood not less than two (2) inches thick (nominal).
c.  The interior of combustible return air ducts shall be lined with incombustible material at all points where there is the danger that something could be dropped through a register at all points where there is the danger  that something could be dropped through a register or grille, and at the bottom of vertical ducts or directly under heaters having a bottom return.
d.  No vertical stud space shall have openings to receive  return air form more than one floor
e.  Where overhead joist spaces are used as return air ducts, wood cross-bridging or solid bridging shall be replaced with metal cross-bridging to reduce obstruction to the flow of air.
f.  For specific fire damper requirements, see the applicable Article and Section  in Part B of this ordinance.
35.12-10  Furnace Approval
All furnaces shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing agency (such as the American Gas Association or Underwriters' Laboratories Inc.) and shall be installed according to the approval.
35.12-11  Clearance from Combustible Material
The clearance of furnaces and boilers from combustible material, both protected and unprotected, shall be in accordance with all applicable provisions of NFPA No. 90B.
35.12-12  Air Filters
a.  Air filters shall be of a type that will not burn freely or emit a large volume of products of combustion if attacked by flames.
b.  Liquid adhesive coatings used on filters shall have a minimum flash  point of three hundred twenty-five (325)  deg. F., Cleveland open cup tester.
35.12-13  Electric Wiring and Equipment
Electric wiring and equipment shall comply with the equipments of Article XXXVII, ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS.
35.12-14  Air Cooling Equipment
a.  Mechanical refrigeration used with air duct systems shall be installed in accordance with  the requirements of Sections 35.27 through 35.47 and with accepted engineering practice.  Installations  conforming to the American Standard Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration  shall be considered as meeting these requirements.
b.  Combination units  supplied with a cooling coil shall have the coil located downstream from the heating furnace or parallel to the heating furnace unless the heating furnace is specifically approved for installation downstream from the coil.
c.  Where the coil is located in parallel with the heating surface, dampers or other means used to control the flow of air shall be adequate to prevent chilled air from entering the furnace section.  If the dampers are manually operated an interlock shall be provided to prevent operation of  either unit unless the damper is in the full heat or cool position.
d.  Adequate means shall be provided for disposal of condensate and to prevent the dripping of condensate on the heating element.
35.12-15  Heat Pump Systems
Heat pump systems that are equipped with supplemental electric heating elements  shall be equipped with:
a.  An electrical interlock that will not allow the supplemental heating elements to operate if the indoor air circulating fan is not energized.
b.  A temperature limit control located not more than two (2) feet downstream from all heat input devices, to limit the outlet air temperature to one hundred seventy-five (175) deg. F.
35.13    BOILERS AND UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS
35.13-1  Introductory Regulations
a.  The provisions of this Section shall apply to all steam or hot water boilers, hot water supply boilers and unfired pressure vessels, with the following exceptions:
(1)  Pressure vessels containing water under pressure of the domestic water system.
(2)  Portable pressure vessels and containers such as used for L.P. gas bulk oxygen, and medical gases
(3)  Cushion tanks in sprinkler systems
b.  Fuel-burning equipment shall be designed and installed so that the emission or discharge into the atmosphere of smoke, dust particles, fly ash, odors, or other  products of combustion shall conform to the requirements of Article X, Section 10.7, "Performance Standards -- Smoke and Particulate Matter" of the Cook County Zoning Ordinance, and to the provisions in the Cook County Air Pollution Control Ordinance.
33.13-2  Materials and Construction
All steam or hot water boilers, hot water supply  boilers and pressure vessels and their installation, operation, and maintenance shall conform to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, and shall be certified by and bear the label of a nationally recognized testing agency.
35.13-3  Unsafe Operation
If the operation of a boiler or pressure vessel is considered unsafe by the Boiler Inspector, the Inspector may revoke the certificate issued to the owner.  If the operation of a boiler or pressure vessel is considered to constitute an immediate danger, the Inspector may relieve the pressure on the boiler or pressure vessel, at the owner's expense and it shall not be operated again, until corrections have been made and a new certificate issued.
35.13-4  Alterations and Major Repairs
35.13-4  Alterations and Major Repairs
a.  Alterations or major repairs shall not be made on any boiler or pressure vessel without approval of the Building Commissioner.  Minor repairs not affecting strength or capacity of the boiler or pressure vessel may be made without approval.
b.  Upon completion of repairs to any boiler or unfired pressure vessel, the owner or agent  shall request, in writing to the Building Department, an inspection of the repairs made and the issuance of an inspection certificate.  It shall be unlawful for any person to use any boiler or unfired pressure vessel after being repaired until a certificate has been procured from the Boiler Inspector.
35.13-5  Notification of Sale or Delivery
Any person dealing in the sale or erection of boilers or unfired pressure vessels, shall on the sale or delivery of any boiler or vessel at any point in the Unincorporated Areas of Cook County, notify the Building Department, giving the name of the purchaser, the purchaser's address and the address to  which the boiler  or vessel is to be delivered.
35.13-6  Secondhand or Used Boilers
Any person selling a secondhand or used boiler or unfired pressure vessel shall, before painting the same, have it inspected by the Boiler Inspector and before offering for sale any such boiler or vessel shall have in his possession a certificate verifying its conditions for safe use.
35.13-7  Safety Controls
Controls for the safe operation of automatically operated boilers shall be provided to function as follows:
a.  When failure or interruption of flame or ignition occurs, the fuel supply shall be cut off.
b.   When a predetermined temperature or pressure is exceeded, the input of additional fuel shall be prevented or reduced to a safe rate.
c.  When the water level in a steam boiler drops below a predetermined level, the fuel supply shall be  cut off.
35.13-8  Relief Valves
Every hot water or steam boiler or unfired pressure vessel shall be equipped with safety relief  valves mounted vertically on top of the shell and sized and constructed to insure positive relief from  any pressure above the rating of the system.  The relief valve shall be constructed and installed so as to permit manual testing, and shall have its outlet piped to a floor drain.
35.13-9  Expansion Tanks
a.  Expansion Tanks for Open Systems
Every open hot water heating system shall be provided with at least one (1) expansion tank placed at a sufficient elevation above the highest heating element to prevent boiling when the water in that element is at its highest temperature.  each such tank shall be connected to the supply or return of the system by the pipe of not less than three-quarter (3/4) inch internal diameter and shall be provided with an overflow pipe of at least the same diameter discharging into a suitable drain.
b.  Expansion Tanks for Closed Systems
Every closed hot water heating system shall be provided with a closed compression or expansion tank and shall have provisions for draining the tank without draining the entire system.

35.14  COMBUSTION AIR
35.14-1  General
a.  General
All rooms or spaces containing boilers, furnaces, or other fuel fired heat producing devices, except in residential buildings, as provided for in Section 8.7-3 of Article VII, RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS, shall be provided with outside air to insure proper combustion.  The direct connection of an air  inlet to the combustion chamber of a device shall be prohibited, except in sealed combustion type units.
b.  In calculating the free area required for combustion air, consideration shall be given to the effect of louvers, grilles, or screens protecting the opening.
c.  Where a fuel burning device, is installed in a location in which the operation of exhaust fans, ventilating systems, clothes dryer vents, or fireplaces may create unsatisfactory combustion or venting conditions, special provisions shall  be subject tot he approval of the Building Commissioner.
35.14-2  Combustion Air for Non-Residential Installation
Except for gas-fired residential installations, as specified in Article VIII, RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS, there shall be provided a permanent outside air supply inlet having a total free area of not less than one square inch per 14,000 Btu per hour (10 square inches per gallon) of total input rating to all fuel fired heat producing devices in the room or space, but in no case less than one hundred (100) square inches.  It shall be permissible to provide combustion air from a general exhaust system.

B -- MECHANICAL VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS
35.15  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
35.15-1 
The ventilating requirements, as herein stated, shall apply to every room hereafter  erected, altered, or converted.
35.15-2 
The ventilation shall provide and  maintain in all rooms or spaces, by natural or mechanical means, air conditions which will protect the health and comfort of  the occupants.
35.15-3  Ventilation may be produced by:
a.  Natural Ventilation
A system which depends upon the operation of windows, transoms and other openings the operation of which are controlled by the occupants of the space being ventilated.  Where natural ventilation is specified as a percentage, this percentage shall refer to the square footage of required ventilating openings as a percentage of the room floor areas.   Further requirements for natural ventilation are specified in Article XXIII, LIGHT,  NATURAL VENTILATION AND MINIMUM PLANNING REQUIREMENTS.
b.  Mechanical Ventilating Supply System
A system for  forcing air into a room or space by mechanical  means
c.  Mechanical Ventilating Exhaust System
A system for removing air from a room or space by mechanical means
d.  Relief Opening
Any duct or opening that connects a room to the out-of-doors.
35.15-4
Relief opening ducts  shall be of sufficient cross-sectional area to convey a quantity of air equivalent to that of the mechanical supply or mechanical exhaust for the room at a maximum velocity of eight hundred (800) feet per minutes.  If the duct is equipped with a grille, the grille shall have a maximum face velocity of five hundred (500) feet per minutes.  The termination of  the duct shall be equipped with a stormproofed louver, cowl, or other protective device having a free area not smaller than that of the duct.
35.15-5 
Every mechanical supply and/or exhaust ventilating system where installed, shall be constructed and is installed in conformance with the provisions of this ordinance.

35.16  VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS
35.16-1
The general ventilation requirements shall be base on the purpose for which a room or area is used, regardless of the occupancy classification of the building or structure in which it is located.
35.16-2
The method of producing ventilation for rooms or areas which may be present in any building regardless of the occupancy class of the building,   and the quantities  of air to be supplied to and exhausted from such rooms or areas by mechanical ventilating systems shall be as specified in Table 35.16, below, or as specified in the respective Ventilating Requirements Tables in other Articles of this ordinance.

TABLE 35.16

a.  When the use of the room is of such character that harmful or obnoxious dust, fumes, gases or other contaminants deleterious or repugnant to occupants are given  off, the  ventilation requirements shall be supplemented by local mechanical exhaust sufficient to remove the emission at the source and to prevent the escape of such contaminants to the occupied space, and to discharge such exhaust to the outdoor atmosphere.  This supplemental system shall be provided with suitable means for the collection and removal of the contaminants.  Make-up air shall be provided to replace the general and local exhaust.
b.  If a room or space is used for two (2) or more purposes having different ventilating requirements, the ventilation shall conform to the more restrictive requirement.
c.  Enclosed  cab stand for cabs using fuel burning  engines shall have driveways  or other apertures  opening directly to the atmosphere having a minimum area of twenty (20) percent of the floor are of the enclosed  cab stand, or shall be equipped with a mechanical ventilating supply and exhaust system so that the amount of carbon monoxide in the air in the garage or passage shall not exceed a maximum  concentration  of one pat in ten thousand (10,000) parts of air.  Enclosed passages for vehicles using fuel burning engines shall have openings to the atmosphere in both end walls of the passage, each having an area not less than twenty-five (25)  percent of the cross-sectional area of the passage or openings in the wide  wall of the passage, uniformly distributed and having a combined area of not less than fifty (50) percent of the side wall.
d.  Enclosed passages for vehicles shall have openings in both end walls, each opening having an area not less than twenty-five (25) percent of the cross-sectional are of the passage; or shall have openings in the side walls uniformly distributed and having a  total area  of not less than fifty (50) percent of the side wall.  If a storage  garage cannot be  equipped with effective relief openings, it shall be equipped with a mechanical ventilating supply and exhaust system that will function so that the amount of carbon monoxide in the air in the garage and in the passage ways shall not exceed a concentration of one part in ten thousand (10,000) parts of air.
e.  No recirculation of exhaust air shall be permitted
f.  Exhaust may be withdrawn through grilles into adjacent toilet rooms, and the toilet exhaust need not be increased over its requirements, provided it exceeds the exhaust requirements of the locker or rest room.
35.16-3 
The minimum quantity of air supplied to or exhausted from a room shall be fifty (50) cubic feet per minute (50 cfm).
35.16-04
The ventilating requirements for room used for purposes similar to those enumerated in the Ventilating Requirement Tables in this ordinance, but not specifically named therein, shall be the same as those for room purposes of similar character.
35.16-5
Where natural ventilation (N.V.) only is required, it may be supplemented but not replaced by a mechanical ventilating supply or exhaust system or both.  The full requirements must be met by natural ventilation only.

35.17  SOURCE OF AIR SUPPLY
35.17-1 
The air supply for every ventilating system shall be taken directly from outdoors except as follows:
a.  A maximum of two=-thirds (2/3) of the required air supply may be recirculated provided that the system is properly equipped to control the temperature and the dust content of that system is properly equipped to control the temperature and the dust content of the air.  This re-circulated air may be considered as exhaust from the rooms or spaces from which it is taken.
b.  When the re-circulating system is equipped with effective absorption devices so that the condition of the air so supplied (except as to temperature) is the same as the outside air, eighty-five (85) percent of the required air may be re-circulated.  The absorption equipment shall be  equipped with a means of determining and maintaining the effectiveness of the system.
35.17-2
The intake and ducts shall be so sized that all of the air supplied by the system can be taken from the outside and that all of the exhaust and re-circulated air can be discharged or  relieved to the outside.
35.17-3 
During the time that the rooms or spaces are not occupied, the outside air intake may be shut off and all of the air re-circulated.
35.17-4
The outside air intake shall be located so that the air supply will be uncontaminated and so that the opening will be unobstructed at all times.  The intake opening shall be located a minimum of fifteen (15) feet from any exhaust air outlet or fan discharge outlet.
35.17-5
If the outside air is not filtered, the bottom of the intake opening shall be located a minimum of five (5) feet above any horizontal surface, or if filtered, a minimum of twelve (12) inches above any horizontal surface.  No intake shall be placed in a horizontal position  in any sidewalk, street, alley or driveway or within twelve (12) inches of the surrounding grade.

35.18  ROOM AIR INLETS AND OUTLETS
35.18-1
The air inlets and outlets shall be located so as to circulate air throughout each room or space.
35.18-2
The system shall be designed and installed to prevent the air from striking the occupants of the room and causing discomfort.
35.18-3
If a mechanical ventilating supply system only is installed in a room, or if a greater quantity of air is  mechanically supplied than is mechanically exhausted, a natural exit or relief opening for the excess air shall be provided.
35.18-4
if a mechanical ventilating exhaust system only is installed in a room, or if a greater quantity of air is mechanically exhausted than is mechanically supplied, a natural entrance for the additional air required shall be provided.

35.19  MECHANICAL EXHAUST
35.19-1
 The air removed by a mechanical ventilating exhaust shall be discharged outdoors at a point where it  will not cause a nuisance, and  from which it cannot be readily drawn into an outside air intake or a ventilating opening.  The outlet shall be a minimum of fifteen (15) feet from an outside air intake or a ventilating opening.
35.19-2
Mechanical exhaust from baths, toilets, locker rooms, service sink closets, and similar rooms shall not be re-circulated at any time and shall be exhausted by a separate system from the remaining exhaust.

35.20  HOODS
35.20.1
Every range or other heat producing appliance on which food is cooked, in any commercial kitchen or food establishment, or where from any cause grease or other flammable substances are produced, except ranges in  dwellings, shall be provided with an incombustible  hood or enclosure.
35.20-2
Each hood or enclosure shall be connected by an independent duct to a mechanical ventilating exhaust system which shall discharge independently above the roof, or by a flue connection to a chimney which will take off all smoke, gases and vapors.
35.20-3
The entire hood or enclosure and all ducts or flue connections shall be of incombustible material.
35.20-4
If sheet metal is used, it shall be not less than No. 14 U.S. Gauge and shall be welded or securely riveted.
35.20-5 
If a mechanical ventilating exhaust system is installed, ducts exhausting from other portions of the room may be connected to the hood or enclosure  exhaust, duct through a section of No. 14 U.S. Gauge sheet metal not less than four (4)  feet long, equipped with a  damper with a fusible link.

35.21  MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
35.21-1
The materials used in every mechanical ventilating system shall be non-absorbent and of moisture-resisting character  and shall not burn, char, or contribute to the intensity of flame spread when in contact with fire; however, this requirement  does not apply to air filters.
35.21-2
The design and construction of all equipment and the weight  and bracing of all duct work shall be capable of operating under all conditions without causing vibrations.
35.21-3  Duct Work Construction
a.  All duct work shall be constructed entirely of incombustible material
b.  Duct lining or covering shall be of fire-resistive material.
c.  Duct work shall be substantially air-tight and shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements given in the ASHRAE Guide and Data Book and the Manual of Duet Construction as published by the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association.
35.21-4  Duct Work Installation
a.  All ducts shall be securely supported by metal hangers or brackets
b. Where ducts pass through floors or ceilings, the spaces around the ducts shall be tightly sealed or filled with incombustible material
c.  Where ducts are exposed in closets  they shall be covered with  not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch air cell asbestos, or equivalent in approved fire-resistive insulating covering, properly protected against injury.
d.  Volume dampers of the locking type shall be placed in each forced warm air run and in the outside air inlet.
e.  Baseboard or floor type registers shall be equipped with diffuser vanes
f.  Where the installation of supply or return air ducts in walls or floors requires the removal of any fire stopping, the spaces around the duct at such points where fire stopping is removed shall be tightly filled or sealed with incombustible material.

35.22  VENTILATING OPENINGS TO ADJACENT ROOMS
35.22-1
In rooms that require mechanical exhaust, the outside air to replace the air exhausted shall be obtained from outside ventilating openings, or from a mechanical supply system, or as follows:
a.  In foyers, living quarters, offices, rest rooms, bath or shower rooms, lobbies, locker rooms, check rooms, medical rooms, picture galleries and similar rooms.  Make-up air may be obtained from ventilating openings to adjacent uncontaminated rooms at a maximum velocity of three hundred fifty (350) f.p.m.  The adjacent room shall have  ventilating openings sufficient for the combined floor are of the two (2) rooms, or the quantity of air supplied to the adjacent room shall be not less than that required for  both rooms combined.
b.  In public kitchens or serving pantries, make-up air may be obtained through ventilating openings from adjacent dining rooms at a maximum velocity of five hundred (500) f.p.m.  The air exhausted from the dining room through the ventilating openings into the kitchen shall be considered as mechanical exhaust for the dining room and the kitchen exhaust need not be increased over its requirements, provided that it exceeds the exhaust requirements of the dining room.
c.  In toilet or wash rooms, storage rooms and other rooms of similar character, make-up air may be obtained from ventilating openings to adjacent uncontaminated rooms, at a maximum velocity of five hundred (500) f.p.m. when such rooms are provided with a mechanical ventilating  supply system as required for the adjacent rooms, provided that the quantity of air supplied to the adjacent rooms is not less than that exhausted in the designated rooms.
35.22-2
In rooms with mechanical supply, air may be exhausted through ventilating openings to corridors or other uninhabited rooms, provided the rooms being supplied  do not contain dangerous or noxious fumes,  odors or dust and provided that there are adequate relief openings or mechanical exhaust in such adjacent corridors or other uninhabited rooms.
35.22-3
For the purposes of this Section, a partition which stops a distance of two (2) feet or more below the ceiling level shall not be  considered a partition forming a separate room; rather, the space on both sides of the partition shall be considered as one room.  Grilles having a minimum fee area of seventy five (75) percent may be placed in the two (2) foot space above the partition without causing the  room to be considered as a separate space.  Height of doors shall not be considered.
35.22-4
In auxiliary office spaces composed of general office areas and private offices, the exhaust for the private offices may b taken through relief openings into the general office space, provided that the exhaust for the general office space equals the total exhaust required for the entire space.

35.23  OPERATION OF VENTILATING SYSTEM
Every ventilating system shall be kept in effective operation and repair so as to ensure the required  ventilating of all rooms and spaces during all hours of human occupancy.

35.24  PLANS
Plans shall  be submitted with the permit application, for approval and shall show major details of the proposed ventilating system and shall include a schedule of all rooms or spaces, listing the area of each room, required natural light and ventilation, actual natural light and ventilation, required mechanical supply and exhaust,  required mechanical supply and exhaust actual mechanical supply and exhaust and such other details as may be required by the Building Commissioner.

35.25  INSPECTION AND TEST OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS
35.25-1
The inspection of a mechanical ventilating  system shall be made as soon as the person responsible for the installation, adjustment and test of the system has notified the Building Department in writing that the  system has been adjusted and tested and is in proper operating condition and that it fulfills all the requirements of this ordinance.
35.25-2
Upon testing and verification of the compliance of the ventilating system to the requirements of this ordinance, the Building Commissioner, upon written request shall issue a letter of approval to the owner of contractor responsible for the installation.
35.25-3 
The methods used for the testing of ventilation systems shall be in compliance with the rules and regulations adopted by the Building Commissioner as established in Article V, Section 5.1-1.
35.25-4   
Compliance with mechanical ventilating requirements shall be  determined by reading indicating the velocity of the air in feet per minute, taken with a calibrated anemometer.    If the conditions of the installation do not allow the use of an anemometer, other devices approved by the Building Commissioner may be used.
35.25-5
The required testing of the ventilating system shall be conducted by the installing contractor in the presence of the Ventilation Inspector.

C -- REFRIGERATION REQUIREMENTS
35.26  INTRODUCTORY REGULATIONS
35.26-1  Scope
The provisions of these Sections 35.26 through 35.33 dealing with inspections and permits, shall not apply to unit systems placed in single dwellings nor in any multiple dwelling having less than four (4) apartments, except that all provisions of these Sections shall apply to all dwellings insofar as the installation of air conditioning system in which water is to be used for cooling the refrigerant or for other cooling  purposes involved.
35.26-2  Existing Refrigerating Systems
Existing refrigerating systems shall be maintained in a safe condition and alterations, replacement and changes shall be made in such refrigerating systems, when, due to deterioration, wear and tear, such refrigerating systems have become or are likely to become dangerous to public health or public safety.
35.26-3  General Limitations
Spaces subject to limitations as to the type of equipment and the kind and amount of refrigerant permitted, which adjoin horizontally or vertically a space having greater restrictions and are not separated therefrom by a floor or wall having no openings, shall be subject to the greater restrictions.
35.26-4  Operating Precautions
a.  It shall be the duty of the person in charge of the premises wherein any refrigerating system is located to exercise due diligence to see that the refrigerating system is properly maintained and operated at all times.
b.  The condensing unit of every refrigerating system shall be placed in a readily accessible location and such location shall be provided with adequate means of ventilation and light.
c.  Two (2) gas helmets or masks suited to the refrigerant used shall be provided with every Class A system and with every Class B system that operates above atmospheric pressure, except when carbon dioxide is used.
d.  Every gas helmet or mask shall be of a type approved by the Building Commissioner as being suitable for the refrigerant used, shall be inspected annually, and shall be kept in operative condition in an easily accessible case or cabinet located outside of the entrance to the machinery room.
e.  Whenever the losses of refrigerant from a system are such as to endanger the health or lives of the human occupants of any room or structure in which such refrigeration system, or any part thereof, is located, it shall be the duty of the owner of such refrigeration system to apply suitable pressure or other tests to prove the system tight.
f.  Every system which may be charged after installation shall have the charging connection located on its low pressure side.  No container shall be left connected to  a system except while charging or withdrawing the refrigerant.
g.  g.  Refrigerants withdrawn from refrigerating systems shall be transferred to containers as prescribed by the regulation of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the transportation of such refrigerants.
35.26-5  Instructions and Refrigerant Changes Posted
It shall be the duty of the Installer or operator of any refrigerating system, except a Class D and E system, to post and keep conspicuously posted as near as practical to the pressure imposing element of such system a card giving operating directions for such system, including precautions to be observed in case of a breakdown or leak.  The following shall be included in the instructions and information listed on such  cards:
a.  Instructions for shutting down system in case of emergency.
b.  The name, address and telephone number of every engineer, or operator in charge.
c.  The name, address, and day and night telephone number for service.
d.   The location of the nearest fire alarm box
e.  The telephone number of the department for the inspection of steam boilers, unfired pressure vessels and cooling plants, and instructions to notify said department immediately in case of serious leakage or other emergency.
f.  The date, amount and kind of refrigerant placed in the system at time of initial charging and every subsequent recharging and the name and address of the person charging or  recharging the system.
g.  Every single unit refrigerating system shall have attached in a permanent manner and in a conspicuous place within the refrigerated space or on the equipment, a metal tag or other emblem containing the following information, in legible words and figures:  maker's  name, kind and amount of refrigerant used, and leak test pressures applied.
h.  Every Class  A, B, C, and D system shall have the name of the refrigerant painted or affixed in a permanent manner either to the pressure imposing element or to the piping in proximity thereto.  The kind of refrigerant and instructions for shutting off refrigerant shall be prominently posted at the branch valves used for shutting off each evaporator or set of evaporators contained within each refrigerated space.

35.27  CLASSIFICATION OF REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS

Class                                        Pounds of Refrigerant
A                                                more than 1000
B                                                more than 100, and not more than 1000
C                                                more than 20, and not more than 100
D                                                more than 6 and not more than 20
E                                                6 or less


35.28  CLASSIFICATION OF REFRIGERANTS BY RELATIVE SAFETY
35.28-1  General
For the purposes of this ordinance, refrigerants shall be divided into categories and classes in accordance with their properties, as follows:

TABLE 35.28E
CLASSIFICATION OF REFRIGERANTS


35.28-2  Flammable or Poisonous Refrigerants
Flammable refrigerants or refrigerants of a poisonous nature, when used in refrigerating systems containing more than six 96) pounds of refrigerant, shall have added a substance which will impart a pungent odor or an irritating quality tot he refrigerant, unless vapors, are readily apparent to human senses.
35.28-3  Unlisted Refrigerants
Other substances not specifically named above, excepting air or water, shall not be permitted for use as a refrigerant unless approved by  the Building Commissioner.

35.29  UNIT SYSTEMS
35.29-1  Definition
A unit system is one which can be removed from the user's premises without disconnecting any refrigerant-containing parts, water connections, or fixed electrical connections.  Unit systems may be installed subject to the limitations set forth in the following Subsections.
35.29-2  Irritant or Flammable Refrigerants
Unit systems containing an irritant or flammable refrigerant shall not be placed in Residential (Class A), Institutional (Class B), Assembly (Class C), or Educational (Class D) Buildings.
35.29-3  Class D Unit Systems
Class D unit systems containing a non-flammable, non-irritant refrigerant may be installed in any location except operating rooms, rooms of hospitals, sleeping quarters of asylums, or any room or building where persons are confined or helpless.
35.29-4  Class E Unit Systems
Class E unit systems containing a non-flammable, non-irritant, refrigerant may be installed in any location, except in operating rooms of hospitals, when installed as follows:
a.  Class E window model air-conditioning unit systems must be securely attached to the window frame, or sill and in such manner that the center of gravity of the unit is inside of the building on all locations, above five (5) feet from the adjoining ground level.
b.  Class E window model air-conditioning unit systems must not extend over the building line or the sidewalk unless they are at least eight (8) feet above the ground level.
c. Class E window model air-conditioning unit systems must not be located in transoms over doorways unless supported and anchored in a safe weight-carrying manner, and provided with means of  accessibility.
d. Class E window model air-conditioning unit systems must not be so located, used, kept, maintained, or operated if such use, keeping, maintaining or operating shall be the occasion of any nuisance or such be dangerous or detrimental to the health of other tenants in the building, or adjoining buildings.
35.29-5 Ventilation and Clearance
No unit system may be installed in any location unless the room is adequately ventilated to the outside air and unless sufficient clearance is provided to make them accessible.
35.29-6  Pressure Relief Devices
Unit systems, unless so constructed that they will not burst due to the expansion of the refrigerant when subjected to an abnormal outside temperature, such as that created by fire, shall be protected by a pressure relief device conforming to Section 35.32-3.  Unit systems employing an air cooled condenser and containing not more than six (6) pounds of refrigerant,  may have the discharge from the pressure relief device piped into the low pressure side of the system;  provided, however, that the volume of the low pressure side of the system, excluding the compressor crank case, is cable of holding the entire refrigerant charge of the system.
35.29-7  Evaporators
Every evaporator, unless constructed of sufficient  strength to prevent injury in the ordinary and customary use thereof, shall be protected by a suitable shield to assure protection against such injury.  In all other details unit systems must conform to the provisions contained in other Sections of this Article.

35.30  REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS USED IN CONNECTION WITH AIR CONDITIONING
35.30-1  General
Refrigerating system used in connection with the control of temperature or humidity of air in or circulated to space or spaces,  occupied by people or where used for comfort cooling, shall be subject to the requirements of this Section.
35.30-2  Direct Systems
Direct refrigerating systems in which the refrigerant is circulated through coils or evaporators located in the path of the air used for air conditioning may be installed for air-conditioning purpose subject to the limitations set forth in the following Sections.
35.30-3  Class 1, Non-Irritant and Non-Flammable Refrigerants
Where a Class 1, non-irritant and non-flammable refrigerant is used in a direct system as provided to Section 35.30-2, the following provisions shall apply;
a.  The refrigerant content of the system shall not exceed two thousand (2000) pounds.  Systems containing more than one hundred (100) pounds of refrigerant must be placed in a Class "T" machinery room.
b.  Non-corroding material shall be used in coils unless permanent protection against corrosion is provided.
c.  Coils or coolers shall be tested at the pressure specified for the refrigerant; however, the Building Commissioner may accept from the manufacturer a certified copy of the test report showing that tests of said apparatus, as required by this ordnance, were made at the place of manufacture.
35.30-4  Class 2 or 3, Non-Irritant and Non-Flammable Refrigerants
Where a Class 2 or Class 3, non-irritant, non-flammable refrigerant is used in a direct refrigerating system as provided in Section 35.30-2, the following provisions shall apply.
a.  The refrigerant content of the system shall not emceed the limitations state din Table 35.30-8, and total refrigerant content shall not exceed fort hundred fifty (450) pounds.
b.  Condensing units of refrigerating systems used in connection with air conditioning shall not be so located maintained, or operated as to be a nuisance to other tenants in the building or adjoining buildings or be dangerous or detrimental to health.
c.  Self-contained combination heating-cooling systems may be installed on the roof of a building (Roof-Top Units) provided a State of Illinois licensed Architect's or Structural Engineer's certification is submitted with the installation permit application, certifying as to the safe-weight carrying capacity of the roof on which equipment is to be placed.
d.  Condensing units, evaporative  condensers and cooling towers of refrigerating systems may be installed on the roof, provided a certification is submitted as to the safe-weight-carrying capacity of the roof as called for in Paragraph c. above.
e.  No refrigerating system shall be placed under or on stairs, stairway landings, or fire escape passageways, nor in entrances or exits of buildings.
f.  Self-contained combination heating-cooling systems approved by the Building Commissioner may  be installed in an equipment room provided the manufacturers certifies that there is no possibility of escaping  refrigerant from the refrigerating system passing through fuel burning equipment, becoming decomposed and then diffused to spaces heated or cooled.
g.  No refrigerating system shall be located in a space in which there is apparatus to produce an open flame unless such space is provided with means of adequate mechanical ventilation or the apparatus for producing the open flame is vented by means of a hood so as to carry the products of decomposition to the outside atmosphere.  Flames made by matches, cigarette lighters, small alcohol lamps and similar devices shall not be considered as open flames.
h.  Every refrigerating system shall be placed in an accessible location, or accessibility  shall be provided.
i.  Systems containing over one hundred (100) pounds of refrigerant shall be placed in a Class "T" machinery room.
j.  Any joint or connection int he refrigerant-containing part of the system shall be threaded, welded, brazed, sweated, or of such other type of construction as approved.
k.  No expansion valve or connection thereto shall be located in a ventilating system, except in Class C, D, or E, self-contained, factory assembled systems used for cooling purposes only.
l. Combination heating-cooling "direct expansion" systems (Gas fired, Electrical element, Heat Pumps), in which the refrigerant is circulated through coils or evaporators located in the path of the air used for air conditioning may be installed for air conditioning purposes, provided no expansion valve or connection there to shall be located in the air stream of a ventilating system.  Capillary